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Name the organic acids found in grapefruit, orange, grape, vinegar.
Grapefruit: citric, orange: citric, grape: tartaric, vinegar: acetic
Smoke point comparisons of oils: canola, grapeseed, sunflower, safflower, olive
Safflower (510) Canola (460) Sunflower (450) Grapeseed (420) Olive (410)
Name the main 8 cereal grains in the US?
Oats, corn, wheat, rice, barley, rye, sorghum, buckwheat
Briefly describe the still retort process
cans are loaded into the vessel, steam is injected into the vessel, fan circulates steam for uniformity, vent valve (cold air goes out), temperature and pressure increase to desired temp then vent valve closes, temperature is maintained for desired time (processing time), then precooling begins where the pressure is maintained while slowly cooling the cans, circulating pump with cold water moves into the vessel and gradually decreases the temperature, the drain opens to drain water, and once the cans are cooled and the pressure decreases, the cans can be removed
Name 3 major functions of sulfuric acid in the Babcock test?
Dissolve colloid components Dissolve fat globule membranes Produce heat to liquefy fat Provide differences in specific gravity for easier separation of liquid fat
List 5 types of bonds that important for the structure of proteins.
covalent, hydrogen, van der waals, disulfide, electrostatic
Name 3 factors useful in controlling enzyme activity.
Temperature, water content and activity, pH, chemicals, alteration of substrates, alterations of products, preprocessing controls.
Per the Osborne solubility classification, provide the protein amount for whole wheat flour, enriched flour and cake/pastry flour.
whole wheat – 13% (14% is also acceptable), enriched – 12%, cake/pastry – 8.9%
Country of origin: Edam, Cheddar, Mortadella
Edam: Netherlands, Chhedar: England; Mortadella: Italy
Name 10 divisions of IFT.
aquatic food products, biotechnology, carbohydrate, dairy foods, education, extension & outreach, food chemistry, food engineering, food law & regulations, food microbiology, food packaging, food service, fruit & vegetable products, international, marketing, sales & management, muscle foods, nonthermal processing, nutraceuticals & functional foods, nutrition, product development, protein, quality assurance, refrigerated & frozen foods, sensory & consumer sciences, toxicology & safety evaluation
What are some disadvantages of a scraped surface heat exchanger?
high cost per units area, high operating costs, large floor space requirement vs other heat exchangers, disintegration of fragile particles
Give me four reasons why compounds are micro encapsulated?
Increase bioavailability, delayed release, stability, to protect (to protect reactive substances from the environment To convert liquid active components into a dry solid system to separate incompatible components for functional reasons to mask undesired properties of the active components to protect the immediate environment of the Microcapsule in capsules from the active components, and then the controlled release or delayed release)
Give 2 ways to block production or reception of ethylene post harvest.
There are several anti-ethylene chemicals. Silver thiosulfate (STS) is used on flowers. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, trade name ReTain) blocks ethylene synthesis. It is applied preharvest. The fruit (plant) will not produce much ethylene, so there is not an ethylene response. The ethylene blocker 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, trade name EthylBloc) blocks ethylene by binding to its receptor. It is applied postharvest. The fruit (plant) may still produce some ethylene, but there is no response to the ethylene.
Name 7 of the 14 mandatory dietary components that must appear on the nutrition facts panel as part of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990
Serving size or other common household unit of measure customarily used; the number of servings or other units per container; number of calories per serving; number of calories per serving derived from total fat; number of calories per serving derived from saturated fat, amount of total fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, sugars, total protein, and dietary fiber per serving or other unit, and subject to conditions, vitamins minerals or other nutrients
As of 2006, what is IFTs definition of Food Science?
Food science draws from many disciplines such as biology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry in an attempt to better understand food processes and ultimately improve food products for the general public.
The following acronyms related to food analysis stand for, AA, ICP- AES and HPLC.
Atomic absorption, Inductively coupled plasma Atomic emission spectroscopy, High performance liquid chromatography
Define absolute zero and provide the kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit temperatures for this point?
temperature at which particle motion stops (is minimal), 0 kelvin, -273.15 Celsius, -459.67 Fahrenheit.
Determine whether the following characteristics are of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells:
does not have membrane bound organelles (pro) true nucleus (eu) Size 10 ^100 (Eu) does not have membrane bound organelles (pro) unicellular (pro)
The D value of green peas is 0.2 minutes. What is the F value at 250 Fahrenheit?
12D so 2.4 minutes
Name the following peppers in order from mild to hot: jalapeno, habanero, serrano, poblano, chipotle
poblano, jalapeno, chipotle, serrano, habanero
IFT has approved undergraduate programs in Food Science at Universities in over 7 countries. Name 4 of them.
USA, Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, Argentina, Indonesia, China, Australia, Ireland, Costa Rica, Malaysia, United arab emirates, Honduras, Thailand
List three (3) impacts of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act (aka Bioterrorism Act) on FDA regulation of the food industry.
FDA now has administrative detention authority for foods suspected of being adulterated; All food processing and handling facilities under FDA jurisdiction must register with the agency; Importers of food must give prior notice to the FDA; Establishment and maintenance of records; Eliminated “port shopping” by importers;
List three factors that contribute to the buffering capacity of milk.
phosphate, citrate and lactate salts, whey proteins, carbonic acid from the dissolved CO2
Put the following 5 crops in order of least to greatest based on total extractable oil percentage by weight. sesame, sunflower, soybean, copra, rapeseed
Soybean (14) Sunflower (32) Rapeseed (37) Sesame (50) Copra (62)
Name of the continent of origin for the following fruit. Watermelon, raspberry, blueberry. Kiwi guava
Watermelon is Africa. kiwi is Asia raspberry is Europe. guava is South America and blueberry is North America.
Give three product or product category applications for lecithin as an additive?
The primary applications for lecithin are in baked products, dairy blends, baby foods, nutritional drinks, margarines, chocolates, chewing gums, and confectionaries
Give four pulse waveforms used in Pulsed Electric Field.
Exponentially decaying, square wave, bipolar, oscillatory, instant charge reversal pulse
Name 4 of the eight names of dark roast coffee.
Expresso, high, continental, New Orleans, European, Viennese, Italian or French.
Categorize the following breads as being made with enriched or lean dough: Baguette, Brioche, Babka, Challah, Ciabatta, Pita
baguette-lean brioche-enriched babka- enriched (polish) challah-enriched Ciabatta- Lean Pita- lean
What are some advantages of a scraped surface heat exchanger?
process any pumpable product, adding surface area, low pressure drops, can process at high temps without burn-on
What 5 nutrients must by law be included in enriched bread?
thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, iron, folic acid
What are five mycotoxins, and what is one food each is commonly found in?
aflatoxin- (peanuts, tree nuts, corn), patulin- (apples), roquefortine c (blue cheeses), ochratoxin a (grain, pork, coffee, wine grapes), citrinin (grains)
What are the 5 classes of unit operations?
fluid flow (fluid transportation, filtration, solids fluidization) Heat transfer (canning, freezing, blanching) Mass transfer (extraction, dehydration, frying) Thermodynamic processes (gas liquefaction, refrigeration) Mechanical processes (solids transportation, crushing, pulverization, screening, and sieving)
Name the three major classifications of vegetables.
1. Seeds and pods, 2. Bulbs, roots and tubers, 3. Flowers, buds, stems and leaves
You are running a titration to determine the % tartaric acid in juice. You use 20 mLs of 0.1N NaOH for 2 grams of juice. What is the % tartaric acid of the sample?
Give 3 ways to produce ethylene gas.
There are three main ways to produce ethylene: 1) gas from a cylinder, 2) catalytic generator, and 3) ethephon
Name 5 examples of unit operations.
evaporator, storage tanks, filler, shipping, peeler/dicer, washing, mill, pasteurizer, grinding, extraction, drying
Name 5 hydrophobic surfactants.
DATEM Soy lecithin Calcium stearoyl lactylate Glycerol monoleate Sorbitan trioleate Oleic acid
There are many styles of canned mushrooms, name four of them.
whole, buttons, sliced whole, random sliced whole, stems & pieces, stems & buttons
Name 4 enzymes required to produce high fructose corn syrup.
alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, glucose isomerase, xylose isomerase
Name five antioxidant assays.
ORAC, CUPRAC, beta carotene, TIAC, FRAP, PRSC
Give 3 reasons why the baking performance of flour might vary.
Flour components, such as protein, starch, and lipids change, and these changes directly affect dough rheological and baking characteristics. Storage conditions. Storage temperature, moisture content, relative humidity (RH), atmospheric oxygen content, light, and microbial activity all affect
What are eight flavors of Necco wafers?
Wintergreen, chocolate, lime, lemon, clove, cinnamon, orange, licorice
What is the approximate fat content(in %) of the following foods? 1 serving of each, Chicken breast, no skin (4 ounces), salmon, king crab, leg of lamb
Chicken breast, no skin, 49% Salmon, 10% King crab~2% Leg of lamb – 21%
Name 5 climatric fruits.
Banana, Kiwi, tomato, pear, apples, guava, passion fruit, peach, plum
For each fruit provide the season (autumn, winter, spring, and summer) for when they are harvested. Pears, blueberries, dates, oranges, pomegranates, cherries, limes
pear – autumn (late summer is acceptable) Blueberries – summer (spring is also acceptable) Dates – Summer Oranges – winter Pomegranates – fall and/or winter Cherries – summer Limes - summer
What is the maximum temperature required for tempering the following types of chocolate? Bittersweet chocolate, milk chocolate, and white chocolate
Bittersweet – 31-32 deg C or 88-90F Milk – 29-30dec C or 84-86F White – 28-29deg C or 82-84F
Give three classes of enzymes relevant to foods.
Oxidoreductases; Hydrolases; Lyases; Isomerases
Define molarity, molality, and normality.
molarity = moles of a substance per liter solution Molality = moles of a substance per kg solvent Normality= equivalents of substance per liter of solution
Name 5 foods that are actually roots.
Carrots, beets, potatoes, radishes, rutabagues, yams, kolrabi, onions, garlic, celery root, horseradish, daikon, artichoke, ginger, jicama
Name three tropical fruits grown commercially in the continental US.
Avocado, banana/plantain, carambola/star fruit, dragon fruit/pitaya, guava, jackfruit, longan, lychee, mamey sapote, mango, papaya, sapodilla
Why do you have to blanch fruits and vegetables before canning?
soften texture, remove oxygen (exhausting, prevents explosion during sterilization process), inactivate enzymes, cleans surface (removes dirt and organisms), brightens color, helps reduce loss of vitamins
Name 4 fruits that are members of the rose family.
pears, apples, cherries, and strawberries
Name 3 of the 4 most common trigeminal sensations.
oral heat, metallic, astringency and pungency
Give the 7 steps of HACCP
1. perform hazard analysis, 2. decide on the critical control points, 3. set critical limits, 4. establish monitoring procedures, 5. establish corrective actions, 6. establish verification procedures, 7. establish a record keeping system
What are some of the factors that affect the dielectric properties of foods?
frequencies, food composition, moisture content, product temperature, physical state of water in the food, fat content, and product density
List the following grains from high to low based on their glycemic index. Rye, barley, wheat, white rice and quinoa
White rice – 66 Quinoa - 53 Buckwheat – 49 Rye – 41 Barley – 25
Name 7 of the 9 major cereal crops grown in the world.
wheat, barley, maize, millet, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, oats
Name three functions of enzymes used as food additives.
speed up reaction; lower viscosity; improve extractions; enhance separations; improve their flavor, texture, digestibility, and nutritional value, enhancing product yield, improve preservation
How many milliliters are in each of the following? 1 teaspoon, 1 tablespoon and 1 cup
1 tsp = 5 mL, 1 tbsp = 15 mL and 1 cup = 236 mL
Give the Henderson Hasselbach equation and define each term.
ph=pKa + log[A/HA] ph = -log[H+] pKa = ionization constant A = concentration of dissociated (-ion) HA = concentration of undissociated ions
Define the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins?
Primary=amino acid sequence, secondary=alpha-helix, beta sheet. Tertiary=one complete protein chain with cross bonds linking it together. Quaternary= four separate protein chains assembled as one.
Name 3 strains of mold that produce mycotoxin.
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Claviceps purpurea, Penicillium citrinin, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium spp.
What are 4 officer positions on the National IFT Executive Committee?
Chairman, Chairman-elect, secretary, treasurer, councilor, alternate councilor, member at large
There are 8 grades of beef. Please list them in order of decreasing quality.
US Prime, US Choice, US Select, US standard, US Commercial, US Utility, US Cutter, and US Canner
List 5 of the original ingredients found in Pepsi.
Lemon oil, kola nuts, sugar, water, caramel, nutmeg
Name 4 colorants that are exempt from FDA certification.
Annato extract, zinc oxide, caramel, paprika, riboflavin, titatnium dioxide, turmeric, carmine
Name 5 types of heat exchangers used for food processing.
shell and tube heat exchanger, spiral heat exchanger, plate heat exchanger, jacketed pans, scraped surface heat exchangers, corrugated tube heat exchanger, finned tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchanger
What are the two major whey proteins in milk and what percentage of total milk protein do they make up together?
Beta-lactoglobulin & alpha-lactalbumin, they make up 20% of milk protein
Name the Latin names of following cereal grains: rye, wheat, rice, oats, corn
Rye: Secale cereale Wheat: Triticum durum Rice: Oryza sativa Oats: Avena sativa Corn: Zea mays
Name 3 foods that are sources of Listeria.
Soft cheese made from unpasteurized milk, hot dogs, ready to eat deli meats, refrigerate spates or meat spreads, unpasteurized milk, refrigerated smoked seafood, raw sprouts
What are the ingredients of butter tea?
tea, yak butter (or regular butter), water, and salt.
What are the real names of the Pillsbury Dough Boy and his family members?
The dough boy: Poppin' fresh; Poppie Fresh, was released, followed by Granmommer and Granpopper, Uncle Rollie, a son (Popper), daughter (Bun-Bun) and Flapjack and Biscuit (the Fresh family’s dog and cat) in the years that followed.
Name 3 way to analyze secondary lipid oxidation compounds.
TBARS, VOC, HPLC, gas chromatography, sensory panel
What are some advantages of aseptic processing?
convenience (many foods can undergo aseptic processing), safety (protect against spoilage and foodborne illness), flavor and freshness (captures the natural flavors and has a fresh clean taste), natural (no need for preservatives)
Name 5 food components as identified by “proximate” analysis.
Protein, carbohydrate (NFE), water, ash, lipid, fiber
Rank the relative sweetness of the following polyhydric alcohols: sorbitol, glycerol, xylitol, mannitol
most sweet: xylitol, glycerol, mannitol, sorbitol
Classify each emulsion types: margarine, mayonnaise, milk
Margarine: water in oil; mayonnaise and milk: oil in water
What are some disadvantages of a plate heat exchanger?
limited to low viscosity products, re-gasketing costs can be high, fouling tendencies may exist for some products
Name three appointed officer positions in IFTSA.
Vice President of Marketing, VP of Development and Communications, VP of Membership Experiences, VP of Competitions, VP of IFT Relations
Name three synthetic antioxidants commonly used in foodstuff.
BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), TBHQ (dl – t – butylhydroquinone)
Name 5 colorants exempt from certification
Annatto extract, Astaxanthin, Astaxanthin dimethyldisuccinate, Dehydrated beets (beet powder), Ultramarine blue, Canthaxanthin, Caramel, [beta]-Apo-8'-carotenal, [beta]-Carotene, Cochineal extract; carmine, Sodium copper chlorophyllin, Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour, Ferrous gluconate, Ferrous lactate, Grape color extract, Grape skin extract (enocianina), Haematococcus algae meal, Synthetic iron oxide, Fruit juice, Vegetable juice, Dried algae meal, Tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal and extract, Carrot oil, Corn endosperm oil, Paprika, Paprika oleoresin, Mica-based pearlescent pigments, Paracoccus pigment, Phaffia yeast, Riboflavin, Saffron, Spirulina extract, Titanium dioxide, Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate, Turmeric, Turmeric oleoresin.
What are the 8 pieces of information required on a meat label?
1. Product or cut name, 2. Inspection legend and establishment number, 3. Handling statement, 4. Net weight, 5 address or signature line, 6. Safe handling instructions, 7 ingredients statement, 8. Nutrient facts
Vodka is made by first fermenting a food. Name 4 foods that are typically fermented to make vodka.
sorghum, corn, rice, rye or wheat, potatoes, fruits (even just sugar is acceptable)
Name five polar amino acids.
serine, threonine, cysteine tyrosine, asparagine and glutamine.
Name 3 practiced chemical modifications of maize starch in the US.
derivitization (monostarch substitution and cross linking), acid thinning, dextrinization, oxidation, hydrolysis
What do the following abbreviations stand for? PV, FSIS, CFR, PER, DP, NMR, ESR, HPLC
PV = peroxide value FSIS = food safety and inspection service CFR = code of federal regulations PER = protein efficiency ratio DP = degree of polymerization NMR = nuclear magnetic resonance ESR = electron spin resonance HPLC = high pressure liquid chromatography
Name 3 tests that can be used to measure the fat content of milk.
Primitive Centrifugal Methods, Gerber, Babcock, Rose- Gottlieb, Schmidt Werner
For each of the following fatty acids, give an example of a food oil that contains high levels of each fatty acid. Lauric acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid.
lauric acid – coconut, pal, kernel Oleic acid – ground nut, rapeseed Linoleic acid – sunflower, safflower, soybean, cottonseed, maize Linolenic acid – linseed Erucic acid – rapeseed, mustard seed
What are the country of origins of the following beers? Sapporo, Heiniken, Molson, Bass
Sapporo – Japan, Heiniken – Netherlands, Molson – Canada, Bass - Germany
Media and what they are used for: MYP, BHI, XLD
MYP (mannitol egg yolk polymyxin): bacillus cereus BHI (Brain heart infusion): listeria XLD (xylose lisine deoxycholate): salmonella
Name five yeast fermented food products.
beer, wine, bread, distilled spirits, kefir, kombucha, root beer
Name 5 spices that are in curry powder.
cumin, cardamom, coriander, turmeric, mustard, cayenne
Name 6 fatty acids in chocolate.
Capric, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, oleic
List 4 varieties of sour cherries.
Montmorercy, Morello, amarelle, early Richmond, meteor, north star
List the current subparts listed under 21 CFR part 110.5 Current Good Manufacturing Practices
Umbrella GMPs: subpart: A. General provisions B. Building and facilities C. Equipment D. (reserved) E. Production and process controls F. (reserved) G. Defect action levels
Name 4 scales used to measure specific gravity in beverages.
Plato, Baume, Balling, and Brix.
Name four components of Cosmopolitan cocktail.
Vodka, cranberry juice, lime, triple sec
Name 5 indispensible amino acids.
Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Histidine (PVT TIM HLL)
Name 6 colors used to classify teas.
black, green, white, yellow, blue-green, and red
Name 5 spices that have antimicrobial activity.
garlic, cinnamon, cloves, onion, horseradish, and mustard
In a single serving of 100g of food containing 23 grams of fat and 400 total calories, what percent of the calories come from fat?
Rank these cheeses from lowest moisture content to highest moisture content. Neufchatel, Romano, Gruyere, Munster, edam
Neufchatel, Munster, Gruyere, Edam, Romano
Name and give the corresponding numbers of 5 B vitamins.
B1 – thiamine, B2 – riboflavin, B5 – pantothenic acid, B6 – pyridoxine, B12 – Cobalamine, B4 – choline, B3 – niacin, B7 – Biotin, B9 – folic acid
What are the microbial inhibitors in egg whites and how do they work?
The albumen is beneath the shell membranes and is important in providing three antimicrobial defenses to the egg. The first defense is the viscosity of the albumen components, which provide conditions in which bacteria cannot move easily. The second defense is the alkaline pH of the albumen that initially ranges from 7.6 to 7.8 but quickly increases over a period of a few days due to the loss of carbon dioxide during storage, resulting in a pH of 9.1–9.6. This is a pH range that is not conducive to the growth of most microorganisms. The third defense is the presence of a number of proteins and glycoproteins that possess antimicrobial activity.(See additional info)
Name 3 food poisoning microorganisms present in seafood.
vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, yersinia ruckeri, aeromonas hydrophila, etc
Identify the organic acids in the following products: grapefruit, oranges, grapes, vinegar
citric, citric, tartaric, acetic
Name 4 varieties of cheese that ripened principally by blue mold in the interior.
blue cheese, gorgonzola, stilton, wensleydale
What are 4 limitations of IR heating?
IR radiation has limited penetration power, penetrative radiation energy does not make significant contribution to internal heating (need to combine IR with other heating methods for best result), maily efficient for solid products only, risks of infrared energy hazard to eyes and skin
Classification of cheese according to FDA
Unpast processed cheese, unpast processed cheese spread, ''' cream
Name 4 distilled beverages and the product that is distilled to make them?
brandy – wine, vodka – cereal grain or potatoes, gin – juniper berries, rum – sugarcane byproducts (molasses, honey, sugarcane juice), tequila – blue agave, mezcal – agave, whiskey – fermented grain mash
Relative sweetness of sugars (low to high): galactose, maltose, glucose, trehalose, sucrose, lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, sucrose, fructose
lactose, galactose, maltose = trehalose, mannitol=sorbitol, glucose, xylitol = sucrose, fructose
Name 5 different polyols used in foods.
Isomalt Maltitol Sorbitol Xylitol erythritol
Starting with 1 atm, how are the following units related; atmosphere, inches of mercury, pascal, psi?
1 atm = 30in Hg = 101,325 Pa = 14.696 psi
The USDA Farm Service Agency was founded in 1935. It has undergone many name changes. List 4 of its previous names.
Farm security administration, resettlement administration, commodity stabilization service, agricultural stabilization and conservation service, consolidated farm service agency
What are the shapes of following divisions of bacteria? cocci, bacilli, spirilla, vibrios, spirochaetes
spherical (cocci), rod (bacilli), spiral (spirilla), comma (vibrios) and corkscrew (spirochaetes)
Knowing the water and sugar content of foods and beverages is important. Name 3 methods to measure the sugar content in food and 2 to determine the water content.
Sugar - refractometry, density, titrations (Rebelein, Lany-Eynon), UV/VIS spectroscopy (anthrone method, phenol-sulfuric acid method), chromatography, enzymatic Water – Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetric analysis, spectroscopic analysis, GC, density, refractometry
How many grams of HCl are needed in 1 liter of distilled, deionized water to produce 1 molar HCl?
36.45 grams
Name 3 instrument and extensive factors that affect microorganisms growth in foods.
Temperature, water activity, pH
Match geographic regions to products: Amaranth, guava, Kosha, spelt; South america, central america, central europe, middle east
Central America: Amaranth; South america: Guava; Central Europe: Kosha; Middle east: spelt
What are the 4 steps to cultured meat manufacture?
1. Cells from a farm animal are proliferated in nutrient-rich media; 2. Cells are attached to a sponge-like scaffold and soaked with nutrients; 3. cells may be mechanically stretched to increase their size and protein content; 4. Cells are harvested, seasoned, and cooked
Name 3 hard cheeses.
common hard cheeses: asiago, parmigiano reggiano, pecorino, parmesan, cheshire, gruyere, cheddar, gouda, manchego, (for more hard cheeses see source, has over 500 hard type cheeses)
What are the 7 steps of HAACP?
Conduct a hazard analysis, identify critical control points, establish critical limits, monitor critical limits, define corrective actions, establish verification, keep records
What are the compounds responsible for pungency in the black pepper, chilli peppers, mustard and ginger?
black pepper – piperine, chili pepper – capsaicin, ginger – gingerol, mustard allyl isothiocyanate
Name the receptors that detect the quality parameters of the appearance, odor, taste, and mouthfeel of foods.
Appearance – photoreceptors Odor – chemoreceptor (olfactory cells) Taste – chemoreceptors, taste buds Mouthfeel - thermoreceptor
What are two approaches used to make intermediate-moisture foods?
Partial Drying, Osmotic Drying, Dry Infusion, Blending (formulation)
What 5 nutrients must by law be included in enriched bread?
thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, iron, folic acid
Name 5 associations that are associated with IFT.
A.A.A.S A.O.C.S American society of microbiology A.O.A.C. Codex alimantarius commission Council of Scientific Society presidents National Inventors Hall of fame-selection Committee Canadian IFST Phi tau sigma SOT
beta-d-galactosidase is added to dairy products for what three reasons?
Hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose- latter combination is sweeter than lactose; prevents sandiness defect in ice cream; makes products consumable for lactose intolerant individuals
Five different modes of chromatography.
Adsorption; partition; size exclusion/gel permeation/gel filtration; ion exchange; affinity. PAISA.
Name the four types of chemical bonding that occur during bread dough mixing and kneading.
disulfide interchange, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and ionic interactions
Name 3 components that effect water activity in a food product.
Solute concentration, moisture concentration, temperature
Give the genus and species of 3 molds that are used in the production of blue cheese.
Penicillium roqueforti, Alt. names: P. glaucum, P. gorgonzola and P. stilton
Name drupe fruits examples.
Apricots, olives, mangoes, peaches, plums, cherries, amla (Indian gooseberry)
Name three functions of enzymes used as food additives
speed up reaction; lower viscosity; improve extractions; enhance separations; improve their flavor, texture, digestibility, and nutritional value, enhancing product yield, improve preservation
The deficiencies of what cause these diseases: scurvy, beri beri, pellagra
Scurvy: vitamin C; beri beri: thiamine; pellagra: niacin
Name three types of retorts.
Still, agitating, continuous , discontinuous, still with overpressure
Put the following foods in order from least to greatest based on the grams of carbs per serving. 5-inch pancake, 8 oz flavored yogurt, 10 oz skim milk, 1 cup of bean chili, ½ cup applesauce
½ cup applesauce (5) 5-inch pancake (15) 10 oz skim milk (15) 1 cup chilli with beans (30) 8 oz flavored yogurt (45)
What was the 1st state law against food adulteration and when and where was it enacted?
An act against selling unwholesome provisions Massachusetts 1785
What are 4 applications that use spray drying?
powdered cheese, cream powders, egg powers, milk products
What are some advantages of using the formula (ball) method to calculate lethality?
allows use of semi-log curves for detailed analysis of time/temp data, can calculated processes of a rang of IT and RT utilizing heating factors, conservative process model
In the SI system what are the units that are applied to the following five dimensions or measurements; length, mass, time, electric current, thermodyanamic temperature?
length = meter Mass = kilogram Time = second Electric current = ampere Thermodynamic temp = degree kelvin
What organisms do the following media select for and how do the colonies appear on the media? XLD (xylose lysine deoxycholate), VRBA (violet red bile agar), EMB (eosin methylene blue), baird parker, macconkey
f) XLD- salmonella- red colonies- black centers and shigella-red colonies g) VRBA- enterobacteriaceae, pink colonies h) EMB- coliforms, E.coli turns metallic green i) Baird Parker-staph aureus- black j) Mcconkey- Macconkey- coliforms, pink- if lactose fermenting, colorless if not, E.coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staph aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris
List 3 in vitro assays for determing alternative oxidase(AOX) activity.
ORAC, FRAP, DPPH radical, TEAC, CUPRAC, B-carotene-linolenic acid, PCL, TRAP, PSC
Name the countries where the following traditional dishes originate? Baklava, suya, loco moco
Turkey baklava , suya is from Nigeria, and loco moco is in the United States.
List sugars of : guar gum, xanthan gum, locust bean gum, pectin
Pectin: galactose Guar gum: mannose Xanthan gum: glucose Locust bean gum: mannose
What are the 7 principles of HACCP?
1. conduct a hazard analysis 2. identify critcal control points(CCPs) 3. establish critical limits 4. establish monitoring procedes 5. establish corrective actions 6. establish verification procedures 7. establish record-keeping procedures
Name the 4 fat-soluble vitamins.
A, D, E, and K
Three different prolamins in grains.
Zein in corn, gliadin in wheat, hordein in barley, kafirin in sorghum
What biomolecules are identified by the following acronyms: FAD, NAD+, ATP
flavin adenine dinucleotide, nictoinamide adenine dinucleotide, adenosine triphosphate
Name 5 types of air convection dryers (heated air dryers)
Kiln, cabinet, tunnel, Solar, conveyor, fluidized bed, air lift, rotary, spray drier, Freeze Dryers, Vacuum Dryers
What 3 properties are major functional uses of egg based products?
coagulation when heated, foaming ability, emulsifying properties
Arrange them according to saturated fat percentage: butter, coconut, pork fat, olive oil
coconut (90), Butter (63), pork fat (37.5), olive oil (14)
Three types of shellfish poisoning:
paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesiac, diarrhetic
Name 4 factors that influence dehydration.
temperature, dryness, air volume, particle size, type of food, and load
Name countries of origin: Baklava, Montecu, Sooyah, Baubate, Loco Loco
Baklava: Italy; Montecu: Honduras; sooyah: Nigeria; Baubate: South Africa; Loco loco: US
Name 4 US departments that are involved in seafood regulation.
FDA, USDA, Department of Commerce, NMFS, CDC, EPA.
What is the scientific name for European wine grapes and American wine grapes and provide 2 specific wine grapes for each.
Vitis vinifera (Cabernet Sauvignon, Riesling, Merlot ….) Vitis labrusca – Concord, Catawba, Niagara, Delaware, Isabella.
Name the plants used to make the following liquors? kachaka, rum, vodka, baijiu, Mezcal
Vodka: potatoes/ cereal grains, Rum: sugar cane or molasses, Cachaça: cane sugar, Agave: Mezcal Sorghum: Kaoliang liquor Kaoliang liquor, Gaoliang liquor or Sorghum liquor is a strong distilled liquor of Chinese origin made from fermented sorghum. It is a type of light-aroma Baijiu.
4 of the 8 names for dark roasted coffee.
Espresse, continental, french, vienesse
What is caramelization and provide the caramelization temperatures for sucrose, glucose and fructose.
Oxidation of sugar Sucrose – 160 deg C or 320 degF Glucose – 160 deg C, 320 degF Fructose – 110 deg C or 230 degF
If you have a method that you want to use to measure the % fat in a product and it is not AOAC approved, how would you determine if it is accurate?
take known fat percentages and run them with the method to perform a standard curve so that you can determine the linear range of your method and assure its accuracy.
What are the six colors of teas?
White, black, green, yellow, bluegreen, another type of yellow
What are the five sugar heating stages for making caramel?
thread, firm ball, soft crack, hard crack, caramel
Name 3 types of non-thermal pasteurization.
high pressure processing, pulsed electric field, ultraviolet, radio frequency, ultrafiltration
Name five items that must be on a food label.
Name (statement of identity), weight (Net contents of the package), nutritional label, contact information, List of ingredients
What are some factors that may affect aseptic processing?
if the product has particulates, size of particles, viscosity, product thermal sensitivity
What does HACCP stand for and give its 7 principles.
HACCP: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points; 1. conduct hazard analysis, 2. identify critical control points, 3. establish critical limits, 4. establish monitoring procedures, 5. establish corrective actions, 6. establish verification procedures, 7. establish record-keeping procedures
Name 4 basic requirements that are necessary during aseptic packaging.
sterile environment (or aseptic zones), sterilize product contact surface of the package by using heat/chemicals/high energy radiation, hermetically sealed containers, monitoring of critical factors such as air quality, sealing, temperature
Please provide 5 of the 6 “technologies” that are part of the definition of food technology.
selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution, and use
Name 3 forms of non-digestible polysaccharides found in foods.
cellulose, inulin, hemicellulose, polydextrose, pectin, beta-glucan
Classify the following dairy components as being found in the retentate or permeate following ultra filtration of milk, casein, whey proteins, micellular salts, residual fat, lactose, soluble salts, and non protein nitrogen.
Permeates:Lactose, non protein nitrogen and soluble salts Retentate: casein, whey proteins, micellular salts, residual fat
Give 3 methods for the production of corn syrup from starch.
acid hydrolysis, acid-enzyme hydrolysis, enzyme-enzyme hydrolysis
Categorize each product as suspensions, foam, or an emulsion; cream, fondant, bread, beer, Italian dressing, crab bisque, milk
Suspension – bisque, fondant Foam – beer, bread Emulsion – Italian dressing, milk
What are the 6 sizes of eggs?
jumbo, extra large, large, medium, small and pee wee
What are some of the disadvantages of thermal processing?
nutrient loss, reduce desirable qualities such as texture, flavor, color, lower antioxidant and phenolic content
Name 5 artificial sweeteners approved for use in the US.
Saccharin Apartame Acesulfame potassium (Ace-K) Sucralose Neotame Advantame Steviol glycosides Luo Han Guo fruit extracts
Rate the following materials from lowest thermal conductivity value to highest: water, aluminum, stainless steel, glass, air, copper
air, water, glass, stainless steel, aluminum, copper
What are the 3 principal functions of food packaging?
protect the food from outside influences and damage, contain the food, and provide the consumers with ingredient and nutritional information. (secondary functions that may be acceptable include traceability, convenience, and tamper indication)
Name 4 types of modified packaging.
modified atmosphere packaging, controlled atmosphere storage, nitrogen flush packaging, vacuum packaging
What are the 4 principle sweeteners used in icings and glazes?
sucrose, dextrose, invert sugar and corn syrup
At Ramen shop, you may find this red colored spice blend shichimi togarashi on your table which roughly translates to seven flavor chili pepper give seven of the typical ingredients
Red chili pepper, Sansho which is a Japanese pepper, black sesame seeds, poppy seeds, Nori, ginger, chickpea or orange peel. Hemp seeds, Chinese basil or white sesame seeds.
What are the described flavors of the following 6 compounds? Diacetyl, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl hexanoate, propionic acid, 1-octen-3-ol
Diacetyl – butter, acetic acid, vinegar, acetaldehyde – nutty or apple, ethyl hexanoate – fruity, 1-octen-3-ol – mushroom
Cake Recipe recipes needed to be adjusted for atmospheric pressure changes. Name 4 changes that will prevent problems associated at high altitudes.
less baking powder, increasing flour content, substituting flour for one with higher protein content, decreasing fat, decreasing sugar, adding more eggs, or increasing liquids
Name the five ingredients used in Long island iced tea.
vodka, rum, gin, tequila, triple sec
Name 4 cereal grains in the Poesia family.
oats, barley, wheat, rye, rice, corn/maize, sorghum, millet, spelt, triticale
Name 3 of the 16 gram negative, facultative anaerobic rods.
Enterobacteriaceae, Arsenophonus nasoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea, Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Ewingella americana, Hafnia alvei, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Leminorella, Moellerella wisconsensis, Morganella morganii, Obesumbacterium proteus, Pantoea, Pragia fontium Proteus, Providencia, Rahnella aquatilis, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella, Tatumella plyseos, Xenorhabdus, Yersina, Yohenella regensburgei, Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter aerosaccus, Photobacterium, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio, Actinobacillus, Hemophilus, Pasteurella, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, Cardiobacterium hominis, Chromobacterium, Eikenella corrodens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Streptobacillus moniliformis, Zymomonas
What 5 vitamins and minerals are enriched in flour?
Thiamine, folate, iron, riboflavin, niacin
How much volume of 37% HCl is required to make a litre of 1 M HCl with DI water?
82 ml (80-85 ml acceptable)
Give 2 ways to calculate water activity.
vapor pressure of the food/vapor pressure of H2O Moles H2O + moles of substrate/moles of H2O
Our bodies are composed of the following nutrients put them in order of least concentrated to most concentrated carbohydrates, vitamins, protein, water, minerals and fat.
vitamin, carbohydrates, minerals, protein, fat, water
Which are the 'three sister plants' of Indigenous American agriculture?
Corn, bean, squash
Based on the National institute of alcohol abuse and alcoholism, what is the volume in fluid ounces of a standard drink for the following, beer (5%), malt liquor, wine and distilled spirit?
12 fl oz of beer, 8-9 fl oz of malt liquor, 5 fl oz of wine, 1.5 fl oz of distilled spirits
Name 4 types of lipoproteins.
VLDL, LDL, HDL, IDL, chylomicrons
In cake recipes at atm pressure, name 4 changes at high altitude to prevent problems:
1. decreasing liquids; 2. More eggs; 3. Less baking powder; 4. Decreasing fat
Name 3 sources of caffeine
Caffeine is an alkaloid occurring naturally in some 60 plant species, of which cocoa beans, kola nuts, tea leaves and coffee beans are the most well-known. Other natural sources of caffeine include yerba maté, guarana berries, guayusa, and the yaupon holly.
What is the main spirit found in each of the following cocktails? Pina colada, daiquiri, john Collins, flying grasshopper, margherita
Pina colada – rum Daiquiri – rum John Collins – gin Flying grasshopper – vodka Margherita - tequila
Fat is important in baking. Provide 1 example of how butter is important in bread making, cake baking, and cookie baking.
Bread – lubricates the dough and helps maintain gases, resulting in well-risen loaf, soft crumb Cake – changes the emulsion from water in oil to oil in water the batter volume increases, it can also help retain gases during baking. Improves the texture Cookies – fat prevents the development of gluten
Give 3 visible signs of chilling injury.
poor ripening, pitting, collapse of structural integrity, development of off-flavors and rotting
Rank the following beers from lightest color to darkest color as described by the European Brewery Convention or EBC. Dunkel, Porter, Pilsener, India Pale Ale, Stout and Saison
Pilsener, India Pale Ale, Saison, Dunkel, Porter, Stout
Name four varieties of noble hops.
Noble hops are classic European varieties that are responsible for the signature flavors of pilsner and other Continental lagers. The four noble varieties are: Hallertauer Mittelfrüh Tettnang Spalt Saaz
What are some of the advantages of resistance temperature detectors (also known as RTD)?
most accurate sensors for industrial applications and have the best long-term stability, can cover a wide range of temperatures, and can hook up to a computer
What are the 3 major physiological stages of fruits and vegetables?
Growth, maturation, senescence
Name the 5 vitamins added to enriched grain products.
iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and folate
What organisms are responsible for scombroid poisoning in seafood?
Morganella morganii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Jagermeister is a German digestif made with 56 herbs and spices. Please list 5 of the known (some are kept a trade secret) herbs or spices in this spirit.
citrus peel. Licorice, anise, poppy seeds, saffron, ginger, juniper berries, ginseng, cinnamon (bark), chamomile flowers, lavender, rose hips, red sandalwood, blueberries
Name 3 methods of fruit and vegetable peeling.
steam peeling, knife peeling, abrasion peeling, caustic peeling and flame peeling
Name three methods of microencapsulation technology.
Spray drying, spray cooling, emulsification, extrusion, simple coacervation, complex coacervation, internal/ external gelation, fluidized bed coating, etc.
Name 5 antimicrobial spices.
cinnamon, cloves, mustard, allspice, horseradish, onion, garlic, oregano, thyme, cumin, rosemary, ginger, basil, fennel, coriander, black pepper
How many divisions of IFT are there and list 10.
24 Divisions. Dairy Foods, Food Engineering, Food Packaging, International, Food Chemistry, Carbohydrates, Foodservice, Biotechnology, Food Laws & regulation, Muscle food, Nutrition, Product development, Protein, Quality Assurance
What factors affect heat penetration in canned foods?
container size/shape, product consistency (homogenous or not), type of retort (still vs agitating)
Name 3 amylytic enzymes that react with starch and give the end product for each enzymatic reaction.
alpha amylase – oligosaccharides Beta amylase – disaccharides Amyloglucosidase - glucose
What is patulin, with what food products is it associated, and how is it usually analytically determined?
A mycotoxin formed by Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys genera associated with apple juice products; determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Give the numerical factor for converting %N to %crude protein to one decimal point for: soybeans, dairy products, meat products.
soy = 5.7, dairy = 6.4, meat = 6.3
Name 5 types of nonthermal pasteurization.
high-pressure processing, pulsed electric field, ultraviolet, radio frequency, ultrafiltration
There are nine enzymes involved in the Kreb cycle. Name 4 of them.
1. Citrate synthase, 2. Aconitase, 3. Isocitrate dehydrogenase, 4. α-ketogultarate dehydrogenase, 5. Succinyl-CoA synthetase, 6. Succinate dehydrogenase, 7. fumarase, 8. Malate dehydrogenase, 9. pyruvate dehydrogenase
Name 5 ways that processors can reduce the microbial population or growth of microoragnisms in a food product.
heat treatment, refrigeration (or decreasing temperature), decrease water activity, removing contaminated portions (or trimming), using chemicals (accept both addivitves and sanitizers, such as chlorine), encouraging the growth of fermentation microorganisms, minimizing contamination, cleaning and sanitization of equipment and facilities, etc.
What kinds of food emulsions are butter, mayonnaise, and milk?
butter = water in oil, Mayonnaise = oil in water and milk = oil in water
Classifying the following into either primary, secondary, or tertiary types of packaging. Cartons, boxes, trays, wrappers, pallets, bags
Primary – trays, bags, cartons, (boxes), wrappers Secondary – boxes Tertiary – pallets, wrappers
Give the locations for IFT Annual Meetings from 2014-2020.
New Orleans, Chicago, Chicago, Las Vegas, Chicago, New Orleans, Chicago
What 4 seeds are considered to be the richest iron source with 1.3-4.3 mg per 2 tablespoons?
Pumpkin seeds, sesame, flax and hemp
Name three types of GC detectors using their full name.
FID (Flame Ionization Detector); NPD (Nitrogen phosphorus detector); FPD (Flame Photometric detector);ECD (electron capture detector); MS (Mass Spectrometer); AED (atomic Emission Detector); PID (Photoionization detector); TCD (Thermal Conductivity Detector); ELCD (electrolytic conductivity detector)
What are the 4 parameters for the processing of fluids flowing through a pipe?
Pipe diameter, viscosity, velocity, and density of fluids
Name 3 of the top 5 raspberry producing countries.
Russia, Poland, United States, Serbia, Mexico
Which vegetables belong to the allium family and which to the cruciferae? Onions, garlic, broccoli, spinach, leeks and cabbage
Allium – onions, garlic, leeks Cruciferae – broccoli, spinach and cabbage
Name 4 enzymes required to produce high fructose corn syrup.
alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, glucose isomerase, xylose isomerase
What are the described flavors of the following 3 compounds? Diacetyl, acetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-ol
Diacetyl – butter, acetaldehyde – nutty or apple, 1-octen-3-ol – mushroom
Name 5 fruits that use a type of bud grafting in their production.
cherry, plum, apricot, peach, apple, pear
What are the core messages of the five keys to safer food outlined by the World Health Organization?
Keep clean, separate raw and cooked, cook thoroughly, Keep food at safe temperatures, use safe water and raw materials
Name three functions of packaging in protecting food from deterioration.
recontamination with microorganisms, attach by insects and rodents, moisture gain or loss, air and light, and mechanical abuse
Manganese is a trace element that is an essential nutrient for humans. List 5 foods that are good sources of manganese.
raisin bran cereals, brown rice, oatmeal, spinach, pineapple, nuts
Koch's postulates to determine disease causing microbes
(1) The microorganism must be found in diseased but not healthy individuals; (2) The microorganism must be cultured from the diseased individual; (3) Inoculation of a healthy individual with the cultured microorganism must recapitulated the disease; (4) The microorganism must be re-isolated from the inoculated, diseased individual and matched to the original microorganism.
There are many styles of canned mushrooms, name four of them.
whole, buttons, sliced whole, random sliced whole, stems & pieces, stems & buttons
Name 5 ingredients in V8 juice.
tomato, spinach, celery, carrot, beet, lettuce, watercress, parsley (bccl sptw)
What are the 8 key elements in an aseptic processing system?
the product, flow control (pumps), deaerator (optional), product heating, hold tube, product cooling, surge tank, filler for packaging
In terms of dehydration please describe how osmosis works.
as water on the surface evaporates, the water moves from the interior to the surface due to the new concentration gradient.
Arrange according to size of starch granules: potato, rice, corn, tapioca
Corn, rice, tapioca, potato
What are the 5 classes of unit operations?
fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamic processes, mechanical processes
What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of microwave heating?
Advantages: Higher heating rates; no direct contact between the heating source and the heated material; selective heating may be achieved; greater control of the heating or drying process; reduced equipment size and waste Disadvantages: Radiation; the texture of food, color, and taste will change
List the following muscle units in order or size from largest to smallest. Myofilament, muscle fiber, sarcomere, myofibril, muscle bundle, muscle
Myoflilament, sarcomere, muscle fiber, myofibril, muscle bundle, muscle
What are the 5 methods used for dough fermentation in bread manufacturing?
sponge dough, straight dough, continuous mix, liquid ferment, short-time dough
Name 7 of the 14 mandatory dietary components that must appear on the nutrition facts panel as stated in the Nutrition labeling and education act of 1990.
total calories, dietary fiber, trans fat, sugars, total fat, Vitamin A, Cholesterol, Vitamin C, saturated fat, sodium, iron, calcium, total carbohydrate, protein
Name 8 types of lettuce used commonly in salads.
Romaine, arugula, Batavia (French crisp or summer crisp), endive, butter lettuce, little gem lettuce, Mache (lambs lettuce), mescalin, mizuna, oak leaf lettuce, purslane, iceberg, radicchio, watercress
What are some advantages of a liquid-in-glass thermometer?
easy portability, independence of auxiliary equipment, low cost, compatible with most environments, moderate ruggedness, wide range of temperatures
100g serving : 5g fat, 4g protein, 3g carbs. Caloric value?
The most frequently used polymers on food packaging materials are PE, PP and PET. What do these abbreviations stand for?
PE – polyethylene, PP- polypropylene, PET – Polyethylene terephthalate
What are some of the advantages of using the general method to calculate lethality?
simple to perform, most accurate method as long as: temperature measurement is accurate, time interval is reasonable, and a proper integration method is chosen, is a good tool for process evaluation
List the following flours from the least % of protein (gluten) to the greatest. All-purpose flour, amaranth flour, bread flour, corn flour, rye flour, whole wheat flour
corn flour, rye flour, whole wheat flour, all-purpose, bread flour, amaranth flour
Name 3 advantages of microwave heating.
reduced process time, higher food quality, better appearance/flavor/taste, convenient, easy clean-up, decreased cost of electricity, increased retention of vitamins and minerals
Name 3 specific enzymes that act on pectic substances.
pectin methylesterase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase
What are the limiting amino acids in corn, potatoes, and green peas?
corn – lysine, potatoes – methionine, green peas - methionine
The Columbian exchange refers to the widespread transfer of plants, culture, technology, etc between the Americas and the Old World. Name 3 foods that originated in the Old World and transferred to the Americas, and 3 foods originating in the Americas and transferred to the Old World.
Old world to America Pigs, horses, cattle, chickens, honeybees, grains, bananas, sugarcane, olives, citrus fruit, coffee beans, peaches, pears, apples, carrots, grapes, cabbage, lettuce, onions, soybeans Americas to the Old World Potatoes, corn, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, squash, cassava, tomatoes, pineapples, avocados, beans, peanuts, cashews, cacao, vanilla, chili peppers, tobacco, turkeys, sunflowers
Name five different animal shapes that can be found in a Barnum's Animals Animal Crackers box.
The current crackers are bear, bison, camel, cougar, elephant giraffe, gorilla, hippo, hyena, kangaroo, lion, monkey, rhino, seal, sheep, tiger and zebra. To celebrate its 100th anniversary, Barnum’s added the koala to the menagerie in September 2002.
BHA and BHT are common antioxidants. What do these acronyms stand for and how much of these are allowed by law to be used in foods?
BHA – butylated hydroxyl toluene, BHT = butylated hydroxyl anisole 0.01% of fat content individually or 0.02% of the fat content of the food (when 2 or more are used together)
What are the labels on a 9-point hedonic scale?
Neutral; Like/Dislike Extremely, Very Much, Moderately, Slightly
Name 3 fruits or veggies that contains lycopene.
tomatoes, watermelon, guava, red grapefruit, papaya, red cabbage, mango
Give 4 reasons why compounds are micro-encapsulated.
Stability against oxidation, bioavailability, stability, resistant to pH, protect reactive substances from the environment, controlled/delayed release of compounds
Name five varieties of grapefruits.
Ruby Red, Pomelo, white, pink, star ruby, sweeties, oro blanco, melogold, lavender
Iron can be found in 2 different forms in food. What are these 2 forms and what types of foods are they found in?
Heme – animals Non-heme - plants
GMP regulated five products
Infant formula, low acid canned foods, drinking water
Name 5 ways to lower the water activity of a food.
Dehydrate, add sugar, add salt, freeze, drying, combination of any of these methods
Name five of the 17 categories of college level questions and we are requiring exact wording.
Cullinology and baking, food chemistry, Alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages, food safety toxicology and microbiology, biotechnology. Carbohydrates, cereal and grain products, dairy products, food analysis and quality assurance, food history and trivia, food laws and regulations, food packaging, food processing and engineering. Fruit, and vegetable products IFT knowledge, meat, fish, poultry and egg products. Nutrition and then sensory and Consumer Science.
What are two equations for water activity?
P/Po ( partial vapor pressure of food moisture at T divided by saturation vapor pressure of water at T) and ERH/100 (equilibrium relative humidity at T divided by 100)
Name 5 non-caloric sweeteners with the chemical name and common name.
cyclamate = Sucaryl Saccharin – Sweet n Low, E954 Acesulfame-Potassium = Ace-K, E950, Sunett, Sweet One Aspartame = Nutrasweet, Equal Sucralose = Splenda Rebaudioside A = Stevias, Reb-A, Pure Via, Truvia Monkfruit sweetener (mogrosides) = Nectresse
List the Classes of enzymes:
oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases
What 4 micronutrients are necessary on nutrition labels according to the 2016 FDA format?
Vitamin D, Calcium, Iron, Potassium
What are the 4 major fat depots in a steer?
back fat, seam fat, marbling, KPH (kidney, pelvic, heart)
List several benefits associated with the use of phosphates in meats
increase water binding capacity, improve emulsification, tenderness, juiciness, color uniformity, decreases rancidity, minor antimicrobial activity, buffering against acidic marination ingredients
Based on FDA definition, four substances exempt from the definition of food additive.
Pesticide residues, color additives, new animal drugs, dietary supplements
What are the three categories of freezing equipment used in the food industry?
1-The air blast freezers / cold storage freezers 2-The cartoon freezers / box freezers 3-The spiral belt freezers 4-The fluidized bed freezer / IQF freezer (or tunnel freezers) 5-The immersion freezers / brine freezers 6-The plate freezers / block freezers 7-The contact belt freezers 8-The impingement freezers / flat product freezers 9-The cryogenic freezers
The percentage of alpha acids in hops differs based on the type of hops. By percentage of total dry weight please rank the following from greatest percentage of alpha acids to least percentage. Saaz, Chinook, Cascade, Willamette, Centennial
Chinook, Centennial, Cascade or Willamette (or switched), Saaz
In the SI system what are the units applied to the following 5 dimensions or measurements? length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temp
meter, kilogram, second, ampere, Kelvin
Name 5 water soluble vitamins.
vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12, pyridoxine, folic acid, thiamine
Name five genera of bacteria that are considered to be lactic acid bacteria.
lactobacillus, leuconostoc, lactococcus, pediococcus, streptococcus
What are some ways to reduce non-uniform heating during microwave heating?
rotating food with motorized platter, pre-heating and holding time after the microwave heating, adjusting power settings in microwave ovens
Countries of origin for cheeses: Paneer Colby Gouda Jarlsberg Ardrahan
Paneer: India Colby: US Gouda: Netherlands Jarlsberg: Norway Ardrahan: Ireland
Name the country where the following companies are headquartered. Nestle, Pepsico, Suntory, Grupo Bimbo, Sekuro
Nestle: Switzerland , PepsiCo: US, Suntory: Japanese multinational brewing and distilling company group, Grupo Bimbo: Mexico, sekuro Incorporated: Canada
You have 1 gram of each of the following sweeteners. Please list them from most sweet to less sweet. lactose, glucose, aspartame, sucralose, sucrose, saccharin
Sucralose, saccharin, aspartame, sucrose, glucose, lactose
Name top 3 cheese producing countries.
US, Germany, France
Classify the following baking powders as fast or slow acting:
Tartrates: F; Na Al Phosphate: S; Na acid pyrophosphate: S;
Three food groups exempt from mandatory nutrition labelling.
Fresh Produce, fruits, veggies, medical food, alcohol, bottled water, bulk fruits, airplane service foods, free samples, coffee, tea and spices
The main component of an Infrared Heating Equipment is the radiator, name 3 types of radiators and length of wave.
gas heated (long waves), electrically heated radiators (tubular/flat metallic heaters (long waves), ceramic heaters (long waves), quartz tube heaters (medium/short waves), and halogen tube heater (ultra short waves))
List four method used to find the total number of microorganisms in foods.
pour plate, surface spread plate, surface drop, agar droplet, and microdilution
(Bonus) For fluids, flowing through a pipe. Name the four parameters included in the calculation of Reynolds number.
viscosity, pipe diameter, velocity, density (Re: Dv(rho)/(nu))
Name 5 of the 12 USDA-approved GMO food products
alfalfa, apple, corn, pineapple, salmon, soybean, squash, sugar beet, potato, tomato
What are 5 factors that will influence dehydration?
temperature, dryness, air volume, particle size, type of food or load
To be called peanut butter the product must contain 90% peanuts. Name 3 items used as the other 10% of peanut butter.
salt, sugar(sweetener) hardened vegetable oil, or emulsifier
Name 5 of the 14 mandatory dietary components that must appear on the nutrition facts panel as stated in the Nutrition labeling and education act of 1990.
total calories, dietary fiber, trans fat, sugars, total fat, Vitamin A, Cholesterol, Vitamin C, saturated fat, sodium, iron, calcium, total carbohydrate, protein
Manganese is a trace element that is an essential nutrient for humans. List 5 foods that are good sources of manganese.
raisin bran cereals, brown rice, oatmeal, spinach, pineapple, nuts
What are the 4 lean cuts in pork?
ham, loin, Boston butt, picnic shoulder
What are the leading three states in the value production of cucumbers for pickles?
Michigan, Wisconsin, South Carolina, and Florida
By weight, what are the three most common GRAS substances in foods, besides water?
Salt, sugar, corn syrup
Vitamin deficiencies cause many diseases. For each of the following give the vitamin deficiency it is associated with. Xerophthalmia, Korsakoff’s syndrome, scurvy, pellagra, Wernicke’s encephalopathy, rickets
Xerophthalmia – vitamin A Korsakoff’s syndrome – thiamine (or vitamin B-1) Scurvy – vitamin C Wernicke’s encephalopathy – vitamin B (vitamin B1 is also acceptable) Rickets – vitamin D
The deficiency of which vitamins causes the following diseases: Scurvy, Beriberi, and Pellagra
Vitamin C, Thiamin, and Niacin
What are the 4 basic chemical classes of certified dyes?
azo, anthraquinone, carbonyl, phthalocyanine
On average was is the % water, % protein, % carbohydrate and % oil content of raw soybeans?
7-8% water, 31-32% carbohydrate, 40% protein, 21% oil
What are the ten Focus Areas of IFT?
Food, health and nutrition; food ingredients and additives; food business trends; emerging science and technologies; food policy; food processing and packaging; food quality; product development; food safety and defense; sustainability
Name what the following is made from: Cachaca, vodka, rum, mezcal, baijiu
Cachaca: cane sugar (aka pinga, caninha) vodka: potato rum: sugarcane juice/ molasses mezcal/ tequila: agave Baijiu, Kaoliang: sorghum
Name three anticaking agents.
Tricalcium phosphate, Mg silicate, silicon dioxide, magnesium carbonate and iron ammonium citrate
Please put the following steps in order as they would be used for processing? Grinding, cleaning, Cocoa separation, shell removal, conching, roasting, addition of other material, tempering
Cleaning, roasting, shell removal, grinding nibs, cocoa separation, addition of other material, Conching, tempering
Michelin Stars ranking and their definitions
3>2>1. 1 star: high quality cooking, worth a stop! 2. excellent cooking, worth a detour 3. exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey
What are the 5 major classes of microorganisms based on temperature?
Psychrophiles, psychrotrophs, mesophiles, thermophiles, hyperthermophiles
Common names of following fatty acids:
4: Butyric, 8: Caprylic, 12: Lauric, 16: Palmitic, 20: Arachadic
What year was the fair packaging and labeling act (FPLA) enacted and what does it require?
The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA or Act), enacted in 1967, directs the Federal Trade Commission and the Food and Drug Administration to issue regulations requiring that all "consumer commodities" be labeled to disclose net contents, identity of commodity, and name and place of business of the product's manufacturer, packer, or distributor.
Classifying the following microorganisms if they cause intoxication or infection regarding foodborne illness: Clostridium botulinum, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, and salmonella species.
Answer: C.bot – toxin (botulinum toxin), Campy (infection), Staph (intoxication, Amongst the more common toxins secreted by S. aureus are hemolysin, leukotoxin, exfoliative toxin, enterotoxin, and toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1).), A. flavus (aflatoxin), Salmonella (infection).
Name 3 popular grapevine species used as wine grape rootstock.
Vitis rupestris, Vitis riparia, Vitis lincecumii
Five fruits/vegetables from the family solanaceae
Potatoes, tomato, pepper, eggplant, different types of peppers
Eight quality grades of beef.
Prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and canner C4S2PU
Name 3 blotting techniques.
southern - DNA; Northern - RNA; Western - protein
Name 3 physical agents capable of denaturing proteins.
Heat, cold mechanical treatments, hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, interfaces
Name 4 applications for Infrared in food processing.
drying, heating, frying, roasting, baking, thawing, surface pasteurization
Provide 3 reasons why the Dumas method, for protein content, is being used more and more versus the Kjeldahl method.
Much faster, 4 minutes per sample No toxic chemicals or catalyst Very easy Many samples can be measured automatically
Name the four major categories of cheese.
Soft-ripened, soft-unripened, semisoft ripened, hard
What are the four main requirements in an aseptic system?
aseptic processing and equipment, aseptic packaging and sealing hermetically in an aseptic environment, monitoring, and proper handling of finished products
What are the advantages of a plate heat exchanger?
low initial cost, high heat transfer efficiency, small hold up volume in heat exchanger, easy to inspect and disassemble unit, flexibility of the system (can be readily expanded/contracted to perform multiple duties)
Which is the country of origin of the following cheeses: Cheddar, Mozzarella, Gouda, Edam, Hawartii
Cheddar: England, mozzarella: italy, Gouda and Edam: Netherlands, Havarti: Denmark
Give 3 examples of a crystalline candy and 3 examples of a non-crystalline candy.
crystalline – fondant, fudge, buttercream, divinity, penuche/lollipops, caramels Non-crystalline – marshmallows, jelly beans, taffies, and nut brittles
What is the difference between commercial sterilization and pasteurization?
sterilization: processed at temps higher than 100 C, mainly for canning (retorting), destroys all microbes that may cause spoilage (may contain heat resistant bacteria spores such as endospores or thermophiles or flat sour bacteria), shelf life of 2+ years at room temperature, pasteurization: processed at temps lover than 100 C, typically high temperature for short time (HTST), destroys pathogenic microbes, reduces spoilage microbes, inactivates enzymes
What causes wrinkled casings of beef sticks?
There could be several reasons for these results. The temperature may have risen too high. The sausage may not have been showered with cold water immediately after it was finished smoking. The sausage casings may not have been stuffed to their full capacity.
What are the eight vegetables in Campbell’s “V-8” Juice?
tomato, carrot, lettuce, celery, parsley, watercress, spinach, beets bcclpstw
Expand the following: TLC, HETP, HPLC, GFC, SFC
TLC (Thin layer chromatography), HETP (Height equivalent theoretical plates), HPLC (High pressure or High performance liquid chromatography, GFC (Gel Filteration Chromatography), SFC (Super critical Fluid Chromatography)
Describe the 3 steps used in the malting process.
1 – barley is cleaned/graded/steeped, and soaked in 40% moisture to activate enzymes 2 – enzymes act on starches to produce simple carbohydrates 3 – heat is used to stop the sprouting process and the grain is dried for storage
You have a solution with a concentration of 2 mg/L, please convert this concentration to ug/L, ng/mL, and ug/g
2000 ug/L, 2000 ng/mL and 2 ug/g
In order, name the first three ingredients in a regular Coke and in Diet Coke.
Regular: Carbonated water, high fructose corn and/or sucrose syrup, caramel color; Diet: Carbonated water, caramel color, aspartame.
Name the 10 states in the FoodNet active Surveillance Program.
California, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon and Tennessee
Three species of curcubita produce edible fruit. What are the general names for these edible fruits?
Squash, pumpkin, gourd
Name 5 vegetables that contain phytoestrogens.
beans, soy products, peas, lentils, whole grains, flaxseed, rye, millet.
Define absolute zero and provide the kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit temperatures for this point.
temperature at which particle motion stops (is minimal), 0 kelvin, -273.15 Celsius, -459.67 Fahrenheit.
Name 5 divisions of IFT.
Dairy Foods, Food Engineering, Food Packaging, International, Food Chemistry, Carbohydrates, Foodservice, Biotechnology, etc.
What are the 3 common names for Corylus Avellana?
hazelnut, cobnut and filbert nut
Three commercial uses of lactase
hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose, prevent sandiness in ice cream, lactose intolerance
Name extrinsic factor in foods which affect microbial growth.
Environmental conditions where the food is stored
Classifying baking powders containing the following ingredients as either fast acting or slow acting. Tartrates, orthophosphates, sodium acyl pyrophosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium aluminum sulfate.
Tartrates, orthophosphates: Fast acting sodium acyl pyrophosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium aluminum sulfate: slow acting
Rank the following animals in average milk fat content: cow, sheep, goat, water buffalo, reindeer, camel.
(low to highest) camel, goat, cow, sheep, water buffao, reindeer
Please assign the following animals as either hindgut or foregut fermenters; rabbit, human, pig, horse, humans, goat, ostrich
hind-gut – rabbit, horse, ostrich, human, pig, foregut – cow, goat
Name 5 of the IFTSA competitions/awards.
chapter of the year, excellence in leadership award, college bowl, IFTSA & MARS product development challenge, student food packaging development competition, IFTSA developing solutions for developing countries competition, smart snacks for kids product development competition, graduate research video competition, undergraduate research competition, food science in action competition.
In 1926, the Michelin man began to award stars for fine dining. What does each star mean?
1 = worth a stop, 2 = worth a detour, 3 = worth a special journey
Give five types of RNA.
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, small nuclear RNA, regulatory RNA, ribozymes, double stranded RNA, signal recognition particle RNA, transfer messenger RNA
What are some disadvantages of using the formula (ball) method to calculate lethality?
only can use at a constant retort process temperature, the cooling portion modeling is empirical and may over/under estimate lethality
Give 3 factors that determine the stability of emulsions.
particle size, pH of phases, type of emulsifier, size of globules, viscosity, interfacial tension, temperature
In order list the 7 steps of HACCAP.
1. Conduct a hazard analysis, 2. Identify CCP, 3. Set critical limits, 4. Establish monitory procedures, 5. Establish corrective actions, 6. Verification, 7. Establish record keeping
Name 5 food components as identified by “proximate” analysis.
Protein, carbohydrate (NFE), water, ash, lipid, fiber
What is the monosaccharide composition of the following? Sucrose, lactose, xylose, stachyose, starch and cellulose
sucrose = glucose+fructose Lactose = galactose +glucose Xylose = xylose Stachyose = 2 glucose + 2 galactose Starch = glucose (in alpha 1-4 and alpha 1-6 linkages) Cellulose = glucose (in beta 1-4 linkages)
Name 8 essential amino acids.
histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine (HIL PVT LMT)
Name 6 food products that use freeze concentration.
coffee, citrus, juices, beer, wine, vinegar, dairy products, meat/fish extracts
Give 3 different types of active packaging.
oxygen scavenger, anti-microbial release, ethylene scavenging, vapour removal and temperature history.
Put these nuts in order from least fat content to greatest based on a 1 ounce serving. Pine nuts, cashews, macadamia, chestnuts, almonds
Chestnuts, cashews, almonds, pine nuts, macadamia
List the 6 major classes of enzymes
oxidoreductases, transferase, ligase, lyase, isomerase, hydrolase
What are 4 ways to lower water activity?
dehydration (remove water), concentration (increase solids content), add salt, add sugar (both salt and sugar compete for water)
What organic acids are associated with the following fruits? Apples, grapes and oranges
apples – malic acid, grapes – tartaric acid, oranges – citric acid
Put these peppers in order from the least to greatest based on their Scoville units: Poblano, Carolina, Reaper, Cayenne, Birds eye chilli, Jalapeno
Poblano - 1250 Jalapeno – 5000 Cayenne – 50000 Birds eye chilli – 100000 Carolina reaper - 1500000
Give three reasons for drying foods.
The main objective of drying food is to prolong its shelf-life beyond that of the fresh material, while at the same time minimizing undesirable changes in appearance, texture, flavor, and nutritional value during the drying process. In addition to the preservation of the product, drying can bring about savings in storage and transport of foods owing to the reduction in weight and bulk that occurs during most methods of drying.
Give 3 advantages of food dehydration over sun drying.
more controlled conditions, shorter drying time, better sanitary conditions, no climate losses due to weather, some products (such as milk) cannot be sun dried
What are the common names for the saturated fatty acids with the following chain length 4, 6, 8,12,16,20 carbons.
Butyric acid, caproic acid (6), caprylic acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid, arachidic acid
What is the difference between the following types of data: nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
Nominal = the items examined are placed in two or three groups that differ in name but do not obey any particular order or any quantitative relationship; Ordinal = the panelist places the items examined into two or more groups that belong to an ordered series (e.g. level of intensity); Interval = panelists place the items into numbered groups separated by a constant interval (e.g., three, four, five, six); Ratio = panelists use numbers that indicate how many times the stimulus in question is stronger than a reference stimulus presented earlier; Nominal data contains the least information. ordinal data carries more information and can be analyzed by most nonparametric statistical tests. Interval and ratio data are even better because they can be analyzed by all nonparametric methods and often by parametric methods. Ratio data is preferred by some because it is free from end of scale distortions, however, in practice, interval data, which is easier to collect, appears to give equal results
Name 3 factors that influence the rate of lipid oxidation in foods.
fatty acid composition, free fatty acid content versus the corresponding glycerols, oxygen concentration, temperature, surface area, moisture, pro-oxidants, antioxidants
Give the michaelis-menten equation and give two assumptions underlying its derivation.
V0 = Vmax ([S]/([S] + KM)); This equation includes the assumption that during the early stages of the reaction so little product is formed that the reverse reaction (product combining with enzyme and re-forming substrate) can be ignored (hence the unidirectional arrow under k3). Another assumption is that the concentration of substrate is much greater than that of total enzyme ([S] >> [Et]), so it can essentially be treated as a constant.
What are some disadvantages of aseptic processing?
over processing, not easy to ensure the sterility of all equipment used in the process, products that contain particulates processed at high temperatures lose shape and form during the heating and cooling steps
Rank the following pulse waveforms used in pulsed electric field processing in order of increasing electrical efficiency: oscillatory, square wave, exponentially decaying
exponentially decaying, square wave, bipolar, oscillatory
What are the 3 main steps of the original Kjeldahl method for measuring protein content?
digestion, neutralization and distillation, titration
What are the 4 ingredients used to make candy corn?
Sugar, corn syrup, wax, and water
Name 5 types of wheat that are milled into flour.
Durum wheat, soft wheat, hard wheat, spelt
Given type of heat exchange, say whether there is aroma retention or not: steam injection/infusion, plate heat exchanger, tubular heat exchanger, scraped surface heat exchanger
all yes (retain aroma) except steam injection/infusion
If you take 20 mL of a 0.1M NaOH salutation to titrate 40 mL of an HCL solution to the phenolphthalein end point. What is the molarity of the HCL solution?
0.05M HCL
Define the D-value and the Z-value.
z-value – temperature required to decrease the time necessary to obtain a 1 log reduction in cell number to 1/10th of the original value d-value – the time in minutes at a specific temperature to reduce the number of microogranisms by 1 log cycle, AKA kill 90% of micorbes.
Name 3 disaccharides found in foods and the monosaccharides that comprise them?
Lactose (glucose and galactose), Sucrose (glucose and fructose); maltose (glucose and glucose)
What are some advantages of aseptic processing?
convenience (many foods can undergo aseptic processing), safety (protect against spoilage and foodborne illness), flavor and freshness (captures the natural flavors and has a fresh clean taste), natural (no need for preservatives)
What are the 6 grape varieties that can be used to make Red Bordeaux wine?
Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Petit verdot, Malbec, Carmenere
What are 5 items that must be found on the nutritional facts label found on a food?
Serving size Servings per container Calories per serving, calories from fat Total fat Saturated fat Trans fat Cholesterol; Sodium Total carbs Dietary fiber Sugars Proteins Vitamin A Vitamin C
Classify the followng microorganisms into intoxication or infection: C. bot, Campylobacter jejuni, Staph aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Salmonella
C. bot: intoxication, Campylobacter jejuni: infection, Staph aureus: intoxication, Aspergillus flavus: intoxication, Salmonella: infection
In the Code of Federal Regulations, give the titles that relate to food products.
21, 9, 7, 50, 27
What are the four most commonly used flexible packaging materials?
polyethylene, paper, cellophane, aluminum foil
Name 5 primary functions of food thickeners.
Thickening, emulsion stabilization, suspending, gelation, crystallization, water binding, mouth feel, foam stabilization, flavor fixation, film formation
Food infection is when the food contains bacteria or other microbes which infect the body after it is eaten.
intoxication: S. aureus, C. botulinum, B. cereus, C. perfringens. Infection: E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, Camylobacter jejuni, etc.
Please list the following from least alcohol to highest alcohol by percentage. Cider, vodka, beer, port, Shochu
beer, cider (cider or beer may be swapped), port, Shochu, vodka
Name 5 unripened cheeses.
Cottage, ricotta, mozarella, quark, cheese curds, marscapone, feta, etc.
What are some of the disadvantages of frozen foods?
thermal abuse during transportation/storage (warming or freezing product), ice crystal formation (affects food quality), freeze burn/ice crystal formation breaks down cells
What are the IFTSA Competitions?
-Developing solutions for developing countries; Smart snacks for kids product development; IFTSA & MARS product development competition; undergraduate research competition; thesis video competition; college bowl
What are 4 major tests for allergies?
oral challenge, RAST, skin test, Immunoblotting and Basophil release
Give three reasons for adding starch to food.
coating and glazing agent, thickening agent, colloidal stabilizer, moisture retention, gel forming, binding
What are levels of exposure in kGy for radurization, radicidation, and radappertization?
radurization: 0.75-2.5 kGy; Racidiation 2.5-10 kGy; Radappertization: greater than 30-40 kGy
Name 3 non-nutritive sweeteners approved for use in the USA?
Saccharin, Aspartame, Acesulfame-K, stevia, sucralose, neotame
Give the nonnutritive sweetener used in the production of the following artificial sweeteners: NutraSweet, Sweet One, Sweet’N Low, Splenda, Equal.
Aspartame (NutraSweet® and Equal®) Acesulfame-K (Sweet One®) Neotame Saccharin (Sweet’N Low®) Sucralose (Splenda®)
List 3 methods to measure the molecular weight of polysaccharides.
osmotic pressure, light scattering, NMR, gel electrophoresis, size-exclusion chromatography(SEC)
Name names three intrinsic factors and three extrinsic factors that affect microbial growth in food products.
Answer: Intrinsic: water activity, pH, nutrient content; Extrinsic: temperature, storage environment, humidity.
List 6 vegetables that are part of the Brassica plants.
brassica (and not Brassicaceae), rutabaga, turnip, kohlrabi, cabbage, collard greens, kale, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, mustard seed, rapeseed
Brassica family vegetables.
Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, kale, turnips
Name the six classes of enzymes.
Transferases Hydrases Oxidoreductases Ligases Lysases
Name 3 types of aseptic packages.
preformed (cans, cups, glass, bottles), laminates and plastic containers, thermo-fill-seal, bags and pouches, and blow molded containers
The IFT strategic plan contains 7 critical objectives for the organization to accomplish its mission to support improvement of the food supply and its use through science, technology, and education. What are the 7 critical objectives?
1) To be the preeminent, multidisciplinary scientific society for food science and technology. 2) To be the authoritative source of science-based information on food science and technology. 3) To provide publications, programs, & services to fulfill the diverse professional needs of members. 4) To support the undergraduate education & continued professional development of food scientists & technologists 5) To support basic and applied research & foster the interface among industry, academia, government, media, & the public on food science and technology issues. 6) To attract & actively involve a culturally & professionally diverse membership. 7) To provide the organizational structure, administration, and financial capability to accomplish IFT's mission.
What vitamin deficiencies caused the following deficiencies scurvy, Berry, Berry and pellagra?
Answer: Scurvy: Vitamin c, Berry Berry: Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Pellagra : niacin (vitamin B3)
What are 4 advantages of radiant heat?
non-contact heating, fast response, reduced heating time, uniform heating, reduced quality losses, versatile, simple, compact equipment, and significant energy saving
What are the 4 purposes of evaporation industry?
reduce the volume of a product Preconcentrate a liquid Increase solid content in food Reduce the microbial load
Name 6 foods that are considered umami foods.
seaweed, parmigiana-reggiano, soy sauce, marmite, fish sauce, green tea, cured ham, tomatoes, sardines, shrimp, beef and mushrooms
What are 3 common can seam defects?
cut over (sharp seam), cut seam (fracture), lip and droop, false seam and spinner (slip, skid, dead head)
What are the 3 ingredients used to make Grand Marnier liquor?
cognac brandy, essence of bitter orange and sugar
Lactic acid bacteria are a group of gram positive bacteria that are normally acid tolerant and produce lactic acid from a carbohydrate source. Name 5 species of lactic acid bacteria.
Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, pediococcus, streptococcus
What are the 3 principle ingredients of home baking powder?
sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, sodium aluminum sulfate
Name 5 chelating agents used in food.
EDTA, vitamin C, lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, pyrophosphate, proteins
Name 5 events conducted by IFTSA.
CB, Mars Product Developent Competition, DSDC, JFSE Food Science in Action Contest. UG Research Competition, etc.
Name 3 factors that affect enzyme catalyzed reactions.
ph, temp, [substrate], [enzyme], ionic strength, activators, inhibitors
List three advantages of intermediate moisture foods.
refrigeration is not required, spoilage is slower, relatively cheap and energy efficient
What is the equation for conduction and define each term?
Q=KA[ΔT/L] Q=the heat rate K = thermal conductivity L= thickness of the wall A = surface area of the wall ΔT = the difference in temperature between the 2 sides
Name 3 methods to determine water activity.
Bithermal equilibration, Vapor pressure manometer, Hair hygrometer, Isopeistic hygrometry, Psychrometry, Dew point, Freezing-point depression
Name 8 of the 12 methods to preserve foods.
pickling, salting, smoking, canning, bottling, pasteurization, refrigeration, sterilization, dehydration, lyophilization, chemical additives, radiation
What are the disadvantages of removing water from foods during processing?
different physical appearance (excluding freeze drying), energy consuming (more expensive), and if it is heat drying there is a decrease in food quality
Name 5 spices that contain the flavor compound eugenol.
Cloves, cinnamon, Jamaica allspice, sage, sweet basil, bay leaves, sweet marjoram
Name the countries where the following dishes are popular, often recognised as the national dishes: Ema datshi, Bacalhau, Poutine, Bobotie
Ema Datshi: Bhutan, Bacalhau: Portugal, Poutine: Canada, Bobotie: South Africa
What does the iodine value tell you about fat and what physical state is most likely for a lipid with a high iodine number at room temperature?
iodine value refers to the degree of unsaturated fatty acids in a lipid or the number of grams of iodine absorbed by 100g of fat. A high iodine value is associated with an unsaturated fat, which is typically liquid at room temp.
Name 5 chelating agents used in the food industry.
EDTA, citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, succinic acid, adenosine triphosphate, pyrophosphate, porphyrins, and proteins
Define the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins.
Primary=amino acid sequence, secondary=alpha-helix, beta sheet. Tertiary=one complete protein chain with cross bonds linking it together. Quaternary= four separate protein chains assembled as one.
Which fruits and veggies contain lycopene?
Watermelon, tomatoes, mangoes, red cabbage, pink grapefruit, Papaya, Guava
Rank the following fatty acids from lowest to highest melting point: oleic, elaidic, lauric, linolenic.
linolenic, oleic, lauric, elaidic
Name 3 design considerations in an air impingement oven.
air velocity, jet configuration, nozzle to target surface spacing, location of exhaust ports, induced or imposed cross flow, surface motion, angle of impingement, nozzle design, temperature differences between the jet and the impingement surface
Give 3 types of natural and 3 synthetic surfactants in foods.
natural - saponins, lecithin, lipoproteins, gums; synthetic - mono and diglycerides, sorbitan monostearate (SPANs) and polysorbates (TWEENs)
What are the three main types of meringues and how are they made?
Italian, Swiss and French French is egg whites beaten with sugar. Swiss is egg whites beaten with sugar over heat Italian is a egg white with hot sugar syrup
Give the names of the 5 non-nutritive sweeteners the FDA has designated as GRAS.
Aspartame (NutraSweet® and Equal®) Acesulfame-K (Sweet One®) Neotame Saccharin (Sweet’N Low®) Sucralose (Splenda®)
What are the key differences between the FDA and the USDA?
FDA is smaller and covers safety and labeling of food, drugs, makeup and medical devices. USDA is larger and covers all aspects of food and food production.
There are many ways to classify cheese. Name 2 classification methods and 3 different categories within each classification.
moisture content – soft to hard Fresh, whey, and stretched curd – age Content – double cream, goat, ewe, cow, water buffalo Soft-ripened and blue vein – soft-ripened, washed rind, and blue
Name 3 ways one could reduce the occurrence of Maillard browning.
decreasing moisture to very low levels, increasing moisture to very high levels, lowering pH or temperature, removing one of the substances (typically sugar)
Name the predominant organic acids in the following products. Grape Fruit, grapes, oranges, and vinegar.
Answer: Grapefruit: citric acid, Grape: citric acid Orange: tartaric acid, Vinegar: acetic acid
Name 3 anti caking agents.
Ca Al silicate, Tri Ca phosphate, Ca silicate, Cellulose, Silicon dioxide, etc.
Cheeses from highest to lowest protein content. Cheddar, swiss, cottage, feta.
Intrinsic factor in foods which affect microbial growth
pH, redox potential, nutrient content, water activity
What are 5 types of IFT memberships?
student, emeritus, premier, premier young professional, networking and engagement
Potassium permanganate is an oxidant and is used in many titrations. Name 3 types of titrations that utilize potassium permanganate as the titrant and indicator.
Iron (Fe2+) or mohr’s salts, oxalic acid (oxalate), hydrogen peroxide, Copper (II), tannins (other redox reactions)
List the 6 typical stages for making cheese.
Acidification Coagulation Curd cutting Add salt Molding/forming aging
What are the 5 primary anthocyanidins found in Vitis vinifera grapes?
cyaniding, malvidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin
How can the molecular weight of protein, DNA and RNA be determined?
SDS-PAGE for proteins and Agarose gel for DNA & RNA.
Name four types of sucrose used in industry.
bottler's, canners, liquid, granulate (sanding, baker's special, cordial, fine, gelatin, unigran), powdered/ confectionary sugar, brown sugar (dark and light)
Rank sweetness from least to most of the following compounds: sucralose, Acesulfame K, neotame, saccahrine
AceK, saccharin, sucralose, neotame
Describe the winterization process for oils.
the oil is cooled and then solids are filtered so that the long-chained saturated fats do not crystalize at low temperatures
Give 4 advantages of retortable pouches over tin cans and jars.
Reduced heat exposure -> improvements in taste, colour, and flavour; fewer nutrient losses, rapid heating in pouch, requires less disposal space, pouches and containers do not corrode externally and there is a minimum of product–container interaction, easy to open, no risk of cuts to consumer opening container, reduction in storage space requirements and lighter weight, savings in shelf space, easy to handle and display, opportunity to market multipacks, energy requirements for container construction are less than that for cans.
7 FSMA regulations
Produce safety rule. Foreign supplier verification programs (FSVP) Sanitary Transportation Rule. Protection Against Intentional Adulteration. Accredited Third-Party Certification. Preventive Control Rule for Human and Animal Food. Voluntary Qualified Importer Program (VQIP)
Name 2 ways yeast divide.
Budding (a special kind of mitosis) and Meiosis
Methods to determine the lengths of polysaccharides.
NMR, HPLC (Size exclusion column), Gel electrophoresis, osmotic pressure, light scattering
Name 3 applications for radio frequency in food processing.
baking, drying, defrosting, pasteurization/sterilization, kill pests still in walnut shells
Name 5 microorganisms that have been associated with food poisoning outbreaks.
C. botulinum, C. perfringens, B. cereus, S. aureus, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes
Sauerkraut fermentation can be broken down into 3 different phases, early, middle and late. What bacteria is responsible for fermentation in each stage and what is their major fermentation products?
Early – Leu. Mesteroides, acetic acid Middle – L. plantarum, lactic acid Late – L. brevis, lactic and acetic acid
Extremophilic microbes are found in various environments. Name the extreme conditions associate with each types of microbes: Barophile; Halophile; Thermophile
Barophile: High pressure; Halophile - High Salt content; Thermophile: High heat/temperatures
Name 4 components of dietary fiber.
lignin, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, cellulose, gums, mucilages
Name 5 microwave applications in food processing.
tempering, heating/reheating, cooking/pre-cooking of meat/poultry, drying/dehydration, baking/cooking, blanching, pasteurization/sterilization
Name 5 of 12 approved GMOs in the USA:
salmon, alfalfa, soybean, corn, sugar beet, apple, potato, tomatoes, squash
What 3 properties are the major functional uses of eggs in products?
coagulation when heated, foaming ability, emulsifying properties
To the nearest percentage, what will be the percent of calories from fat in a product that contains four grams of fat, four grams of protein and five grams of carbohydrate?
Fat 9 kcal, CHO 4kcal, protein 4kcal; fat calories = (4*4+4*5+4*9 = 72), (4*5/72 = 50%)
The FDA has approved 36 food dyes, of which nine are artificial color additives used in foods and beverages, including
Blue No. 1, Blue No.2, Green No. 3, Orange B, Red No. 2, Red No. 3, Red No. 40, Yellow No. 5, and Yellow No. 6 (1,2). While the FDA has approved nine artificial food dyes for use, three food dyes are most commonly used, Red No. 40, Yellow No. 5, and Yellow No. 6
Which 4 fast food restaurants have the most locations worldwide?
McDonalds, KFC, Subway, Starbucks
Name 5 common chemical food additives for food preservation.
BHA, BHT, TBHQ, benzoates, calcium propionate (inhibits molds), sodium bisulfate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite
What are 5 methods of freezing?
plate/contact, still air/cold room/sharp, blast air, IQF/Fluidized bed, immersion/spray, cryogenic, sharp, rotary, spiral, band
List 5 types of biases that may be caused by order of presentation in sensory evaluation
Contrast effect, group effect, error of central tendency, pattern effect, time error/positional bias
Arrange the following 4 cheese from highest to lowest protein content: cheddar, swiss, cottage, feta
cottage, feta, cheddar, swiss
Name 3 nonpolar, 3 polar and 3 charged amino acids.
nonpolar: Valine, Alanine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Proline. Polar: Glycine, Serine, Cystein, Threonine, Tyrosine. Charged: Lysine, Arginine, Histidine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid
A US gallon is equivalent to how many UK gallons (out to 1 significant figure)?
I, F, T, S, A amino acids
Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, threonine, serine, alanine
% protein in nuts: chest nut, hazel nuts, peanuts, pecan, pistachios
Hazelnut (15g), chestnut (2), peanut (26), pecan (9), pistachio (20)
What are the hydrogenation products of the following sugars: glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose?
sorbitol, mannitol, galactitol, xylitol
Give 4 examples of cereal adjuncts used in beer making.
Rice, Corn, Unmalted Barley, Sorghum, Unmalted Wheat, Rye, Oats
An initial population of 50,000 bacteria grows with a generation time of 30 minutes. About how many bacteria will be present 3 hours later?
List 5 other fermented beverages that are based on cereals.
Boza, Cauim, Chhaang, Chicha, Gruit, Kvass, Oshikundu, Pulque, Sahti, Sato (rice wine), Sulima
Name the significance of importance of the following enzymes. Rennet, papain, lactase, alkaline phosphatase
rennet – curdle milk, papain – tenderize meat, lactase – converts lactose to monosaccharides, alkaline phosphatase – indicates milk pasteurization
List two unacceptable flavor compounds in beer, and what flavor do they impart?
Diacetyl - butter or butterscotch; dimethyl sulfide - cooked vegetable, corn, black currant; Ethyl nicotinate - medicinal; Acetaldehyde - green apples; short chain fatty acids - cheese, goat, body odor and wet dog; alcohols other than ethanol - coconut or solvent character
What are 4 advantages of impingement heating?
efficient heat transfer, uniform heating, better moisture retention in food, heat transfer is independent from the conveyor belt, easier nozzle configuration, adjustable velocity and temperature
Give the 3 main polymorphic forms of crystalline fat and their general characteristics.
alpha - lowest melting point, least dense, used in foams, lowest stability. Beta prime- median melting point, median density, smooth textures, creaming properties beta - highest melting point high density, highest stability
Bonus named three fruit derived enzymes and their sources, commonly used as meat tenderizer?
papain: papaya, bromiline: pineapple, Actidin: kiwi, ficin: figs
Put the following types of sugar into order from finest particle size to largest particle size; sanding sugar, pearl sugar, confectioners’ sugar, cane sugar and granulated sugar
confectioners, granulated, cane sugar, sanding, pearl sugar
What types of fish/seafood are used in the following types of sushi?
sake-salmon maguro- bluefin tuna kani- crab uni- sea urchin
What are the four federal food standards?
standard for grade, standard of quality, stand and definition of identity, standard of fill of containtainers
What are some of the disadvantages of a tubular heat exchanger?
excessive pressure drops, inability to open and inspect surfaces, only 70-75% regeneration which is lower than plate heat exchangers, fouling tendencies because of low shear, restriction of products by viscosity and particle size
Name five climacteric fruits.
Kiwi Banana tomato, avocado, apple, pear, plum, apricot, papaya, passion fruit, plantain
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