Flashcard Info

Here you can learn everything about this flashcard

Fruits and vegetable products

Multiple choice cards
Normal cards
Cards total
What are the two main varieties of oranges grown in Florida for orange juice production?
Valencia and Hamlin
Marsh Ruby, Ruby Red, Melogold, Oro Blanco (White Golden) and Star Ruby are varieties of what?
Grapefruit(citrus fruit)
What fruit has the highest fat content?
What are the 3 major physiological stages of fruits and vegetables?
growth, maturation, and senescence
Why is 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, also called ethephon, sprayed on tomato fields?
it forms ethylene which causes uniform ripening prior to harvest
Oleuropein causes what fruit to be extremely bitter at harvest?
Name 5 climatric fruits.
Banana, Kiwi, tomato, pear, apples, guava, passion fruit, peach, plum
Tapioca starch comes from?
What are the 3 major physiological stages of fruits and vegetables?
Growth, maturation, senescence
What is the stage of fruit ripening associated with increased ethylene production and a rise in cellular respiration?
What part of the plant is the potato tuber derived?
Which fruit has its seeds on the outside?
The strawberry
What compound(s) most aptly describes the aroma of durian fruit?
ethyl-2-methylbutanoate and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol), (ester and volatile thiol is also acceptable)
Place the following in order form least to greatest based on antioxidant capacity per serving. Strawberry, granny smith apple, wild blueberry, Pinto bean, black plum
Black plum, granny smith apple, strawberry, Pinto bean, wild blueberry
What characteristic of fruit is described by the Brix to acid ratio?
Tartness or sweetness
Name one edible fruit-bearing tree that is an evergreen.
Citrus (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, tangerines, clementines, and more), olive, avocado, lychee, and mango trees
Name the three major classifications of vegetables.
1. Seeds and pods, 2. Bulbs, roots and tubers, 3. Flowers, buds, stems and leaves
The US Supreme Court unanimously agreed that this item was a vegetable, despite its genus and species.
In 2008, what state ranked first in value of production of sweet corn, fresh market snap beans, fresh market tomatoes, and fresh market cucumbers?
What color of light is absorbed for maximum photosynthesis?
What is another name for Carambola?
What metal can cause an abnormal green color in vegetables?
What is the main aroma compound found in banana oil?
Isopentyl acetate
What is the name of the fruit that is described as a seeded apple?
What pigment imparts green color to lettuce and peas?
Name three tropical fruits grown commercially in the continental US.
Avocado, banana/plantain, carambola/star fruit, dragon fruit/pitaya, guava, jackfruit, longan, lychee, mamey sapote, mango, papaya, sapodilla
Name 5 foods that are actually roots.
Carrots, beets, potatoes, radishes, rutabagues, yams, kolrabi, onions, garlic, celery root, horseradish, daikon, artichoke, ginger, jicama
What is the name of the plant that capers come from?
Caper plants (Capparis spinosa)
Recommended storage temperature for potatoes is more than 25 degrees C, why?
lower temperatures result in more reducing sugar formation creating the potential for browning when fried, also if stored at a temperature too hot they can form spores
Name five varieties of grapefruits.
Ruby Red, Pomelo, white, pink, star ruby, sweeties, oro blanco, melogold, lavender
What is the only essential vitamin not found in the white potato?
Vitamin E
Name 4 fruits that are members of the rose family.
pears, apples, cherries, and strawberries
What are 2 species of Vanilla beans used in the US food industry?
Vanilla Planifolia and Vanilla Tahitensis
When drying/storing sesame seeds what is the maximum percent moisture allowed?
Name five climacteric fruits.
Kiwi Banana tomato, avocado, apple, pear, plum, apricot, papaya, passion fruit, plantain
There are many styles of canned mushrooms, name four of them.
whole, buttons, sliced whole, random sliced whole, stems & pieces, stems & buttons
What toxin is found in potatoes?
What common component of oranges is missing in navel oranges?
the seeds
What plant is actually the world’s largest herb?
the banana plant (it doesn’t actually have boughs or a woody trunk!)
What country recently became the top producer of vanilla in the world?
Which vegetable is known as a ripening anomaly, ripen after it has been picked from the tree?
Name 3 fruits or veggies that contains lycopene.
tomatoes, watermelon, guava, red grapefruit, papaya, red cabbage, mango
What are the leading three states in the value production of cucumbers for pickles?
Michigan, Wisconsin, South Carolina, and Florida
Which fruit is known as the king of fruits?
How many coffee beans does each coffee cherry normally contain?
List 6 vegetables that are part of the Brassica plants.
brassica (and not Brassicaceae), rutabaga, turnip, kohlrabi, cabbage, collard greens, kale, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, mustard seed, rapeseed
Anti nutritional factor in rhubarb and spinach that prohibits calcium absorption?
Oxalic acid
What are the 3 common forms that orange juice is found in?
Frozen concentrate, reconstituted liquid, single straight, unconcentrated *not from concentrate
This condiment was originally sold as a medicine in the 1830’s.
A plant hormone that is sometimes called the "ripening hormone" is ...
Which of the following are not nuts? Cashews, almonds, brazil nuts, peanuts
peanuts (legumes), cashews (drupes)
What vegetable burns more calories to eat it than the vegetable actually contains?
Name 5 fruits that use a type of bud grafting in their production.
cherry, plum, apricot, peach, apple, pear
To slow the deterioration process of fruits what gas is added to the storage environment?
Why do apples float when immersed in water?
they are 25% air.
Brassica family vegetables.
Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, kale, turnips
Enzymatic browning is a chemical process that occurs in fruits and vegetables and is due to what enzyme?
What 2 chemicals are generally used to prevent browning in fruit?
sulfur dioxide and ascorbic acid
What is the purpose of an energy crop?
low-cost, low-maintenance crop used/processed/combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat, etc.
Three species of curcubita produce edible fruit. What are the general names for these edible fruits?
Squash, pumpkin, gourd
What is a winter banana?
A variety of apple
Which nut is the main ingredient in Nutella?
In terms of plant respiration, what does the acronym RQ stand for and how is it defined?
Respiration Quotient. It is defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the plant to oxygen consumed by the plant
How is orange juice defined by the US code of federal regulations?
unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called Ambersweet
S – (1- propenyl) – L – cysteine sulfoxide and thiopropanol – S oxide – are associated with the flavor of
What two organizations developed the marion blackberry (or marionberry)?
USDA-ARS and Oregon State University
What is the name of the substance, which can form colloid suspension as a defect in apple juice?
What organic acids are associated with the following fruits? Apples, grapes and oranges
apples – malic acid, grapes – tartaric acid, oranges – citric acid
What compound initiates the ripening process for fruits and vegetables?
List 4 varieties of sour cherries.
Montmorercy, Morello, amarelle, early Richmond, meteor, north star
Name genus and species of most common mango fruit.
Mangifera indica
What is the botanical term for certain plants belonging to the mustard family, such as broccoli and cauliflower, so-called because of the cross-like leaf markings?
Which are the 'three sister plants' of Indigenous American agriculture?
Corn, bean, squash
What is the genus of jalapeno and other peppers?
Durio zibethinus is a distinct smelling tree fruit that is native to South Asia. What is the common name for this fruit?
What fruit is a berry that ranges in size between a lemon and grapefruit whose Latin name Punica Maranta, roughly translates to apple with many seeds?
What 2 chemicals are generally used to prevent browning in fruit?
sulfur dioxide and ascorbic acid
What tree do prunes come from?
The plum tree.
Which fruits and veggies contain lycopene?
Watermelon, tomatoes, mangoes, red cabbage, pink grapefruit, Papaya, Guava
Name the musical fruit.
Which fruit bearing trees are evergreen?
Citrus (or any one of orange, lemon, grapefruit, lime, etc.)
What is the other name for yellow dragon disease in fruit?
Citrus greening
Why are ethylene absorbers used in apple storage?
Ethylene initiates fruit ripening
What is the major alkaloid saponin in the Irish potato?
The following are all types of which fruit? Comiuce, Forelle, seckel, Concorde and red Bartlett?
Which legume accounts for one sixth of the world's vegetable oil production?
The peanut.
What are the 4 basic types of peanuts currently used in the food market?
Runner, Virginia, Spanish, and Valencia
What is the original name for the kiwi fruit?
Chinese gooseberry
What fruit ripens from the inside out?
What compounds found in many brassicas can be both cancer-protective and goitrogenic?
Name the 2 major producers of orange juice concentrate.
florida and brazil
Name 3 of the top 5 raspberry producing countries.
Russia, Poland, United States, Serbia, Mexico
Name three climacteric and non climacteric fruits.
Climacteric - Apple, peach, avocado, banana, passionfruit, tomato; Nonclimacteric - lemon; orange; pineapple; cherries, grape, strawberries, other citrus
Name a tree fruit that is referred to as a vegetable.
Cucumber, pepper, corn, tomato
Flavor impact component of grapefruit.
What are two types of fruit and vegetable peelers?
caustic or lye; steam; hot water; abrasive
Linamarin is found in lima beans. When exposed to gastric hydrochloric acid what compound is produced?
hydrogen cyanide
Citrus HLB is a bacterial disease. What does it stand for?
Huanglongbing or citrus greening
In plants, what amino acid is used to synthesize ethylene?
Name 8 types of lettuce used commonly in salads.
Romaine, arugula, Batavia (French crisp or summer crisp), endive, butter lettuce, little gem lettuce, Mache (lambs lettuce), mescalin, mizuna, oak leaf lettuce, purslane, iceberg, radicchio, watercress
Which gas can be used to ripen many fruits?
Dancy, fair, nigerian are types of what?
Choke berries are high in polyphenols, procyanidins, anthocyanins, and other antioxidants. What are choke berries also known as?
Aronia berries
Cherokee Purple, Brandywine, Ferris Wheel, Lucky Cross and Rosella purple are all types of which fruit or vegetable?
tomatoes (they are all heirloom varieties)
Five fruits/vegetables from the family solanaceae
Potatoes, tomato, pepper, eggplant, different types of peppers
What type of flowers produce vanilla pods?
Why do you have to blanch fruits and vegetables before canning?
soften texture, remove oxygen, inactivate enzymes, cleans surface (removes dirt and organisms), brightens color, helps reduce loss of vitamins
For each fruit provide the season (autumn, winter, spring, and summer) for when they are harvested. Pears, blueberries, dates, oranges, pomegranates, cherries, limes
pear – autumn (late summer is acceptable) Blueberries – summer (spring is also acceptable) Dates – Summer Oranges – winter Pomegranates – fall and/or winter Cherries – summer Limes - summer
What type of enzymes are commonly added to fruit prior to juice production?
pectic enzymes (specifically polygalacturonase, pectinesterase, and cellulases, and other enzymes)
Two reasons why pectic enzyme preparations from Aspergillus Niger are often used during fruit juice production.
Answer: it is to increase yield and increase clarity
Onion is the Latin term for what?
Large pearl
What fruit has a fat content of 20% which is about 20 x the average of other fruits?
Prior to dehydration, many fruits are exposed to sulfur gas in order to prevent microbial growth and browning.
Put the following 5 crops in order of least to greatest based on total extractable oil percentage by weight. sesame, sunflower, soybean, copra, rapeseed
Soybean (14) Sunflower (32) Rapeseed (37) Sesame (50) Copra (62)
What enzyme activity is most commonly used to determine the adequacy of blanching vegetables for freezing to ensure stability during storage?
Approximately how many varieties of tomatoes are grown?
Name drupe fruits examples.
Apricots, olives, mangoes, peaches, plums, cherries, amla (Indian gooseberry)
Alcohol-insoluble solids content in vegetables is an indicator of what?
maturity or ripeness
What are the top three states in the value production of cucumbers for pickles?
Michigan, Florida and North Carolina
Which vegetable is the immature flower bud thistle found in sunflower family?
Where did the kiwi fruit originate?
What are the 5 primary anthocyanidins found in Vitis vinifera grapes?
cyaniding, malvidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin
Which two states produce almost all of the domestic lemon crop?
California and Arizona
An ear of corn has on average 16 rows of corn kernels. How many kernels are in each row?
50 +- 1
What is the water activity of dried fruits?
What are the 6 stages of tomato ripening?
green, breakers, turning, pink, light red, red
Cherries, pears, and apples belong to what botanical family?
What is the citrus fruit "Pomme" also known as?
What US state has the greatest number of farms?
What is the name of the compound responsible for the grapefruit flavor of grapefruit?
1-p-menthene-8-thiol (or thioterpineol)
Controlled atmosphere is used for the long term storage of apples. What are the main components of controlled atmosphere?
low temperature, low oxygen, high carbon dioxide
Name the genera of Downy mildew disease and fruits and vegetables.
Sclerospora and Bremia
Where is amygdalin found?
Pits/seeds of apricots, bitter almonds and black cherries
What is the carcinogen found in mushrooms?
What is the term that best describes fruits showing a temporary rise in respiration rate after harvest?
Which vegetables belong to the allium family and which to the cruciferae? Onions, garlic, broccoli, spinach, leeks and cabbage
Allium – onions, garlic, leeks Cruciferae – broccoli, spinach and cabbage
Compound associated with green color in pistachios.
What part of the plant does ginger come from?
The marionberry is a cross between which two blackberry varieties?
Chehalem and Olallie
What is the only fruit or vegetable that is never sold processed, only fresh?
What common component of oranges is missing from navel oranges?
What is the common name of Hylocereus undatus?
Dragon fruit
What are the 3 common names for Corylus Avellana?
hazelnut, cobnut and filbert nut
What fruit has extremely high levels of vitamin A?
What fruit has its seeds on the outside?
Normally the lipid levels in fruits and vegetables is less than 1%. What are the two exceptions?
avocado (20%) and olives (15%)
What gas is produced by ripening fruit that also causes bitterness in carrots?
Name 5 ingredients in V8 juice.
tomato, spinach, celery, carrot, beet, lettuce, watercress, parsley (bccl sptw)
Which fruit/ vegetable is known as gator legs?
What is the processing difference between fresh pack and salt stock (genuine) pickles?
Fresh pack pickles are only marinated (with vinegar and salt and sometimes sugar) , whereas salt stock pickles are fermented.
How are square watermelons produced?
by growing a watermelon in a square glass mold.
What are the three vegetables in mirepoix?
Onions carrots and celery
Five other vegetables have the same species name as head cabbage (brassica oleracea). Name two.
Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kale, Kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, Collards
Name 5 vegetables that contain phytoestrogens.
beans, soy products, peas, lentils, whole grains, flaxseed, rye, millet.
What is the % by weight of water in a watermelon?
Name the predominant organic acids in the following products. Grape Fruit, grapes, oranges, and vinegar.
Answer: Grapefruit: citric acid, Grape: citric acid Orange: tartaric acid, Vinegar: acetic acid
Which gas is used to induce ripening in bananas?
On what continent were potatoes first cultivated in ca. 200 AD?
South America
How is citron different from most other citrus fruit?
It is primarily pith with only a small amount of juice/pulp
Green Vegetables turn dull "olive green" or brown in thermal processing due to what chemical reaction?
conversion of chlorophyll to the pheophytin due to loss of the magnesium in the structure. (Heat causes a magnesium atom at the center of each chlorophyll molecule to detach and be replaced by hydrogen atoms. This chemical change in chlorophyll molecules changes their bright green color to a dull gray-green.)
Name an enzyme involved in fruit softening.
pectin esterase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase
What are some positive effects of precooling of fruit and vegetables?
slow degradation, reduce wilting, slow rotting
Black-eyed peas and not peas. What are they?
A chlorophyll molecule reacting with hydrogen exhibits what shade of green?
© 2024 MemoCard