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Lean six sigma green belt

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Which attribute control charts count the number of defects in products?
u charts and c charts
What is the purpose of FMEA in the Improve phase?
Assess and reduce potential failure risks in new process designs.
What tools can be used in the Control phase?
Statistical process control, control charts, visual management, standard work, mistake proofing.
What are the benefits of reaction plans?
Define responses to out of control signals.
Which of these tools could be used to represent the critical path of a process?
Gantt Chart
What is the major difference between Kaizen and Kaizen Blitz?
A Kaizen blitz focuses on correcting one issue, while Kaizen focuses on small changes to improve processes.
What is the theory of constraints (TOC)?
A methodology to increase throughput and reduce inventory and expenses by eliminating constraints.
What are common metrics for customer satisfaction?
Surveys, complaints, warranty claims, defect rates.
What is voice of the customer?
Understanding and incorporating customer needs into product design and business processes.
What is queue time?
The time a product waits between production steps.
Which is an example of defect prevention to consider in your execution of the control phase of your project?
You are studying the process of producing chicken feed. You want to find out if making a change to one of the pieces of equipment will change the daily mean output for that process by 12,000 pounds. Historically, the standard deviation of the daily production of chicken feed is 36,000 pounds. Which option represents the minimum sample size required to confirm the significance of a shift for the mean output that is more than 12,000 pounds at a 95% confidence level (Z=1.96), assuming a normal distribution?
A ______________ transformation is a transformation of non-normal dependent variables into a normal shape. A Belt gathered the following defect data for a process and wanted to assemble it into a Pareto Chart. The correct order from left to right in the chart would be: Data: Step 1 = 38 Step 2 = 17 Step 3 = 56 Step 4 = 42
Box cox
You are mapping a process. What would be the best way to begin the mapping process?
Walk the actual process from beginning to end
What is a histogram used for?
Shows distribution and shape characteristics of process data.
Which element of waste best describes “the cost of an idle resource”?
What is a pull system?
A system where downstream processes withdraw items from upstream supermarkets.
What are the categories in a CTQ tree?
Primary metrics, secondary metrics, tertiary metrics.
What is regression analysis used for?
To understand the relationship between two continuous variables.
What is the first step in a Kaizen project?
Identify an opportunity (an objective for improvement)
What is a box plot used for?
To visualize distribution, outliers, and quartiles in data.
What is essential to best accomplish a six sigma design?
Y = f(x)
For a Normal Distribution the Mean, Median, and Mode are the same data point.
Relevant process measures to support corrective actions include:
outcomes relative to customer requirements, customer feedback, and details concerning quality, costs and timelines
What is the purpose of process mapping in the Measure phase?
To understand the current workflow and identify value-added vs non value-added activities.
What is working sequence?
One of the three elements of standard work refers to the sequence of operations in a single process that leads a worker to produce quality goods in an efficient way.
When changes are made to a factor's settings that result in a change to the response, it is known as which of the following?
The purpose of Hypothesis Testing is:
To make some inference about a population
What is the Cycle Time, in seconds for a process having a Throughput of 10,800 units per hour?
What are the two types of variation?
Common and special cause variation.
Inspection costs refer to the resources spent on scrap:
What is standardization?
Using common procedures across the system.
What are the benefits of statistical process control?
Monitor process stability and variation using control charts and other tools.
What does a control chart consist of?
Center line, upper and lower control limits, and data points plotted over time.
What are examples of qualitative data collection methods?
Interviews, focus groups, surveys, observation.
Voice of the Customer is a Lean Six Sigma technique to determine
What is waste?
Any activity that consumes resources and produces no added value to the product or service a customer receives (muda).
What is a fishbone diagram used for?
To map out all potential causes of a problem.
You are a Belt and through analysis it was discovered that making a change in a process would increase throughput by 200 units per hour. Further analysis showed that the cost of fixing the process would be greater that the revenue gained from the increased throughput. Should you suggest this process change.
No, because there is not a Practical difference
Measurement error is defined as the effect of all sources of measurement variability that caused an observed or measured value to deviate from the
True Value
The total amount of time from the last piece of a product made by a process to the first good piece of a product made by another process is known as which of the following?
Setup time
A capacity constrained resource (CCR) is different from a bottleneck because a CCR
can affect processes even if the operations are not running at full capacity.
What are operating expenses?
The money required for a system to convert inventory into throughput.
What are the 5 principles of Lean?
Specify value, map value stream, flow, pull, perfection.
What is a Pareto chart used for?
To identify the vital few sources causing most defects.
Which option represents the main characteristic indicating a significant interaction on an interaction plot?
Non-parallel lines

Which statements are correct about the advanced capability analysis shown below?

This is a Poisson capability analysis.

What are the types of waste in lean manufacturing?
Transportation, Inventory, Motion, Waiting, OverProcessing, Overproduction, Defects, and Skills (Non-Utilized Talent).
What is takt time?
The rate of customer demand calculated by dividing production time by quantity demanded.
What are the two main types of data?
Quantitative data and Qualitative data.
What is production smoothing?
Keeping total production volume as constant as possible.
Which statement is most correct about regression analysis?
Non-linear regressions can explain curvature with more statistical confidence than linear regressions.
What is the purpose of cost-benefit analysis?
Evaluate financial impact by comparing costs and benefits.
What is the difference between DMAIC and DMADV?
DMAIC focuses on improving existing processes. DMADV focuses on creating new processes.
What is PDCA (plan-do-check-act)?
A four-step management method for continuous improvement.
What is the purpose of a control plan?
Documents the activities, tools and process controls needed to sustain improvements.
What is a bottleneck?
Any resource whose capacity is equal to or less than the demand placed on it.
A company wishes to reduce muda in their manufacturing process by achieving single-piece-flow. How should their cycle time be modified?
The cycle time of all operations in a complete process should be equal to the takt time.
What are the 5S pillars?
Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain.
What is cycle time?
The time required to complete one cycle of an operation. If cycle time for every operation in a complete process can be reduced to equal takt time, products can be made in single-piece flow.
What is the goal of the Control phase in DMAIC?
To sustain gains and improvements by controlling the process.
What are common metrics in the Measure phase?
Cycle time, defects, yield, capacity, cost, customer satisfaction.
A Control Chart can tell us a lot about a process. What is the best example of a process shift type of cause?
9 points in a row on the same side of the centerline
What is single piece flow?
One complete product moves through production without interruption.
What is a stakeholder?
Any person or group impacted by the project.
During Define, how do you determine what is critical to quality?
By using tools like CTQ tree, quality function deployment, or Kano analysis.
Which SPC chart should be selected with the following conditions: attribute output and the tracking of % defective desired with a sample size across the 25 tellers?
NP Chart
What is overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)?
The product of a machine's availability, performance efficiency and first pass yield.
What are common graphical analysis tools?
Pareto charts, histograms, box plots, scatter diagrams.
Abnormal, abrupt, and unpredictable instances of variation that result from non-routine circumstances are referred to as which of the following?
Special cause
Which of the following tools can be used to identify and quantify the source of a problem?
Pareto Chart
What is internal setup?
Die setup procedures that must be performed while a machine is stopped also known as inner exchange of die.
What is level loading?
A technique for balancing production throughput over time.
What is inventory?
The money invested in purchasing things an organization intends to sell.
The sample size crossover point between the t-test and the Z-test for normally distributed populations, with lower sample sizes using Student t-test to make inferences about a population mean is:
What is overprocessing?
Poor tool and product design resulting in waste, one of the eight wastes.
When defining variation in a process, which of the below is the best description?
How tightly all the various outcomes are clustered around the average.
XYZ Company is a small business that fills water bottles on an assembly line. The Operations Division is in charge of tracking the amount of water filled in each bottle by the company's distribution equipment. An X-S chart is normally used to track the amount of water in each bottle, and groups the samples by 20. However, he could also monitor the process by doing which of the following?
Grouping the samples by 5 and using X-bar & R charts to track variations in amount..
What is right size equipment?
Equipment sized appropriately for lean production.
Measurement System Analysis is a procedure used to quantify variation of the method or system used for taking measurements.
What is one-touch exchange of dies?
Reducing die setup changeover to a single step.
The ABC Sporting Goods Company produces soccer balls. Which of these would be considered an internal customer to the company?
Marketing Department
What is the difference between common cause and special cause variation?
Common - built into process, Special - unexpected factors.
Graphing one metric as a function of another is often used when analyzing data. If the slope of the Correlation line is -0.9 we would say the two metrics are correlated?
What are the goals of training in the Control phase?
Educate all stakeholders on new processes, tools and responsibilities.
A 1-sample t-test is used when you want to compare the Median of one distribution to a target value?
SPC charts typically incorporate control limits indicating special causes of what width from the centerline?
+/- 3 Sigma
What is the purpose of a fishbone diagram?
To identify many possible causes for an effect or problem.
What is a breakthrough event?
A dramatic change in process during which a team gets past an old barrier or milestone to achieve a significant increase in efficiency, quality or some other measure.
A type of error that exist in statistics is?
Bias in sampling
What are some hypothesis testing methods?
T-tests, Z-tests, Chi-Square test.
Barrier analysis and prediction analysis are techniques used to
uncover the root causes.
What is a cell?
An arrangement of people, machines, materials and equipment in which the processing steps are placed right next to each other in sequential order and through which parts are processed in a continuous flow.
What is the purpose of DPMO?
Defects per million opportunities - measures process quality.
Capability studies are intended to be periodic exercises to establish estimations of a process’s ability to meet requirements.
What is muda?
The Japanese word for waste, any activity that consumes resources but creates no value.
What represents the differences between observed values and the corresponding values predicted by your equation?
What are the benefits of Kanban?
Reduces excess inventory and overproduction.
What are the inputs to the Improve phase?
Identified root causes, Process maps, Optimization goals.
What is lean manufacturing/production?
An initiative focused on eliminating all waste in manufacturing processes. Principles include zero waiting, zero inventory, pull scheduling, small batch sizes, line balancing and shorter process times.
The ____________________ is the average squared deviation of each individual data point from the mean:
What is first in, first out (FIFO)?
Material produced by one process is used in the same order by the next process. A FIFO queue is filled by the supplying process and emptied by the customer process.
The Theory of Constraints (TOC) uses which three basic measures to evaluate systems?
Throughput, inventory, and operational expenses
Amy holds a continuous improvement event for her team to streamline an existing process. She brings in a whiteboard and different colored cards to signify each component of the process as they occur. She divides the board into rows to show what happens before production, during production and after production. Amy is using which of the following tools?
Lean Enterprise is based on the premise that anywhere work is being done which of these is also occurring?
Waste is being generated
What are the eight wastes?
Transport, Inventory, Motion, Waiting, Overproduction, Overprocessing, Defects, and Skills.

A study is being performed on the effects of video games on boys and girls. The x-axis on the chart represents time and the y-axis represents hyperactivity. Points are plotted along a line for boys and a separate line is plotted for girls. Which data plot in the following exhibit represents no interaction? (image)


What are the 8 wastes in Lean?
Defects, Overproduction, Waiting, Non-Utilized Talent, Transportation, Inventory, Motion, Extra- Processing.
Which lean concept describes an improvement initiative in a specific area, by a number of individuals from different groups, over a short period of time?
Kaizen Blitz
What are the benefits of standardized work?
Consistency, Efficiency, Reduction in defects.
What are the benefits of standard work documents?
Provide step-by-step instructions for consistency.
An example of Mistake Proofing for a laptop computer includes which of these?
USB connection for a mouse
What are the steps in performing a root cause analysis?
Define problem, Gather data, Identify causes, Test causes, Verify root cause.
What are stratification methods?
Segmenting data into related groups like time, shift, location etc.
What is the goal of the Improve phase in DMAIC?
To identify, test, and implement solutions to eliminate root causes and reduce defects.
Lean tools can help sustain a process improvement or be a good basis for taking “noise” out of the system. The most basic of all lean tools that support the other lean tools is best known as:
What are the benefits of standard work?
Consistency, efficiency, defect reduction.
What is a functional layout?
The practice of grouping machines or activities by type of operation performed.
What is the purpose of a scatter diagram?
Visualizes relationship between two variables.
What is material handling?
Methods, equipment and systems for moving materials between processes and transferring finished parts.
What is the purpose of a control chart?
To detect special cause variation signaling an out-of-control process. / To analyze process stability and variation over time.
What is the first step of the Measure phase?
Identify the problem statement and goals.
While reviewing an X-bar control chart, you notice a set of seven consecutively decreasing points. You check previous control charts and notice that this is not a regular occurrence. What could have caused this behavior?
Machine deterioration
What are the 3 aspects of a SMART goal?
Specific, Measurable, Achievable.
There were a number of quality leaders that played a role in Six Sigma. Who developed the concept of the Pareto Chart (80/20 Rule)?
Dr. Joseph Juran
The essence of Lean is to concentrate effort on removing waste while improving process flow to achieve speed and agility at lower cost?
What does DOE stand for and what is it used for?
Design of Experiments - test potential solutions to determine effectiveness.
What is standard work?
Precisely defined work activities specifying cycle time, sequence, and stock.
A ____ focuses on the sequence of activities and work required to produce a product or service.
Value Stream
What is the purpose of short interval control?
Frequently collecting small samples of data to detect process changes quicker.
What are examples of quantitative data collection methods?
Metrics, performance data, time studies, gage R&R, DOE.
What is the mechanism by which the capability of a process is identified?
Creating rational subgroups
What are the steps in the PDCA cycle?
Plan, Do, Check, Act.
A population is a collection of all the individuals of interest and the population has its own statistics:
In what phase of DMAIC is continuous flow performed?
What tools can be used in the Measure phase?
Process mapping, quality function deployment, value stream mapping, Pareto charts, control charts, histogram.
What is kaizen?
A Japanese term meaning gradual unending improvement by doing little things better and setting and achieving increasingly higher standards.
What is the purpose of brainstorming?
To generate many creative ideas for solutions.
What are the seven tools of quality?
Pareto chart, check sheet, scatter diagram, control chart, histogram, cause & effect diagram, flowchart.
What is the purpose of lean data analysis?
Analyze data quickly to enable fast decision making.
What are the benefits of VOC?
It ensures the project addresses real customer needs.

Which statements are true about the process shown? (image)

The majority of the process is within specifications.

This is a lean method designed to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting or drawing attention to human errors as they occur?
What is flow?
The progressive achievement of tasks along the value stream so a product proceeds from design to launch, order to delivery and raw to finished materials in the hands of the customer with no stoppages, scrap or backflows.
What are the 6 Ms of data collection?
Man, Machine, Material, Method, Measurement, Mother Nature.
Stability of a gauge is defined as error being a function of time and is measured in terms of
What is the Cycle Time, in minutes, for a process having a Throughput of 360 units per hour?
What is information flow?
The task of disseminating information for taking a specific product from order entry through detailed scheduling to delivery.
Measurement System Analysis is a procedure used to quantify all ______ in the method or system used for taking measurements.
What are nonvalue added activities?
Activities adding no real value to the product or service, making them a form of waste.
What is the five-phase lean approach?
A systematic method for implementing lean manufacturing that helps improve the production process and sustains gains made in the production cycle in an area or plant. The five phases are: Stability, Continuous Flow, Synchronous Production, Pull System, and Level Production.
Which of the following is an example of a dependent variable?
Amount of liquid absorbed by a napkin
What does FMEA stand for and what is it?
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis - assess risk priority of process failures.
What is value stream mapping?
A tool to visualize current and future state value stream flows.
What is a scatter diagram used for?
To assess correlation between an input and output variable.
What is the voices of the process?
Understanding processes to meet customer requirements by listening to frontline workers.
What is the purpose of visual management?
Use visual signals and controls to quickly communicate information.
What are common metrics for capacity utilization?
Throughput, production volume, availability, efficiency.
Every process has causes of variation commonly known as:
Common and Special Causes
What is the purpose of a tally sheet?
Quickly gather count data by making manual tick marks.
What are three aspects of descriptive statistics?
Central tendency, Dispersion, Distribution shape.
What does CTQ stand for?
Critical to Quality.
In Gage R&R, used to determine if the measurement system is capable, the two R's refer to:
Repeatability and Reproducibility
What is the purpose of a pilot implementation?
Test a potential solution on a small scale before full implementation.
A Black Belt is a project team leader, working full time to solve problems under the direction of a Champion and with technical support from the Master Black Belt. Black Belts work on projects that are relatively complex and usually have a high financial return for the company.
What do control limits represent?
The thresholds for common cause vs special cause variation.
The actual experimental response data varied somewhat from what a belt had predicted them to be. This is the result of which of these?
What does a histogram show?
The distribution and shape of data related to a metric.
What is the purpose of standard work documentation?
Standardize the improved process to sustain gains.
What is VOB in the Measure phase?
Voice of the Business - Feedback from senior leaders on what is critical to quality.
What is point of use storage?
Storing items where they will be used.
What are the benefits of stratification?
Divide data into related groups to spot patterns and differences.
The generation of a Regression Equation is justified when we ________.
Expect the relationship to be linear between the output and inputs.
When doing a measurement on the correlation of a consumer's monthly income and their discretionary spending amount, this measurement system is best described as:
Discrete, Continuous
What is simulation?
Using mockups to design an optimal layout.
The difference between the largest observation and the smallest observation in the data set is known as_______________.
Which business performance measure is calculated by subtracting current cash outflows from current cash inflows?
Net Present Value
What is a stakeholder analysis?
The process of identifying project stakeholders and determining their needs/interests.
What is a affinity diagram?
A tool to organize ideas into groups based on natural relationships.
What are the benefits of histograms and process capability analysis?
Assess process stability and capability to meet specifications.
What are the types of data you collect and analyze?
Continuous, Attribute.
Which key performance indicator is calculated by subtracting current costs from ideal costs?
Cost of Poor Quality
The Alpha level of a test (level of significance) represents the standard against which P-values are measured. A Null Hypothesis is rejected if the P-value is which of these?
Less than the Alpha level
If an appraiser is using one instrument several times on a single part's one characteristic, the variation in measurements is called __________?
What is used to look at the main causes and sub-causes leading to an effect?
Fishbone Diagram
What is value analysis?
Analyzing the value stream to identify value-added and non-value-added activities.
What is the effect of automating a poorly designed process?
Defect levels will stabilize or decrease.
T-tests in its various forms are used to:
Compare paired data
What are the goals of Kaizen?
Eliminate waste, improve productivity, implement small changes.
What are examples of exploratory data analysis techniques?
Histograms, box plots, scatter plots, run charts.
What is the visual workplace?
A workplace designed for visual control and communication.
What is productivity?
A measurement of output per input.
What are the two main sources of data?
Internal process data and external customer feedback data.
How can you capture the voice of the customer in Define?
Surveys, interviews, focus groups, customer complaints.
What is equipment availability?
Machine operational availability is the percentage of time during which a process (or equipment) is available to run.
What are the benefits of using graphical analysis tools?
Visually represent patterns, trends, correlations, comparisons in data.
When time is limited, which method is most appropriate in creating a prioritization matrix?
Consensus method
What are the benefits of creating a problem statement?
It helps clearly define the focus for the project and set boundaries.
What is the goal of the Measure phase in DMAIC?
To gain an understanding of the current process and determine the scope of the problem through data collection and analysis.
For a crossed Gage R&R study, if 10 parts are being analyzed by 5 quality inspectors and each inspector tests each part 4 times, how many total times is each part being measured in the study?
Multiple regressions are best used for:
Relationships between Y and two or more X’s.
What tools can be used in the Improve phase?
Brainstorming, FMEA, DOE, Pugh matrix, error proofing, Kanban, Kaizen.
What does ANOVA analysis do?
Compares means of multiple groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference.
A plan to improve quality is carried out during which step of the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle?
What are the key outputs of the Define stage?
Problem statement, project goals/scope, high level process maps, metrics.
The Six Sigma methodology had its origins at ______ in the late 1980’s when William Smith coined the name for quality related work being done there.
Hypothesis Tests determine the probabilities of differences between observed data and the hypothesis being solely due to ____ based on the result of the P-values.
When doing a measurement on the correlation of a consumer's monthly income and their discretionary spending amount, this measurement system is best described as
What causes of variation are present on a control chart for a process that is in control?
Common cause variation.
The foundation of a visual factory is:
Work space with active 5S
Process capacity is a ratio of the available time per shift to the sum of
total cycle time per piece + tool change time per piece.
What is single minute exchange of dies (SMED)?
Changeovers in less than 10 minutes.
What are the benefits of cellular manufacturing?
Improved flow, flexibility, quality, less material handling.
What is changeover time?
The time required to modify a system or workstation, usually including both teardown time for the existing condition and setup time for the new condition.
The proper functioning of a Visual Factory is dependent upon which of these?
Availability of visual tools
What is transport waste?
Unnecessary movement of materials, one of the eight wastes.
What are the five S's?
Five Japanese terms beginning with S used to create a workplace suited for visual control and lean production: Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain.
You are a Belt asked to help find the source of variation in a process. It is discovered that most of the variation occurred during the night-shift. This would be an indication of what type of variation.
Temporal variation
During the Control Phase, the Lean toolbox including items such as 5S, Visual Factory management and Kanbans can be used to ________ a process.
When looking at attribute data, this is considered to be qualitative data and is often binary:
What is the cost of quality?
Cost of conformance and cost of non-conformance.
What are visual controls?
Devices to communicate production status at a glance.
The concept of lean manufacturing was originally developed and introduced by which organization?
Why is it important to validate data sources?
To ensure the data is accurate and credible for decision making.
What is the purpose of audits?
Ensure activities are being followed per the control plan.
What is the estimated probability of a process to give a result within +/-3 standard deviations from the mean for a normally distributed process?
What type of analysis confirms cause and effect relationships?
DOE (Design of Experiments).
What is a constraint?
Anything that limits a system from achieving higher performance or throughput also, the bottleneck that most severely limits the organization’s ability to achieve higher performance relative to its purpose/goal.
A belt concludes a Lean Six Sigma project with the creation of a Control Plan. At what point can the Control Plan be closed?
Never, a Control Plan is a living document
What are the benefits of Pareto charts in the Control phase?
Tool to separate vital few sources from trivial many.
What are the 4 types of data?
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio.
What is the just-in-time philosophy?
Only producing what is needed, when it is needed.
What does TAKT time measure?
The pace of customer demand.
How are degrees of freedom determined in a 2 mean equal variance t test?
The total number of measurements minus 2.
The 5S system stands for?
Sort, Set in Oder, Shine, Standardize, Sustain
What is lean?
Producing the maximum sellable products or services at the lowest operational cost while optimizing inventory levels.
Johnny is an engineer for a construction company. He has to make copies of guidelines regularly for his construction site so he walks to the copier daily. The copier is located in the far side of the job site. This process waste in terms of which aspect of lean methodology.
What does TPM stand for?
Total Productive Maintenance.
If the first step in a process has a daily yield of 70%, the second step has a daily yield of 80%, and the third step has a yield of 75%, what is the Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)?
What is the purpose of a sampling plan?
Defines the sample size and frequency of collecting data.
What is work in process?
Items between machines or equipment waiting to be processed (WIP).
A Type I error is when we:
Reject the Null Hypothesis when it is actually true
What is the purpose of a project charter?
To formally authorize the project, outline its goals, define roles and responsibilities, and allocate resources.
Specifically within Six Sigma, change in performance comes from identifying and controlling ________________.
Independent Variables
What is the key goal of the Define stage in DMAIC?
To clearly define the problem, improvement activity, opportunity for improvement, goal, and customer requirements.
One of the main purposes of using Ppk is?
Process Performance Index
This waste includes movement of people, tools, inventory, equipment, or products further than necessary?
What does DMAIC stand for?
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control.
What is throughput?
The rate at which the system generates money through sales.
Which statements are correct about residuals from a proper, statistically correct linear regression analysis?
Residuals are the differences between observed and predicted values of data.
What factors should be considered when defining the problem in DMAIC?
Impact on customer, impact on business, scope, and resources required.
What is the purpose of a 5 Whys analysis?
Dig deeper to find the root cause by asking 'why' 5 times.
After running some statistical tests, it was found that the P-value was greater than 0.05 which concluded:
There is no difference or relationship with at least 95% confidence
What are operations?
The work or steps to transform raw materials into finished products.
What tools can be used in the Analyze phase?
Hypothesis testing, regression analysis, ANOVA, correlation analysis, FMEA, DOE.
What is error detection?
A hybrid form of error proofing. It means a bad part can be made but will be caught immediately, and corrective action will be taken to prevent another bad part from being produced.
Which is NOT one of the five principles of lean thinking?
Employee Satisfaction

Which statements are true about the below regression?


Over 30% of the variation of the output is explained by the independent variable with the linear regression.

Hypothesis Testing can save time and help avoid high costs of experimental efforts by using existing data.
Which pillar of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) allows machine operators to gain more knowledge about and take greater ownership of their equipment?
Pillar 1 - autonomous maintenance
Which of the following is a benefit of implementing a visual factory?
A safer workplace environment.
What is the difference between continuous and discrete data?
Continuous - infinite values, Discrete - distinct countable values.
A box-and-whisker plot of yearly salaries for car salespersons has a Q1 of $50,000, Q2 of $57,000, and a Q3 of $70,000. Which of the following salaries would be considered outliers for the set? I. $28,000 II. $35,000 III. $70,000 IV. $105,000
I and IV
What is the cost of poor quality?
The costs associated with defects - prevention and appraisal costs.
What is cellular manufacturing?
Arranging machines in the correct process sequence, with operators remaining within the cell and materials presented to them from outside.
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of continuous improvement?
Higher inventory levels
What are the benefits of mistake proofing?
Prevent defects by making errors impossible.
Lean Six Sigma’s general approach to solving significant challenges related to a process is called ______.
What are the phases of a control chart?
Out of control, In control, Out of control.
What is the difference between soft savings and hard savings?
Hard Savings have a direct impact to the “profit and loss statement” where Soft Savings don’t impact a company’s financial statements.
What is the purpose of a Pareto chart?
To find the vital few sources causing most defects.
A process can be defined as a repetitive and systematic series of steps or activities where inputs are modified or assembled to achieve a _____ result.
Customer desired
When two Inputs have an impact on the Output together yet seem to have no or little impact on their own this is called a/an ________.
Recurrence of a problem can be positively controlled through:
standardization and certification of quality peripherals including system, environment and supervision
If you are using engineering process control devices to prevent deviation, what is a disadvantage you may experience?
The use of these devices precludes the use of statistical process controls.
What is a process considered if a control chart has special cause variation?
Out of control.
Which type of chart is appropriate when sample size is variable and each sample may contain more than one instance of the targeted condition?
This refers to how tightly all the various outcomes are clustered around the average?
Standard Deviation
The 5 Why Analysis is only useful if the possible independent variable can be broken down into five possible causes?
What is activity based costing?
An accounting system that assigns costs to a product based on the amount of resources used to design, order or make it.
What is the main difference between First Time Yield (FTY) and Rolled-Throughput Yield (RTY) amount :
RTY applies to the yield from a series of processes as they add up over time where FPY is focused on a single process output.
What are the benefits of visual controls and signals?
Make information highly visible to monitor process performance.
What is Six Sigma?
A methodology focused on reducing variation and defects.
What are the main types of waste targeted in Lean manufacturing?
Transportation, Inventory, Motion, Waiting Time, Overproduction, Over-Processing, Defects, Skills (Non-Utilized Talent).
What is a value stream?
All activities required to provide a product or service to the customer.
What is resource utilization?
Using a resource to increase throughput.
Which is a method used to assist with root cause analysis?
What is one-piece flow?
Each product goes through each process step one at a time, without interruption.
As a Belt, what does Cp tell you about a process:
What is possible if your process is perfectly centered
What is the range for the correlation coefficient r?
-1 to 1
What are common metrics for cycle time?
Production time, lead time, changeover time, processing time.
A process can be defined as a repetitive and systematic series of steps or activities where inputs are modified or assembled to achieve a customer desired result.
What are the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard an organization looks at to continuously improve their strategic performance and results?
Financial, Customer, Internal Business Process and Organizational Capacity Perspectives.
5S (sort, straighten, shine, standardize, and sustain) is used to create order and organization.
What are dependent events?
Events that occur only after a previous event.
A Belt experienced an Alpha of .05 and a Beta of .10 and knew these are the most common risk levels when running a Statistical Test.
What is just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing?
An optimal material requirement planning system for a manufacturing process in which there is little or no manufacturing material inventory on hand at the manufacturing site and little or no incoming inspection.
What is a Pareto chart?
A graph showing frequency of problems from most to least occurring.
A non-parametric test makes assumptions that the data are from normal populations:
What does correlation analysis measure?
The strength of relationship between two variables.
When looking at data in a LSS project, what are two data types you could use?
Discrete, Continuous
What is downtime?
Lost production time during which a piece of equipment is not operating correctly due to breakdown, maintenance, power failures or similar events.
What is the purpose of gathering baseline data?
To establish a starting point for comparison after improvements are made.
Multi-vari studies are a graphical tool that displays patterns of data performed _____________ where the process is studied in its natural unchanged state:
as a passive study
What are the 5 whys?
An iterative questioning technique to explore the root cause.
A Belt gathered the following defect data for a process and wanted to assemble it into a Pareto Chart. The correct order from left to right in the chart would be: Data: Step 1 = 38 Step 2 = 17 Step 3 = 56 Step 4 = 42
Steps 3, 4, 1, then 2
What are the 4 types of metrics?
Input, Process, Output, Outcome.
What are the three aspects of variation?
Average, Differences between items, Interaction between items.
What is quick changeover?
The ability to rapidly change between products on a machine.
What is overproduction?
Producing ahead of demand, one of the eight wastes.
What is lead time?
The total time a customer must wait to receive a product after placing an order.
What is the purpose of 5S?
Workplace organization method for efficiency and visual control.
Contingency Tables are used to:
Compare more than two sample proportions with each other
The Regression Model for an observed value of Y contains the term which represents the Y axis intercept when X = 0.
What is suboptimization?
When improving one area causes issues in another area.
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