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The main component of an Infrared Heating Equipment is the radiator, name 3 types of radiators and length of wave)
gas heated (long waves), electrically heated radiators (tubular/flat metallic heaters (long waves), ceramic heaters (long waves), quartz tube heaters (medium/short waves), and halogen tube heater (ultra short waves))
name three functions of enzymes used as food additives
speed up reaction; lower viscosity; improve extractions; enhance separations; improve their flavor, texture, digestibility, and nutritional value, enhancing product yield, improve preservation
Name the following peppers in order from mild to hot: jalapeno, habanero, serrano, poblano, chipotle
poblano, jalapeno, chipotle, serrano, habanero
Give the locations for IFT Annual Meetings from 2014-2020
New Orleans, Chicago, Chicago, Las Vegas, Chicago, New Orleans, Chicago
Name 5 ways that processors can reduce the microbial population or growth of microoragnisms in a food product?
heat treatment, refrigeration (or decreasing temperature), decrease water activity, removing contaminated portions (or trimming), using chemicals (accept both addivitves and sanitizers, such as chlorine), encouraging the growth of fermentation microorganisms, minimizing contamination, cleaning and sanitization of equipment and facilities, etc.
Rank the following animals in average milk fat content: cow, sheep, goat, water buffalo, reindeer, camel.
(low to highest) camel, goat, cow, sheep, water buffao, reindeer
List three factors that contribute to the buffering capacity of milk.
phosphate, citrate and lactate salts, whey proteins, carbonic acid from the dissolved CO2
what organisms are responsible for scombroid poisoning in seafood
Morganella morganii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
In cake recipes at atm pressure, name 4 changes at high altitude to prevent problems:
1. decreasing liquids; 2. More eggs; 3. Less baking powder; 4. Decreasing fat
What are the leading three states in the value production of cucumbers for pickles?
Michigan, Wisconsin, South Carolina, and Florida
Name five of the 17 categories of college level questions and we are requiring exact wording.
Cullinology and baking, food chemistry, Alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages, food safety toxicology and microbiology, biotechnology. Carbohydrates, cereal and grain products, dairy products, food analysis and quality assurance, food history and trivia, food laws and regulations, food packaging, food processing and engineering. Fruit, and vegetable products IFT knowledge, meat, fish, poultry and egg products. Nutrition and then sensory and Consumer Science.
Give three product or product category applications for lecithin as an additive?
The primary applications for lecithin are in baked products, dairy blends, baby foods, nutritional drinks, margarines, chocolates, chewing gums, and confectionaries
Name 4 basic requirements that are necessary during aseptic packaging
sterile environment (or aseptic zones), sterilize product contact surface of the package by using heat/chemicals/high energy radiation, hermetically sealed containers, monitoring of critical factors such as air quality, sealing, temperature
What are the 4 parameters for the processing of fluids flowing through a pipe?
Pipe diameter, viscosity, velocity, and density of fluids
4 of the 8 names for dark roasted coffee
Espresse, continental, french, vienesse
Name 3 fruits or veggies that contains lycopene.
tomatoes, watermelon, guava, red grapefruit, papaya, red cabbage, mango
give three reasons for adding starch to food
coating and glazing agent, thickening agent, colloidal stabilizer, moisture retention, gel forming, binding
Eight quality grades of beef
Prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and canner C4S2PU
Three commercial uses of lactase
hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose, prevent sandiness in ice cream, lactose intolerance
List three advantages of intermediate moisture foods.
refrigeration is not required, spoilage is slower, relatively cheap and energy efficient
Which 4 fast food restaurants have the most locations worldwide?
McDonalds, KFC, Subway, Starbucks
Name three types of retorts.
Still, agitating, continuous , discontinuous, still with overpressure
Give the 7 steps of HACCP
1. perform hazard analysis, 2. decide on the critical control points, 3. set critical limits, 4. establish monitoring procedures, 5. establish corrective actions, 6. establish verification procedures, 7. establish a record keeping system
what 5 nutrients must by law be included in enriched bread
thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, iron, folic acid
Name three tropical fruits grown commercially in the continental US.
Avocado, banana/plantain, carambola/star fruit, dragon fruit/pitaya, guava, jackfruit, longan, lychee, mamey sapote, mango, papaya, sapodilla
Relative sweetness of sugars (low to high): galactose, maltose, glucose, trehalose, sucrose, lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, sucrose, fructose
lactose, galactose, maltose = trehalose, mannitol=sorbitol, glucose, xylitol = sucrose, fructose
rank the relative sweetness of the following polyhydric alcohols: sorbitol, glycerol, xylitol, mannitol
most sweet: xylitol, glycerol, mannitol, sorbitol
Cake Recipe recipes needed to be adjusted for atmospheric pressure changes. Name 4 changes that will prevent problems associated at high altitudes.
less baking powder, increasing flour content, substituting flour for one with higher protein content, decreasing fat, decreasing sugar, adding more eggs, or increasing liquids
Name 5 of the 17 categories of college bowl questions
Food chemistry, food engineering, nutrition, biotechnology, culinary sciences, dairy products, food laws and regulations, sensory and consumer sciences
Name 5 climatric fruits
Banana, Kiwi, tomato, pear, apples, guava, passion fruit, peach, plum
what are the four federal food standards?
standard for grade, standard of quality, stand and definition of identity, standard of fill of containtainers
Give me four reasons why compounds are micro encapsulated?
Increase bioavailability, delayed release, stability, to protect (to protect reactive substances from the environment To convert liquid active components into a dry solid system to separate incompatible components for functional reasons to mask undesired properties of the active components to protect the immediate environment of the Microcapsule in capsules from the active components, and then the controlled release or delayed release)
name three functions of enzymes used as food additives
speed up reaction; lower viscosity; improve extractions; enhance separations; improve their flavor, texture, digestibility, and nutritional value, enhancing product yield, improve preservation
Name five different animal shapes that can be found in a Barnum's Animals Animal Crackers box.
The current crackers are bear, bison, camel, cougar, elephant giraffe, gorilla, hippo, hyena, kangaroo, lion, monkey, rhino, seal, sheep, tiger and zebra. To celebrate its 100th anniversary, Barnum’s added the koala to the menagerie in September 2002.
what are some ways to reduce non-uniform heating during microwave heating?
rotating food with motorized platter, pre-heating and holding time after the microwave heating, adjusting power settings in microwave ovens
There are many styles of canned mushrooms, name four of them.
whole, buttons, sliced whole, random sliced whole, stems & pieces, stems & buttons
Five fruits/vegetables from the family solanaceae
Potatoes, tomato, pepper, eggplant, different types of peppers
List the current subparts listed under 21 CFR part 110.5 Current Good Manufacturing Practices
Umbrella GMPs: subpart: A. General provisions B. Building and facilities C. Equipment D. (reserved) E. Production and process controls F. (reserved) G. Defect action levels
What are some disadvantages of a scraped surface heat exchanger?
high cost per units area, high operating costs, large floor space requirement vs other heat exchangers, disintegration of fragile particles
Identify the organic acids in the following products: grapefruit, oranges, grapes, vinegar
citric, citric, tartaric, acetic
Classify each emulsion types: margarine, mayonnaise, milk
Margarine: water in oil; mayonnaise and milk: oil in water
what are some of the advantages of resistance temperature detectors (also known as RTD)?
most accurate sensors for industrial applications and have the best long-term stability, can cover a wide range of temperatures, and can hook up to a computer
In order, name the first three ingredients in a regular Coke and in Diet Coke.
Regular: Carbonated water, high fructose corn and/or sucrose syrup, caramel color; Diet: Carbonated water, caramel color, aspartame.
Classify the following dairy components as being found in the retentate or permeate following ultra filtration of milk, casein, whey proteins, micellular salts, residual fat, lactose, soluble salts, and non protein nitrogen.
Permeates:Lactose, non protein nitrogen and soluble salts Retentate: casein, whey proteins, micellular salts, residual fat
Name 7 of the 14 mandatory dietary components that must appear on the nutrition facts panel as part of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990
Serving size or other common household unit of measure customarily used; the number of servings or other units per container; number of calories per serving; number of calories per serving derived from total fat; number of calories per serving derived from saturated fat, amount of total fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, sugars, total protein, and dietary fiber per serving or other unit, and subject to conditions, vitamins minerals or other nutrients
What are levels of exposure in kGy for radurization, radicidation, and radappertization
radurization: 0.75-2.5 kGy; Racidiation 2.5-10 kGy; Radappertization: greater than 30-40 kGy
Why do you have to blanch fruits and vegetables before canning?
soften texture, remove oxygen (exhausting, prevents explosion during sterilization process), inactivate enzymes, cleans surface (removes dirt and organisms), brightens color, helps reduce loss of vitamins
Give 3 ways to produce ethylene gas.
There are three main ways to produce ethylene: 1) gas from a cylinder, 2) catalytic generator, and 3) ethephon
what are some of the factors that affect the dielectric properties of foods?
frequencies, food composition, moisture content, product temperature, physical state of water in the food, fat content, and product density
what vitamin deficiencies caused the following deficiencies scurvy, Berry, Berry and pellagra
Answer: Scurvy: Vitamin c, Berry Berry: Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Pellagra : niacin (vitamin B3)
bonus classifying the following micro organisms if they cause intoxication or infection in regard to foodborne illness, Clostridium botulinum, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, and salmonella species.
Answer: C.bot – toxin (botulinum toxin), Campy (infection), Staph (intoxication, Amongst the more common toxins secreted by S. aureus are hemolysin, leukotoxin, exfoliative toxin, enterotoxin, and toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1).), A. flavus (aflatoxin), Salmonella (infection).
what are 4 advantages of impingement heating?
efficient heat transfer, uniform heating, better moisture retention in food, heat transfer is independent from the conveyor belt, easier nozzle configuration, adjustable velocity and temperature
Give three reasons for drying foods.
The main objective of drying food is to prolong its shelf-life beyond that of the fresh material, while at the same time minimizing undesirable changes in appearance, texture, flavor, and nutritional value during the drying process. In addition to the preservation of the product, drying can bring about savings in storage and transport of foods owing to the reduction in weight and bulk that occurs during most methods of drying.
Name 5 spices that have antimicrobial activity
garlic, cinnamon, cloves, onion, horseradish, and mustard
Three food groups exempt from mandatory nutrition labelling.
Fresh Produce, fruits, veggies, medical food, alcohol, bottled water, bulk fruits, airplane service foods, free samples, coffee, tea and spices
Extremophilic microbes are found in various environments. Name the extreme conditions associate with each types of microbes: Barophile; Halophile; Thermophile
Barophile: High pressure; Halophile - High Salt content; Thermophile: High heat/temperatures
Beer-Lambert law
A = elc Absorption = Abs coeff.length of the cuvette.concentration of the sample
What are the IFTSA Competitions?
-Developing solutions for developing countries; Smart snacks for kids product development; IFTSA & MARS product development competition; undergraduate research competition; thesis video competition; college bowl
What are the microbial inhibitors in egg whites and how do they work?
The albumen is beneath the shell membranes and is important in providing three antimicrobial defenses to the egg. The first defense is the viscosity of the albumen components, which provide conditions in which bacteria cannot move easily. The second defense is the alkaline pH of the albumen that initially ranges from 7.6 to 7.8 but quickly increases over a period of a few days due to the loss of carbon dioxide during storage, resulting in a pH of 9.1–9.6. This is a pH range that is not conducive to the growth of most microorganisms. The third defense is the presence of a number of proteins and glycoproteins that possess antimicrobial activity.(See additional info)
name 8 essential amino acids
histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine
Name five genera of bacteria that are considered to be lactic acid bacteria.
lactobacillus, leuconostoc, lactococcus, pediococcus, streptococcus
What are the 4 steps to cultured meat manufacture?
1. Cells from a farm animal are proliferated in nutrient-rich media; 2. Cells are attached to a sponge-like scaffold and soaked with nutrients; 3. cells may be mechanically stretched to increase their size and protein content; 4. Cells are harvested, seasoned, and cooked
Name 3 tests that can be used to measure the fat content of milk.
Primitive Centrifugal Methods, Gerber, Babcock, Rose- Gottlieb, Schmidt Werner
7 FSMA regulations
Produce safety rule. Foreign supplier verification programs (FSVP) Sanitary Transportation Rule. Protection Against Intentional Adulteration. Accredited Third-Party Certification. Preventive Control Rule for Human and Animal Food. Voluntary Qualified Importer Program (VQIP)
Food infection is when the food contains bacteria or other microbes which infect the body after it is eaten.
intoxication: S. aureus, C. botulinum, B. cereus, C. perfringens. Infection: E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, Camylobacter jejuni, etc.
The deficiencies of what cause these diseases: scurvy, beri beri, pellagra
Scurvy: vitamin C; beri beri: thiamine; pellagra: niacin
what are some advantages of a liquid-in-glass thermometer?
easy portability, independence of auxiliary equipment, low cost, compatible with most environments, moderate ruggedness, wide range of temperatures
What are 5 methods of freezing?
plate/contact, still air/cold room/sharp, blast air, IQF/Fluidized bed, immersion/spray, cryogenic, sharp, rotary, spiral, band
What are the ten Focus Areas of IFT?
Food, health and nutrition; food ingredients and additives; food business trends; emerging science and technologies; food policy; food processing and packaging; food quality; product development; food safety and defense; sustainability
What organisms do the following media select for and how do the colonies appear on the media? XLD (xylose lysine deoxycholate), VRBA (violet red bile agar), EMB (eosin methylene blue), baird parker, macconkey
f) XLD- salmonella- red colonies- black centers and shigella-red colonies g) VRBA- enterobacteriaceae, pink colonies h) EMB- coliforms, E.coli turns metallic green i) Baird Parker-staph aureus- black j) Mcconkey- Macconkey- coliforms, pink- if lactose fermenting, colorless if not, E.coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staph aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris
What are some advantages of aseptic processing?
convenience (many foods can undergo aseptic processing), safety (protect against spoilage and foodborne illness), flavor and freshness (captures the natural flavors and has a fresh clean taste), natural (no need for preservatives)
Name 3 design considerations in an air impingement oven
air velocity, jet configuration, nozzle to target surface spacing, location of exhaust ports, induced or imposed cross flow, surface motion, angle of impingement, nozzle design, temperature differences between the jet and the impingement surface
what are two equations for water activity?
P/Po ( partial vapor pressure of food moisture at T divided by saturation vapor pressure of water at T) and ERH/100 (equilibrium relative humidity at T divided by 100)
what are the 8 key elements in an aseptic processing system?
the product, flow control (pumps), deaerator (optional), product heating, hold tube, product cooling, surge tank, filler for packaging
GMP regulated five products
Infant formula, low acid canned foods, drinking water
Name 5 primary functions of food thickeners
Thickening, emulsion stabilization, suspending, gelation, crystallization, water binding, mouth feel, foam stabilization, flavor fixation, film formation
(bonus) Name the predominant organic acids in the following products. Grape Fruit, grapes, oranges, and vinegar?
Answer: Grapefruit: citric acid, Grape: citric acid Orange: tartaric acid, Vinegar: acetic acid
As of 2006, what is IFTs definition of Food Science?
Food science draws from many disciplines such as biology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry in an attempt to better understand food processes and ultimately improve food products for the general public.
Name 6 colors used to classify teas.
black, green, white, yellow, blue-green, and red
By weight, what are the three most common GRAS substances in foods, besides water?
Salt, sugar, corn syrup
what are some of the disadvantages of a tubular heat exchanger?
excessive pressure drops, inability to open and inspect surfaces, only 70-75% regeneration which is lower than plate heat exchangers, fouling tendencies because of low shear, restriction of products by viscosity and particle size
Name three synthetic antioxidants commonly used in foodstuff.
BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), TBHQ (dl – t – butylhydroquinone)
name three functions of packaging in protecting food from deterioration
recontamination with microorganisms, attach by insects and rodents, moisture gain or loss, air and light, and mechanical abuse
Name five climacteric fruits
Kiwi Banana tomato, avocado, apple, pear, plum, apricot, papaya, passion fruit, plantain
Name five yeast fermented food products
beer, wine, bread, distilled spirits, kefir, kombucha, root beer
Classify the followng microorganisms into intoxication or infection: C. bot, Campylobacter jejuni, Staph aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Salmonella
C. bot: intoxication, Campylobacter jejuni: infection, Staph aureus: intoxication, Aspergillus flavus: intoxication, Salmonella: infection
extrinsic factor in foods which affect microbial growth
Environmental conditions where the food is stored
Name 5 divisions of IFT
Dairy Foods, Food Engineering, Food Packaging, International, Food Chemistry, Carbohydrates, Foodservice, Biotechnology, etc.
what are the 4 basic chemical classes of certified dyes
azo, anthraquinone, carbonyl, phthalocyanine
What are some advantages of a scraped surface heat exchanger?
process any pumpable product, adding surface area, low pressure drops, can process at high temps without burn-on
Name the country where the following companies are headquartered. Nestle, Pepsico, Suntory, Grupo Bimbo, Sekuro
Nestle: Switzerland , PepsiCo: US, Suntory: Japanese multinational brewing and distilling company group, Grupo Bimbo: Mexico, sekuro Incorporated: Canada
Give 4 advantages of retortable pouches over tin cans and jars.
Reduced heat exposure -> improvements in taste, colour, and flavour; fewer nutrient losses, rapid heating in pouch, requires less disposal space, pouches and containers do not corrode externally and there is a minimum of product–container interaction, easy to open, no risk of cuts to consumer opening container, reduction in storage space requirements and lighter weight, savings in shelf space, easy to handle and display, opportunity to market multipacks, energy requirements for container construction are less than that for cans.
Give 4 reasons why compounds are micro-encapsulated.
Stability against oxidation, bioavailability, stability, resistant to pH, protect reactive substances from the environment, controlled/delayed release of compounds
What is the difference between commercial sterilization and pasteurization
sterilization: processed at temps higher than 100 C, mainly for canning (retorting), destroys all microbes that may cause spoilage (may contain heat resistant bacteria spores such as endospores or thermophiles or flat sour bacteria), shelf life of 2+ years at room temperature, pasteurization: processed at temps lover than 100 C, typically high temperature for short time (HTST), destroys pathogenic microbes, reduces spoilage microbes, inactivates enzymes
Classifying baking powders containing the following ingredients as either fast acting or slow acting. Tartrates, orthophosphates, sodium acyl pyrophosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium aluminum sulfate.
Tartrates, orthophosphates: Fast acting sodium acyl pyrophosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium aluminum sulfate: slow acting
What year was the fair packaging and labeling act (FPLA) enacted and what does it require?
The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA or Act), enacted in 1967, directs the Federal Trade Commission and the Food and Drug Administration to issue regulations requiring that all "consumer commodities" be labeled to disclose net contents, identity of commodity, and name and place of business of the product's manufacturer, packer, or distributor.
Michelin Stars ranking and their definitions
3>2>1. 1 star: high quality cooking, worth a stop! 2. excellent cooking, worth a detour 3. exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey
Give 3 reasons why the baking performance of might vary
Flour components, such as protein, starch, and lipids change, and these changes directly affect dough rheological and baking characteristics. Storage conditions. Storage temperature, moisture content, relative humidity (RH), atmospheric oxygen content, light, and microbial activity all affect
Name 5 events conducted by IFTSA
CB, Mars Product Developent Competition, DSDC, JFSE Food Science in Action Contest. UG Research Competition, etc.
what are some of the advantages of using the general method to calculate lethality?
simple to perform, most accurate method as long as: temperature measurement is accurate, time interval is reasonable, and a proper integration method is chosen, is a good tool for process evaluation
Which fruits and veggies contain lycopene?
Watermelon, tomatoes, mangoes, red cabbage, pink grapefruit, Papaya, Guava
What are two approaches used to make intermediate-moisture foods?
Partial Drying, Osmotic Drying, Dry Infusion, Blending (formulation)
Classify the following baking powders as fast or slow acting:
Tartrates: F; Na Al Phosphate: S; Na acid pyrophosphate: S;
Give the numerical factor for converting %N to %crude protein to one decimal point for: soybeans, dairy products, meat products.
soy = 5.7, dairy = 6.4, meat = 6.3
List several benefits associated with the use of phosphates in meats
increase water binding capacity, improve emulsification, tenderness, juiciness, color uniformity, decreases rancidity, minor antimicrobial activity, buffering against acidic marination ingredients
give 3 visible signs of chilling injury
poor ripening, pitting, collapse of structural integrity, development of off-flavors and rotting
what are some disadvantages of aseptic processing?
over processing, not easy to ensure the sterility of all equipment used in the process, products that contain particulates processed at high temperatures lose shape and form during the heating and cooling steps
The FDA has approved 36 food dyes, of which nine are artificial color additives used in foods and beverages, including
Blue No. 1, Blue No.2, Green No. 3, Orange B, Red No. 2, Red No. 3, Red No. 40, Yellow No. 5, and Yellow No. 6 (1,2). While the FDA has approved nine artificial food dyes for use, three food dyes are most commonly used, Red No. 40, Yellow No. 5, and Yellow No. 6
Expand the following: TLC, HETP, HPLC, GFC, SFC
TLC (Thin layer chromatography), HETP (Height equivalent theoretical plates), HPLC (High pressure or High performance liquid chromatography, GFC (Gel Filteration Chromatography), SFC (Super critical Fluid Chromatography)
Give four pulse waveforms used in Pulsed Electric Field
Exponentially decaying, square wave, bipolar, oscillatory, instant charge reversal pulse
Bonus named three fruit derived enzymes and their sources, commonly used as meat tenderizer?
papain: papaya, bromiline: pineapple, Actidin: kiwi, ficin: figs
What are the 5 major classes of microorganisms based on temperature?
Psychrophiles, psychrotrophs, mesophiles, thermophiles, hyperthermophiles
Koch's postulates to determine disease causing microbes
(1) The microorganism must be found in diseased but not healthy individuals; (2) The microorganism must be cultured from the diseased individual; (3) Inoculation of a healthy individual with the cultured microorganism must recapitulated the disease; (4) The microorganism must be re-isolated from the inoculated, diseased individual and matched to the original microorganism.
Name five items that must be on a food label?
Name (statement of identity), weight (Net contents of the package), nutritional label, contact information, List of ingredients
Name 5 colorants exempt from certification
Annatto extract, Astaxanthin, Astaxanthin dimethyldisuccinate, Dehydrated beets (beet powder), Ultramarine blue, Canthaxanthin, Caramel, [beta]-Apo-8'-carotenal, [beta]-Carotene, Cochineal extract; carmine, Sodium copper chlorophyllin, Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour, Ferrous gluconate, Ferrous lactate, Grape color extract, Grape skin extract (enocianina), Haematococcus algae meal, Synthetic iron oxide, Fruit juice, Vegetable juice, Dried algae meal, Tagetes (Aztec marigold) meal and extract, Carrot oil, Corn endosperm oil, Paprika, Paprika oleoresin, Mica-based pearlescent pigments, Paracoccus pigment, Phaffia yeast, Riboflavin, Saffron, Spirulina extract, Titanium dioxide, Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate, Turmeric, Turmeric oleoresin.
Rank sweetness from least to most of the following compounds: sucralose, Acesulfame K, neotame, saccahrine
AceK, saccharin, sucralose, neotame
Name 3 way to analyze secondary lipid oxidation compounds.
TBARS, VOC, HPLC, gas chromatography, sensory panel
Five ingredients used in Long island iced tea
vodka, rum, gin, tequila, triple sec
What are some of the disadvantages of frozen foods?
thermal abuse during transportation/storage (warming or freezing product), ice crystal formation (affects food quality), freeze burn/ice crystal formation breaks down cells
Name 3 factors that affect enzyme catalyzed reactions:
ph, temp, [substrate], [enzyme], ionic strength, activators, inhibitors
Name Antioxidant assays
ORAC, CUPRAC, beta carotene, TIAC, FRAP, PRSC
what are the three main types of meringues and how are they made?
Italian, Swiss and French French is egg whites beaten with sugar. Swiss is egg whites beaten with sugar over heat Italian is a egg white with hot sugar syrup
Given type of heat exchange, say whether there is aroma retention or not: steam injection/infusion, plate heat exchanger, tubular heat exchanger, scraped surface heat exchanger
all yes (retain aroma) except steam injection/infusion
What are eight flavors of Necco wafers?
Wintergreen, chocolate, lime, lemon, clove, cinnamon, orange, licorice
name 4 varieties of cheese that ripened principally by blue mold in the interior
blue cheese, gorgonzola, stilton, wensleydale
what factors affect heat penetration in canned foods?
container size/shape, product consistency (homogenous or not), type of retort (still vs agitating)
(Bonus 10) According to world atlas, which 4 fast food restaurants have the most locations worldwide?
Mcdonalds, KFC, subway, starbucks
Name 4 types of lipoproteins
VLDL, LDL, HDL, IDL, chylomicrons
Anticaking agents
Tricalcium phosphate, Mg silicate, silicon dioxide, magnesium carbonate and iron ammonium citrate
Name three appointed officer positions in IFTSA.
Vice President of Marketing, VP of Development and Communications, VP of Membership Experiences, VP of Competitions, VP of IFT Relations
Media and what they are used for
MYP (mannitol egg yolk polymyxin): bacillus cereus BHI (Brain heart infusion): listeria XLD (xylose lisine deoxycholate): salmonella
Name 5 common chemical food additives for food preservation
BHA, BHT, TBHQ, benzoates, calcium propionate (inhibits molds), sodium bisulfate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite
Name countries of origin:
Baklava: Italy; Montecu: Honduras; sooyah: Nigeria; Baubate: South Africa; Loco loco: US
Give three classes of enzymes relevant to foods.
Oxidoreductases; Hydrolases; Lyases; Isomerases
What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of microwave heating?
Advantages: Higher heating rates; no direct contact between the heating source and the heated material; selective heating may be achieved; greater control of the heating or drying process; reduced equipment size and waste Disadvantages: Radiation; the texture of food, color, and taste will change
Countries of origin for cheeses: Paneer Colby Gouda Jarlsberg Ardrahan
Paneer: India Colby: US Gouda: Netherlands Jarlsberg: Norway Ardrahan: Ireland
Name 3 instrument and extensive factors that affect microorganisms growth in foods.
Temperature, water activity, pH
give 3 types of natural and 3 synthetic surfactants in foods
natural - saponins, lecithin, lipoproteins, gums; synthetic - mono and diglycerides, sorbitan monostearate (SPANs) and polysorbates (TWEENs)
What are 4 ways to lower water activity?
dehydration (remove water), concentration (increase solids content), add salt, add sugar (both salt and sugar compete for water)
what are the advantages of a plate heat exchanger?
low initial cost, high heat transfer efficiency, small hold up volume in heat exchanger, easy to inspect and disassemble unit, flexibility of the system (can be readily expanded/contracted to perform multiple duties)
Give the michaelis-menten equation and give two assumptions underlying its derivation
V0 = Vmax ([S]/([S] + KM)); This equation includes the assumption that during the early stages of the reaction so little product is formed that the reverse reaction (product combining with enzyme and re-forming substrate) can be ignored (hence the unidirectional arrow under k3). Another assumption is that the concentration of substrate is much greater than that of total enzyme ([S] >> [Et]), so it can essentially be treated as a constant.
Based on FDA definition, four substances exempt from the definition of food additive
Pesticide residues, color additives, new animal drugs, dietary supplements
match the geographic origin to the grain. So here are the list of origins. Central America, Central Europe, South America, Middle East. And then here are your grains spelt, Kasha, quinoa and amaranth.
So Central America is amaranth, South America – quinoa, on Central Europe is the kasha and Middle East is spelt.
What are 4 limitations of IR heating?
IR radiation has limited penetration power, penetrative radiation energy does not make significant contribution to internal heating (need to combine IR with other heating methods for best result), maily efficient for solid products only, risks of infrared energy hazard to eyes and skin
Name 5 indispensible amino acids
Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Histidine (PVT TIM HLL)
Give 3 factors that determine the stability of emulsions
particle size, pH of phases, type of emulsifier, size of globules, viscosity, interfacial tension, temperature
Name four varieties of noble hops.
Noble hops are classic European varieties that are responsible for the signature flavors of pilsner and other Continental lagers. The four noble varieties are: Hallertauer Mittelfrüh Tettnang Spalt Saaz
Name the four types of chemical bonding that occur during bread dough mixing and kneading.
disulfide interchange, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and ionic interactions
Name 3 food poisoning microorganisms present in seafood
vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, yersinia ruckeri, aeromonas hydrophila, etc
Name three types of GC detectors using their full name.
FID (Flame Ionization Detector); NPD (Nitrogen phosphorus detector); FPD (Flame Photometric detector);ECD (electron capture detector); MS (Mass Spectrometer); AED (atomic Emission Detector); PID (Photoionization detector); TCD (Thermal Conductivity Detector); ELCD (electrolytic conductivity detector)
what types of fish/seafood are used in the following types of sushi?
sake-salmon maguro- bluefin tuna kani- crab uni- sea urchin
in 1926, the Michelin man began to award stars for fine dining. What does each star mean?
1 = worth a stop, 2 = worth a detour, 3 = worth a special journey
Briefly describe the still retort process
cans are loaded into the vessel, steam is injected into the vessel, fan circulates steam for uniformity, vent valve (cold air goes out), temperature and pressure increase to desired temp then vent valve closes, temperature is maintained for desired time (processing time), then precooling begins where the pressure is maintained while slowly cooling the cans, circulating pump with cold water moves into the vessel and gradually decreases the temperature, the drain opens to drain water, and once the cans are cooled and the pressure decreases, the cans can be removed
What are 5 types of IFT memberships?
student, emeritus, premier, premier young professional, networking and engagement
(Bonus) For fluids, flowing through a pipe. Name the four parameters included in the calculation of Reynolds number.
viscosity, pipe diameter, velocity, density (Re: Dv(rho)/(nu))
100g serving : 5g fat, 4g protein, 3g carbs. Caloric value?
name 3 blotting techniques
southern - DNA; Northern - RNA; Western - protein
List 3 methods to measure the molecular weight of polysaccharides.
osmotic pressure, light scattering, NMR, gel electrophoresis, size-exclusion chromatography(SEC)
Country of origin:
Edam: Netherlands, Chhedar: England; Mortadella: Italy
Name 3 hard cheeses
common hard cheeses: asiago, parmigiano reggiano, pecorino, parmesan, cheshire, gruyere, cheddar, gouda, manchego, (for more hard cheeses see source, has over 500 hard type cheeses)
Name 3 types of aseptic packages
preformed (cans, cups, glass, bottles), laminates and plastic containers, thermo-fill-seal, bags and pouches, and blow molded containers
Name 4 of the eight names of dark roast coffee.
Expresso, high, continental, New Orleans, European, Viennese, Italian or French.
List the milk fat in these animals from least to most fat content
Camel (3.8%)
Cheeses from highest to lowest protein content
Cheddar, swiss, cottage, fetta- Swiss>Cheddar>Feta>Cottage
the deficiency of which vitamins causes the following diseases: Scurvy, Beriberi, and Pellagra
Vitamin C, Thiamin, and Niacin
Name top 3 cheese countries
US, Germany, France
Name what the following is made from: Cachaca, vodka, rum, mezcal, Baijiu
Cachaca: cane sugar (aka pinga, caninha) vodka: potato rum: sugarcane juice/ molasses mezcal/ tequila: agave Baijiu, Kaoliang: sorghum
Smoke point comparisons of oils: canola, grapeseed, sunflower, safflower, olive
Safflower (510) Canola (460) Sunflower (450) Grapeseed (420) Olive (410)
Rank the following fatty acids from lowest to highest melting point: oleic, elaidic, lauric, linolenic.
linolenic, oleic, lauric, elaidic
Name 4 applications for Infrared in food processing
drying, heating, frying, roasting, baking, thawing, surface pasteurization
Varieties of grapefruits
Ruby Red, Pomelo, white, pink, star ruby, sweeties, oro blanco, melogold, lavender
List 3 in vitro assays for determing alternative oxidase(AOX) activity.
ORAC, FRAP, DPPH radical, TEAC, CUPRAC, B-carotene-linolenic acid, PCL, TRAP, PSC
Six classes of enzymes
THIOLL Transferases Hydrases Oxidoreductases Ligases Lysases
What are some of the disadvantages of thermal processing?
nutrient loss, reduce desirable qualities such as texture, flavor, color, lower antioxidant and phenolic content
what are the three categories of freezing equipment used in the food industry?
1-The air blast freezers / cold storage freezers 2-The cartoon freezers / box freezers 3-The spiral belt freezers 4-The fluidized bed freezer / IQF freezer (or tunnel freezers) 5-The immersion freezers / brine freezers 6-The plate freezers / block freezers 7-The contact belt freezers 8-The impingement freezers / flat product freezers 9-The cryogenic freezers
Name drupe fruits examples
Apricots, olives, mangoes, peaches, plums, cherries, amla (Indian gooseberry)
Size of starch granules: potato, rice, corn, tapioca
Corn, rice, tapioca, potato
Intrinsic factor in foods which affect microbial growth
pH, redox potential, nutrient content, water activity
At Ramen shop, you may find this red colored spice blend shichimi togarashi on your table which roughly translates to seven flavor chili pepper give seven of the typical ingredients
So, red chili pepper, Sansho which is a Japanese pepper, black sesame seeds, poppy seeds, Nori, ginger, chickpea or orange peel. Hemp seeds, Chinese basil or white sesame seeds.
(bonus) List the following peppers in order of mild to the hottest perceived sensation habanero, poblano, Seranno, jalapeno and Chipotle.
Poblano, jalapeno, chipotle, serrano, habanero
list four method used to find the total number of microorganisms in foods
pour plate, surface spread plate, surface drop, agar droplet, and microdilution
Name 3 of the 16 gram negative, facultative anaerobic rods
Enterobacteriaceae, Arsenophonus nasoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea, Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Ewingella americana, Hafnia alvei, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Leminorella, Moellerella wisconsensis, Morganella morganii, Obesumbacterium proteus, Pantoea, Pragia fontium Proteus, Providencia, Rahnella aquatilis, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella, Tatumella plyseos, Xenorhabdus, Yersina, Yohenella regensburgei, Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter aerosaccus, Photobacterium, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio, Actinobacillus, Hemophilus, Pasteurella, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, Cardiobacterium hominis, Chromobacterium, Eikenella corrodens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Streptobacillus moniliformis, Zymomonas
Common names of following fatty acids:
4: Butyric, 8: Caprylic, 12: Lauric, 16: Palmitic, 20: Arachadic
What are the real names of the Pillsbury Dough Boy and his family members?
The dough boy: Poppin' fresh; Poppie Fresh, was released, followed by Granmommer and Granpopper, Uncle Rollie, a son (Popper), daughter (Bun-Bun) and Flapjack and Biscuit (the Fresh family’s dog and cat) in the years that followed.
Name 4 molecular characteristics of proteins desirable for film and foam formation
Soluble, large, amphipathic, flexible domains, interactive regions, disposition of charged groups, retention of structure, polar residues
Name 4 cereal grains in the Poesia family
oats, barley, wheat, rye, rice, corn/maize, sorghum, millet, spelt, triticale
Name 5 of 12 approved GMOs in the USA:
salmon, alfalfa, soybean, corn, sugar beet, apple, potato, tomatoes, squash
What causes wrinkled casings of beef sticks?
There could be several reasons for these results. The temperature may have risen too high. The sausage may not have been showered with cold water immediately after it was finished smoking. The sausage casings may not have been stuffed to their full capacity.
Give the non nutritive sweetener used in the production of the following artificial sweeteners: NutraSweet Sweet One Sweet’N Low Splenda Equal
Aspartame (NutraSweet® and Equal®) Acesulfame-K (Sweet One®) Neotame Saccharin (Sweet’N Low®) Sucralose (Splenda®)
Name 3 sources of caffeine
Caffeine is an alkaloid occurring naturally in some 60 plant species, of which cocoa beans, kola nuts, tea leaves and coffee beans are the most well-known. Other natural sources of caffeine include yerba maté, guarana berries, guayusa, and the yaupon holly.
Five different modes of chromatography
Adsorption; partition; size exclusion/gel permeation/gel filtration; ion exchange; affinity
Name the Latin names of following cereal grains: rye, wheat, rice, oats, corn
Rye: Secale cereale Wheat: Triticum durum Rice: Oryza sativa Oats: Avena sativa Corn: Zea mays
List three (3) impacts of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act (aka Bioterrorism Act) on FDA regulation of the food industry.
FDA now has administrative detention authority for foods suspected of being adulterated; All food processing and handling facilities under FDA jurisdiction must register with the agency; Importers of food must give prior notice to the FDA; Establishment and maintenance of records; Eliminated “port shopping” by importers;
Give three factors that determine the stability of emulsions
particle size (size of globules), density of the two different phases and type of emulsifier, viscosity of the continuous phase, interfacial Forces, temperature or pH
What are 4 advantages of radiant heat?
non-contact heating, fast response, reduced heating time, uniform heating, reduced quality losses, versatile, simple, compact equipment, and significant energy saving
Name 5 microwave applications in food processing
tempering, heating/reheating, cooking/pre-cooking of meat/poultry, drying/dehydration, baking/cooking, blanching, pasteurization/sterilization
What are the core messages of the five keys to safer food outlined by the World Health Organization?
Keep clean, separate raw and cooked, cook thoroughly, Keep food at safe temperatures, use safe water and raw materials
Arrange them according to saturated fat percentage: butter, coconut, pork fat, olive oil
coconut (90), Butter (63), pork fat (37.5), olive oil (14)
Name 3 anti caking agents.
Ca Al silicate, Tri Ca phosphate, Ca silicate, Cellulose, Silicon dioxide, etc.
what are the 4 major fat depots in a steer?
back fat, seam fat, marbling, KPH (kidney, pelvic, heart)
Name 3 methods of fruit and vegetable peeling
steam peeling, knife peeling, abrasion peeling, caustic peeling and flame peeling
Name 5 ways to lower the water activity of a food
Dehydrate, add sugar, add salt, freeze, drying, combination of any of these methods
Name the countries where the following traditional dishes originate? Baklava, suya, loco moco
Turkey baklava , suya is from Nigeria, and loco moco is in the United States.
Name 3 advantages of microwave heating
reduced process time, higher food quality, better appearance/flavor/taste, convenient, easy clean-up, decreased cost of electricity, increased retention of vitamins and minerals
(Bonus) Classify each of the following emulsions, margarine, mayonnaise, milk.
Margarine in water in oil and milk and mayonnaise is oil in water
Name names three intrinsic factors and three extrinsic factors that affect microbial growth in food products?
Answer: Intrinsic: water activity, pH, nutrient content; Extrinsic: temperature, storage environment, humidity.
I, F, T, S, A amino acids
Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, threonine, serine, alanine
Rank the following pulse waveforms used in pulsed electric field processing in order of increasing electrical efficiency: oscillatory, square wave, exponentially decaying
exponentially decaying, square wave, bipolar, oscillatory
Determine whether the following characteristics are of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells:
does not have membrane bound organelles (pro) true nucleus (eu) Size 10 ^100 (Eu) does not have membrane bound organelles (pro) unicellular (pro)
List the 6 major classes of enzymes
oxidoreductases, transferase, ligase, lyase, isomerase, hydrolase
Five types of RNA
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, small nuclear RNA, regulatory RNA, ribozymes, double stranded RNA, signal recognition particle RNA, transfer messenger RNA
What are the four main requirements in an aseptic system?
aseptic processing and equipment, aseptic packaging and sealing hermetically in an aseptic environment, monitoring, and proper handling of finished products
what are some factors that may affect aseptic processing?
if the product has particulates, size of particles, viscosity, product thermal sensitivity
Cosmopolitan cocktail four components?
Vodka, cranberry juice, lime, triple sec
What is patulin, with what food products is it associated, and how is it usually analytically determined?
A mycotoxin formed by Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys genera associated with apple juice products; determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Three different prolamins in grains
Zein in corn, gliadin in wheat, hordein in barley, kafirin in sorghum
what are some advantages of using the formula (ball) method to calculate lethality?
allows use of semi-log curves for detailed analysis of time/temp data, can calculated processes of a rang of IT and RT utilizing heating factors, conservative process model
List 5 types of biases that may be caused by order of presentation in sensory evaluation
Contrast effect, group effect, error of central tendency, pattern effect, time error/positional bias
Give 2 ways to block production or reception of ethylene post harvest.
There are several anti-ethylene chemicals. Silver thiosulfate (STS) is used on flowers. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, trade name ReTain) blocks ethylene synthesis. It is applied preharvest. The fruit (plant) will not produce much ethylene, so there is not an ethylene response. The ethylene blocker 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, trade name EthylBloc) blocks ethylene by binding to its receptor. It is applied postharvest. The fruit (plant) may still produce some ethylene, but there is no response to the ethylene.
what are some disadvantages of a plate heat exchanger?
limited to low viscosity products, re-gasketing costs can be high, fouling tendencies may exist for some products
What biomolecules are identified by the following acronyms: FAD, NAD+, ATP
flavin adenine dinucleotide, nictoinamide adenine dinucleotide, adenosine triphosphate
which is the country of origin of the following cheeses
Cheddar: England, mozzarella: italy, Gouda and Edam: Netherlands, Havarti: Denmark
List sugars of : guar gum, xanthan gum, locust bean gum, pectin
Pectin: galactose Guar gum: mannose Xanthan gum: glucose Locust bean gum: mannose
Bonus, Our bodies are composed of the following nutrients put them in order of least concentrated to most concentrated carbohydrates, vitamins, protein, water, minerals and fat. Answer:
vitamin, carbohydrates, minerals, protein, fat, water
List the Classes of enzymes:
oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases (THIOLL)
beta-d-galactosidase is added to dairy products for what three reasons?
Hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose- latter combination is sweeter than lactose; prevents sandiness defect in ice cream; makes products consumable for lactose intolerant individuals
Name 3 specific enzymes that act on pectic substances
pectin methylesterase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase
Classification of cheese according to FDA
Unpast processed cheese, unpast processed cheese spread, ''' cream
Name 5 chelating agents used in food.
EDTA, vitamin C, lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, pyrophosphate, proteins
What 4 micronutrients are necessary on nutrition labels according to the 2016 FDA format?
Vitamin D, Calcium, Iron, Potassium
the IFT strategic plan contains 7 critical objectives for the organization to accomplish its mission to support improvement of the food supply and its use through science, technology, and education. What are the 7 critical objectives
1) To be the preeminent, multidisciplinary scientific society for food science and technology. 2) To be the authoritative source of science-based information on food science and technology. 3) To provide publications, programs, & services to fulfill the diverse professional needs of members. 4) To support the undergraduate education & continued professional development of food scientists & technologists 5) To support basic and applied research & foster the interface among industry, academia, government, media, & the public on food science and technology issues. 6) To attract & actively involve a culturally & professionally diverse membership. 7) To provide the organizational structure, administration, and financial capability to accomplish IFT's mission.
6 varieties of grapes that can be used in bordeau
Merlot, Cabernet sauvignon, malbec, Cabernet Franc, Petit verdot, Carmenere
What are the six colors of teas?
White, black, green, yellow, bluegreen, another type of yellow
Arrange the following 4 cheese from highest to lowest protein content: cheddar, swiss, cottage, feta
cottage, feta, cheddar, swiss
(Bonus) The following acronyms related to food analysis stand for, AA, ICP- AES and HPLC.
Atomic absorption, Inductively coupled plasma Atomic emission spectroscopy, High performance liquid chromatography
Bonus: Named five polar amino acids.
serine, threonine, cysteine tyrosine, asparagine and glutamine. (serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), cysteine (Cys), asparagine (Asn), glutamine (Gln), and tyrosine (Tyr)
What 5 vitamins and minerals are enriched in flour?
Thiamine, folate, iron, riboflavin, niacin
Give 4 examples of cereal adjuncts used in beer making.
Rice, Corn, Unmalted Barley, Sorghum, Unmalted Wheat, Rye, Oats
what 5 nutrients must by law be included in enriched bread
thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, iron, folic acid
Name 2 ways yeast divide
Budding (a special kind of mitosis) and Meiosis
Name 5 of the 12 USDA-approved GMO food products
alfalfa, apple, corn, pineapple, salmon, soybean, squash, sugar beet, potato, tomato
What are the eight vegetables in Campbell’s “V-8” Juice?
tomato, carrot, lettuce, celery, parsley, watercress, spinach, beets bcclpstw
In the Code of Federal Regulations, give the titles that relate to food products
21, 9, 7, 50, 27
What are some advantages of aseptic processing?
convenience (many foods can undergo aseptic processing), safety (protect against spoilage and foodborne illness), flavor and freshness (captures the natural flavors and has a fresh clean taste), natural (no need for preservatives)
IFT has approved undergraduate programs in Food Science at Universities in over 7 countries. Name 4 of them.
USA, Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, Argentina, Indonesia, China, Australia, Ireland, Costa Rica, Malaysia, united arab emirates, honduras, Thailand
categorize the following breads as being made with enriched or lean dough
baguette-lean brioche-enriched babka- enriched (polish) challah-enriched Ciabatta- Lean Pita- lean
% protein in nuts: chest nut, hazel nuts, peanuts, pecan, pistachios
Hazelnut (15g), chestnut (2), peanut (26), pecan (9), pistachio (20)
What are the 7 principles of HACCP?
1. conduct a hazard analysis 2. identify critcal control points(CCPs) 3. establish critical limits 4. establish monitoring procedes 5. establish corrective actions 6. establish verification procedures 7. establish record-keeping procedures
What does HACCP stand for and give its 7 principles.
HACCP: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points; 1. conduct hazard analysis, 2. identify critical control points, 3. establish critical limits, 4. establish monitoring procedures, 5. establish corrective actions, 6. establish verification procedures, 7. establish record-keeping procedures
Name the organic acids found in grapefruit, orange, grape, vinegar.
Grapefruit: citric, orange: citric, grape: tartaric, vinegar: acetic
Three types of shellfish poisoning
paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesiac, diarrhetic
Name 3 methods to determine water activity.
Bithermal equilibration, Vapor pressure manometer, Hair hygrometer, Isopeistic hygrometry, Psychrometry, Dew point, Freezing-point depression
What are five mycotoxins, and what is one food each is commonly found in?
aflatoxin- (peanuts, tree nuts, corn), patulin- (apples), roquefortine c (blue cheeses), ochratoxin a (grain, pork, coffee, wine grapes), citrinin (grains)
Brassica family vegetables
Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, kale, turnips
Name 3 applications for radio frequency in food processing
baking, drying, defrosting, pasteurization/sterilization, kill pests still in walnut shells
Name 3 strains of mold that produce mycotoxin.
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Claviceps purpurea, Penicillium citrinin, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium spp.
Name 5 types of air convection dryers (heated air dryers)
Kiln, cabinet, tunnel, Solar, conveyor, fluidized bed, air lift, rotary, spray drier, Freeze Dryers, Vacuum Dryers
sugar heating stages for making caramel
thread, firm ball, soft crack, hard crack, caramel
what are some disadvantages of using the formula (ball) method to calculate lethality?
only can use at a constant retort process temperature, the cooling portion modeling is empirical and may over/under estimate lethality
name four types of sucrose used in industry
bottler's, canners, liquid, granulate (sanding, baker's special, cordial, fine, gelatin, unigran), powdered/ confectionary sugar, brown sugar (dark and light)
Give the genus and species of 3 molds that are used in the production of blue cheese.
Penicillium roqueforti, Alt. names: P. glaucum, P. gorgonzola and P. stilton
6 fatty acids in chocolate
Capric, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, oleic
Name the plants used to make the following liquors? kachaka, rum, vodka, baijiu, Mezcal
Vodka: potatoes/ cereal grains, Rum: sugar cane or molasses, Cachaça: cane sugar, Agave: Mezcal Sorghum: Kaoliang liquor Kaoliang liquor, Gaoliang liquor or Sorghum liquor is a strong distilled liquor of Chinese origin made from fermented sorghum. It is a type of light-aroma Baijiu.
Name 4 countries with IFT approved undergraduate Food Science programs
USA, Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, Argentina, Indonesia, China, Thailand, Honduras, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Ireland
Name of the continent of origin for the following fruit. Watermelon, raspberry, blueberry. Kiwi guava
Watermelon is Africa. kiwi is Asia raspberry is Europe. guava is South America and blueberry is North America.
What are the common names for the saturated fatty acids with the following chain length 4, 6, 8,12,16,20 carbons.
Butyric acid, caproic acid (6), caprylic acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid, arachidic acid
Give 3 methods for the production of corn syrup from starch
acid hydrolysis, acid-enzyme hydrolysis, enzyme-enzyme hydrolysis
To the nearest percentage, what will be the percent of calories from fat in a product that contains four grams of fat, four grams of protein and five grams of carbohydrate?
Fat 9 kcal, CHO 4kcal, protein 4kcal; fat calories = (4*4+4*5+4*9 = 72), (4*5/72 = 50%)
Name 5 unripened cheeses.
Cottage, ricotta, mozarella, quark, cheese curds, marscapone, feta, etc.
Name 5 polar amino aicds.
Serine, threonine, cysteine, asparagine, glutamine (tyrosine)
name 5 hydrophobic surfactants
DATEM Soy lecithin Calcium stearoyl lactylate Glycerol monoleate Sorbitan trioleate Oleic acid
how many divisions of IFT are there and list 10
24 Divisions. Dairy Foods, Food Engineering, Food Packaging, International, Food Chemistry, Carbohydrates, Foodservice, Biotechnology, Food Laws & regulation, Muscle food, Nutrition, Product development, Protein, Quality Assurance
Give the names of the 5 non-nutritive sweeteners the FDA has designated as GRAS.
Aspartame (NutraSweet® and Equal®) Acesulfame-K (Sweet One®) Neotame Saccharin (Sweet’N Low®) Sucralose (Splenda®)
give the 3 main polymorphic forms of crystalline fat and their general characteristics
alpha - lowest melting point, least dense, used in foams, lowest stability. Beta prime- median melting point, median density, smooth textures, creaming properties beta - highest melting point high density, highest stability
List two unacceptable flavor compounds in beer, what flavor do they impart?
Diacetyl - butter or butterscotch; dimethyl sulfide - cooked vegetable, corn, black currant; Ethyl nicotinate - medicinal; Acetaldehyde - green apples; short chain fatty acids - cheese, goat, body odor and wet dog; alcohols other than ethanol - coconut or solvent character
What are the hydrogenation products of the following sugars: glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose?
sorbitol, mannitol, galactitol, xylitol
What are the disadvantages of removing water from foods during processing?
different physical appearance (excluding freeze drying), energy consuming (more expensive), and if it is heat drying there is a decrease in food quality
There are many styles of canned mushrooms, name four of them.
whole, buttons, sliced whole, random sliced whole, stems & pieces, stems & buttons
Methods to determine the lengths of polysaccharides.
NMR, HPLC (Size exclusion column), Gel electrophoresis, osmotic pressure, light scattering
Give 3 advantages of food dehydration over sun drying
More controlled conditions, shorter time drying, better sanitary conditions, some products (like milk) cannot be sun dried, not weather dependent.
Match geographic regions to products
Central America: Amaranth; South america: Guava; Central Europe: Kosha; Middle east: spelt
What is the difference between the following types of data: nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
Nominal = the items examined are placed in two or three groups that differ in name but do not obey any particular order or any quantitative relationship; Ordinal = the panelist places the items examined into two or more groups that belong to an ordered series (e.g. level of intensity); Interval = panelists place the items into numbered groups separated by a constant interval (e.g., three, four, five, six); Ratio = panelists use numbers that indicate how many times the stimulus in question is stronger than a reference stimulus presented earlier; Nominal data contains the least information. ordinal data carries more information and can be analyzed by most nonparametric statistical tests. Interval and ratio data are even better because they can be analyzed by all nonparametric methods and often by parametric methods. Ratio data is preferred by some because it is free from end of scale distortions, however, in practice, interval data, which is easier to collect, appears to give equal results
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