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Meat, Fish, Poultry, and egg products

Multiple choice cards
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What is the acid present in fish oil?
Arachidonic acid
What innovation in beef marketing did IBP perfect in 1967 that dramatically changed the beef industry?
boxed beef
What is a cornmeal based suspension of head meat and/or pork sausage originating from the pennsylvania dutch?
What color is myoglobin when iron is in the ferrous state and water is bound to the pigment?
Kielbasa is a polish sausage made primarily of coarsely ground pork with some amount of beef blended in. What is the typical seasoning used in Kielbasa?
Give two reasons why nitrites are added to cured meats
Impart color, flavor and inhibit Clostridium botulinum
Stability of egg foam is promoted by all the following except
concentration of protein, pH of the system, the addition of water, presence of sugar
What words does the acronym VPP represent in meat processing?
a Verified Premium Plus
How old is a sheep if its meat is considered mutton?
2 years
Who pays for USDA meat grading services?
Grading for quality is voluntary, and the service is requested and paid for by meat and poultry producers/processors.
Role of nitrous oxide in color protection
Which vitamin is prevented from being absorbed by raw egg whites?
biotin (vitamin B7)
The small deposits of fat within meat muscle generally characteristic of higher grades of meat is known by what name?
What is the leading U.S. beef export item?
short plate
What color is the USDA inspection legend, or inspection seal, on horse meat?
What is most abundant myofibrillar protein?
What government agency is responsible for the inspection and grading of fish and fishery products?
the national marine fisheries service of the department of commerce?
What syndrome in swine brings an increased susceptibility to PSE (pale, soft, exudative) lean?
Porcine stress syndrome
Provide the common name for mahi mahi fish.
dolphin or Dorado
What is the difference between recombinant vs. natural bovine growth hormone?
Recombinant has extra methionine
What are the 4 steps to cultured meat manufacture?
1. Cells from a farm animal are proliferated in nutrient-rich media; 2. Cells are attached to a sponge-like scaffold and soaked with nutrients; 3. cells may be mechanically stretched to increase their size and protein content; 4. Cells are harvested, seasoned, and cooked
What is the name for chopped fresh and/or frozen beef, with or without added beef fat and/or seasonings? Additionally, it does not contain more than 30% fat, and shall not contain added water, binders, or extenders.
In what year were the official United States standards for grades of carcass beef promulgated?
Excessive amounts of nitrite in meat cures may result in a green pigment. What is this often referred to as?
nitrite burn
The protein that is about 58% of all egg white protein is called _____
What is the shape of the federal inspection stamp for exotic meat?
A triangle
What are the 3 USDA grades of eggs?
AA, A, B
The partially denatured product of collagen, used as a food ingredient, is called ______________?
What are the two proteins believed to be involved in egg white thinning?
lysozyme and ovomucin
Beef was traditionally suspended using which tendon, which was also a cause of muscle shortening?
Using the USDA approved calculation; determine the percent of added water in a cooked sausage having a proximate composition of 64% moisture, 22% protein, and 19% fat?
20% added water, {64 – 4(11)} * 100 = 20
What chemical compound is associated with fishy and carb-like odors?
What are the names of the connective tissue layers surrounding the whole muscle, muscle bundle, muscle fibers and sarcolemma
What is the common name of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, a neurological disease found in sheep?
Name the two major meat proteins that are salt soluble.
myosin and actin
What viral disease in cloven-hoofed animals causes fluid-filled blisters on their mouth, tongue, teats, muzzle, and skin between their hooves?
Hoof (foot) and mouth disease
Nitrites in meat products may form what carcinogenic compounds?
Name a salt soluble meat protein.
myosin, actin
The lamb shoulder is correctly separated from the lamb rack between what ribs?
4th & 5th
What are de-headed, de-veined and sorted by size in a laitram machine?
What meat protein is primarily responsible for the color in meat?
What is the term given to the contents of the GI tract at the time of slaughter and affects dressing percentage more than most other factors?
What is the dressing percentage of a steer that had a live weight of 1,250 lb. and a carcass weight of 800 lb.?
On average how many eggs do wild chickens lay each year?
Which artery is used when a ham is artery pumped?
What is the common name for the pelt removal process during sheep slaughter?
What is the minimum recommended doneness (F) for a whole chicken?
The main lipid class in lean or low fat fish is ____________?
What are edible meat by-products better known as?
Variety meats
Chickens that are beyond their production capacity for egg-laying and are no longer usable in human food are called what?
Spent hens
What is defined as the ability of meat to retain its water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating, grinding, or pressing?
water holding capacity
What country eats the most lamb and mutton per capita per year?
New Zealand
What effect does ascorbate have on curing with sodium nitrite?
Faster curing action by reducing nitrate to nitrite
What sausage is probably produced in the greatest amount in the world? In some regions, the green pistachio nut is a traditional ingredient
Saanen, Alpine, Nigerian Dwarf and Fainting are all breeds of what?
What are the two components of muscle contribute most to the sensory perception of juiciness in meat?
water and intramuscular fat (marbling)
What are the 4 lean cuts in pork?
ham, loin, Boston butt, picnic shoulder
To what temperature should chicken be cooked?
165 deg F
PSE pork is an important problem that occurs in certain breeds of hog. PSE stands for what?
Pale, Soft, Exudative
Please assign the following animals as either hindgut or foregut fermenters; rabbit, human, pig, horse, humans, goat, ostrich
hind-gut – rabbit, horse, ostrich, human, pig, foregut – cow, goat
What is the main component of the thick filaments in muscle cells?
Which muscle protein must bind calcium for muscle contraction?
What is the main difference between bulls and bullocks?
Bulls have older skeletal maturity, in the B or older class, while bullocks have younger skeletal maturity, in the A class
What is the flavor enhancer manufactured from glutamic acid?
MSG- Monosodium Glutamate
What stromal protein comprises the Ligamentum nuchae?
What is characterized by extensive fat infiltration into muscle fibers, often caused by denervation of muscles?
What is the K-value in assessing meat and fish?
The K-value measures how far ATP degradation has progressed within the tissue (Inosine+Hypoxanthine)/(Inosinic acid+Inosine+hypoxanthine)/Total nucleotide content
What part of pig is Boston butt?
The desirable bright red color of cured meats is due to the pigment
What is the nonprotein portion of myoglobin?
heme ring
What is the pigment form that gives cured meat its typical pink color?
What color of ink is used to apply the red meat carcass inspection stamp?
Most commonly consumed single cell food.
Chicken egg
What country has the world’s lowest meat consumption per person?
What is the name of the Scandinavian dish that is composed of whitefish that has been dried and soaked in lye?
What animal do we eat before it’s born and also after it’s dead?
Which muscle type is multinucleated?
In an egg yolk, what is the phospholipid that acts as an emulsifier?
Another term for Black Spots in Shrimps
What term is given to the organs of the thoracic cavity which include the heart, lungs, and trachea of a sheep?
What is the most popular fish in alaska?
coho salmon
What innovation in beef marketing did IBP perfect in 1967 that dramatically changed the beef industry?
Break down carcass into smaller parts (vacuum packaged, bone and unwanted fats removed)
Name two major types of seafood intoxication.
ciguatera poisoning, scombroid poisoning, and various shellfish poisonings. shellfish poisoning. The most well-known types are paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and amnesic shellfish poisoning Two major groups of marine phytoplankton, diatoms and dinoflagellates, produce HAB toxins
What is the traditional source of rennet?
the fourth stomach (abomasum) of calves
Why does the pH of albumen in freshly laid eggs change from 7.6 to 9.7 during storage?
diffusion of solubilized CO2 through the shell
What is the most important characteristic used to determine the maturity of a veal carcass?
lean color
What is the scientific name of the most tender muscle in a beef carcass?
Psoas Major
Name three classes of flavonoids.
anthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins, etc
Which bacteria, typically found on raw chicken, is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhea in the united states?
Campylobacter jejuni
What additive can be legally used to restore the color of fresh meat?
Commonly used fish in sushi.
tuna (maguro, shiro-maguro), Japanese amberjack, yellowtail (hamachi), snapper (kurodai), mackerel (saba), and salmon (sake). The most valued sushi ingredient is toro, the fatty cut of the fish.
What is the process of placing meat products into casings?
What pathogen reduction step utilizes a steam chamber for carcasses?
Steam pasteurization
What tropical plant produces bromelin, a meat tenderization enzyme?
Bromelain for pineapple, ficin from figs or papain from papaya may be added to meat to serve as what type of agent?
Typical mutton carcasses always have ___ joints on their front shanks.
What causes the pH to drop during the aging of eggs?
loss of carbon dioxide through the egg shell
The muscle tissue from bone flesh of fish contain the same amount of connective tissue as that from beef.
What is the most well-known USDA Certified Program and is identified with carcass specification G1?
Certified Angus Beef
What is the term used for the weight animals lose while being hauled and held off feed before slaughter?
shrink (drift)
What is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that has been identified in free-ranging and captive mule deer, white tailed deer, and elk?
Chronic wasting disease
What is the typical color of fast twitch muscles?
What are myosin and actin?
major contractile proteins in muscle
What two myofibrillar proteins form cross-bridges during muscle contraction?
actin and myosin
Eight quality grades of beef.
Prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and canner C4S2PU
What compound causes salmon to turn pink?
List several benefits associated with the use of phosphates in meats
increase water binding capacity, improve emulsification, tenderness, juiciness, color uniformity, decreases rancidity, minor antimicrobial activity, buffering against acidic marination ingredients
If capillary breakage occurs in fat, the condition is commonly referred to as what?
Fiery Fat
What muscle hypertrophy condition in sheep, which develops approximately 3 weeks after birth, means "beautiful buttocks"?
What are the major connective tissues of proteins of meat?
Collagen and elastin
What made poultry inspection mandatory for any processor that ships produce?
in interstate commerce
What is the rarest most expensive caviar called?
Sterlet- tiny egg
What activates the muscle to contract?
What inorganic compound, found in red meat, is needed for hemoglobin production?
What vitamin, when fed to cattle, has increased retail case-life of fresh beef?
Vitamin E
The water content of lean beef muscle normally ranges from A) 40-50% B) 70-75% C) 90-95%
B) 70-75%
Stuffing frankfurters too tightly could cause what defect?
ruptured casings
What acid causes the pH of normal muscle to drop after slaughter?
Lactic acid
What are the top 3 sea foods consumed in the U.S.?
Shrimp, Salmon, Tuna
The process of placing an egg in front of a light source to reveal its physical condition is called ____________
Palatability of beef refers to what three main attributes?
Tenderness, Juiciness, & Flavor
What 3 properties are major functional uses of egg based products?
coagulation when heated, foaming ability, emulsifying properties
What causes wrinkled casings of beef sticks?
There could be several reasons for these results. The temperature may have risen too high. The sausage may not have been showered with cold water immediately after it was finished smoking. The sausage casings may not have been stuffed to their full capacity.
What protein in eggs can kill bacteria?
How much (%) water is there in muscle?
Muscle cells are multinucleated, cylindrical cells surrounded by an outer member called what?
According to the Beef Steak Color Guide, what end-point cooking temperature (F) is associated with medium rare degree of doneness?
What is the nonprotein portion of myoglobin?
Culinary term for split opening the bird carcass and flattening?
Spatch cocking (also accepted butterflying)
What red meat has been marketed as "the other white meat"?
What is the color of freshly slaughtered beef?
Deep purple
What is the process of adding salt, sugar and sodium nitrate for the purpose of color developments over enhancement preservation and safety?
What temperature (F) should water in sterilizers at meat processing facilities be kept?
Tissues or ingredients that have a binding index lower than 50 are called what?
What is the maximum recommended storage temperature for eggs and dairy products?
40 deg F or 4 deg C
Where are lipovitellin and livetins found?
in egg yolks
What is the most common preservative in processed meats?
What does IMPS stand for?
Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications
What part of the beef steer does the porterhouse steak come from?
the loin (short loin or back are also acceptable)
What substance is used in meat curing to counteract the harsh flavor of salt?
Of the following which is a fermented product: bologna, summer sausage, brausweiger or bratwurst?
summer sausage
What is the pigment responsible for the bright red color of ground beef?
The degradation of what compound in cooked fish causes it to be flaky?
Collagen that is turned into gelatin
Name the major connective tissue protein in meat.
Dark cutting beef is characterized by dark color, firm and dry texture. This problem is associated with meat having: A) low ultimate pH B) high ultimate pH C) rapid pH decline
B) high ultimate pH
What does PSE stand for?
Pale, soft, exudative
What happens to the physical property of egg when stored below 6 degrees celsius?
the yolk viscosity rises irreversibly giving it a gel like consistency
According to WHO Food and agriculture organization, most commonly consumed meat in world? Chicken, goat/sheep, beef, pork
What is the embryonic development of muscle tissues?
What is the role of salt in surimi production?
salt solubilizes myofibrillar proteins
At what temperature (in degrees F) does meat freeze?
Beef is high in what kind of vitamins?
B (B12)
Which muscle type is under involuntary control and striated?
What is the name for the chord that anchor that enter egg yolk?
In a fresh egg, you can see two white cords attached to the yolk. These two cords, called chalazae, are made of twisted strands of mucin fibre, a special form of protein. The role of the chalazae are to anchor the yolk in the centre of the egg.
What is the rendered form of beef and mutton fat called?
Veal is meat from a calf that is: A. 4 months old or younger, B. fed grain for at least 130 days, c. younger than 1 year of age, or D. 2 years or older
A. 4 months old or younger
Bromelain from pineapple, ficin from figs, papain from papaya, trypsin from pancreas may all be added to meat to serve as what type of agent?
What is the most abundant component of skeletal muscle?
What is the name for the Italian-style sausage composed of very finely chopped, cured pork and beef with added cubes of white fat; delicately spiced with garlic, nutmeg and coriander; stuffed into larger diameter casing and sliced?
What family of glycoproteins is the main constituent of muscle connective tissue?
What is the compound responsible for the pink color of cured meats?
Bacteria overgrowth on fish can result in the production of scombrotoxins. Name one food process that Scrombotoxins are resistant to.
smoking, cooking and canning
Muscle proteins are degraded during aging by what enzymes?
What common farm animal is decendant of callus gallus?
What was the live weight of a lamb with a "hide off, head on" carcass weight of 60 lb and a dressing percentage of 50.0?
What company produces SPAM and Cure81 Hams?
Hormel Foods
What four types of animals are legally called meat?
bovine or cattle, pigs, lambs, goats
Hydroxylation of lysine to hydroxylysine in collagen is an important step leading to what?
conversion of a-chains, b and g chains (crosslinks),,, The collagen molecules are then spontaneously self-assembled into a fibril and stabilized by covalent intra- and inter-molecular covalent cross-linking
What breed of cattle produces the most beef in the United States?
Black Angus
Name two factors that determine meat quality grade.
Marbling and maturity
What is the only meat wholesale cut traded on the chicago mercantile exchange?
pork bellies
What company produces and markets sterling silver beef and pork and cattleman's selection beef?
Excel (Cargill)
What are sweetbreads?
(1) stomach sweetbreads (also known as heart or belly sweetbreads), which are an animal’s pancreas. (2) neck (throat or gullet) sweetbreads, an animal’s thymus gland.
Beef is 50% protein, what insect is higher in protein than beef?
Crickets (65%)
To standardize the names of retail cuts, the meat industry has adopted a common list of names called what?
Uniform retail meat identity standards (URMIS)
What is the name of the black spot defect in shrimp?
Withholding feed for 12 to 24 hours prior to slaughter results in greater ease of what?
What are the 3 basic meat curing ingredients?
salt, sugar, and nitrite (or nitrate)
What is the ultimate source of energy for muscle contraction?
What is the term given to inspection of animals prior to slaughter?
Antemortem inspection
What is more saturated, pork, beef or chicken fat?
The beef rib and chuck are separated between which two ribs?
5th and 6th
What is the state of muscle when permanent cross-bridges form and prevent sliding of filaments so that the the muscle becomes inextensible?
rigor mortis
What defect in Frankfurter's is causes when there is too much connective tissue?
Gelling out
What popular canned sausages, similar to frankfurters, although more bland in flavor and smaller?
vienna sausages
What enzyme is used to tenderize meat?
Typically, what color is the fat of a cow's carcass that have only been grass fed?
What types of fish/seafood are used in the following types of sushi?
sake-salmon maguro- bluefin tuna kani- crab uni- sea urchin
Blue Tanner and Dungeness are types of what meat products?
What causes the pH drop of meat?
anaerobic metabolism post mortem leads to latic acid build up
What are the 4 major fat depots in a steer?
back fat, seam fat, marbling, KPH (kidney, pelvic, heart)
A family of glycoproteins that are the main constituent of muscle connective tissue are: A) Myosins B) Collagens C) Ligament proteins
B) Collagens
What compound is responsible for the fishy smell?
TMA/ trimethyl amine
What organisms are responsible for scombroid poisoning in seafood?
Morganella morganii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What does CAS stand for with regards to poultry processing?
Controlled atmosphere stunning
What is the color associated with fast twitch muscles?
To which of the following filament protein does Ca++ bind, and regulate actin myosin interaction during muscle contraction : a) myosin, b) actin, c) troponin
Surstroming', the swedish dish so smelly it's usually opened outdooors, is the fermented product of what seafood?
Fermented sea herring
What are chitterlings made from?
pork intestine
Which sarcoplasmic muscle protein is primarily responsible for meat color?
What fish produces red caviar?
Dark cutting beef is characterized by dark color, firm and dry texture. The problem is associated with meat having: a) low ultimate pH, b)high ultimate pH, c) rapid pH decline
Kielbasa is a polish sausage made primarily of coarsely ground pork with some amount of beef blended in. What is the typical seasoning used in Kielbasa?
What salt is used in curing meats and give three uses?
sodium nitrite/nitrate; inhibition of C. Botulinum, improve the color, flavor
What are the two principal sources of juiciness in meat, as detected by consumers?
Moisture and intramuscular fat (marbling)
True or false: Dark meats tend to have a higher fat content than white meats.
What is the most valuable by-product of cattle?
The hide
What are the 2 types of food poisoning possibly received from consuming fish?
ciguatera and scombroid
The layer of connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers is called the what?
What does CAFO stand for?
concentrated animal feeding operation
What is the second most predominant fatty acid in beef and pork?
palmitic acid
The accumulation of adipose tissue around the bundles of muscle fibers in beef is called what?
What is the most commercially significant form of uncooked ham sold in the United States?
country hams (or country shoulder)
DFD in meat stands for?
Dark, firm, dried
What pigment reaction causes the greenish sheen during spoilage of cured meat products?
Myoglobin or oxymyoglobin are subjected to reducing reactions from bacteria, acerbate or other reducing agents.
What region of the protein molecule is attracted by fat in a sausage batter?
What inorganic compound in red meat is needed for the manufacture of many enzymes and hormones in the human body?
What are beef or lamb carcasses with a thin layer of fat covering that are chilled rapidly susceptible to?
Cold shortening
Ingestion of gradients and other insects as may cause a reaction in people allergic to which common?
shellfish crustaceans
What is the name of the structural carbohydrate found in lobsters and insects?
Give any two factors that affect egg foaming ability.
pH, sugars, contamination with yolk, age of the egg, etc.
what is the ideal pork color described in the pork quality standards?
reddish pink
The decrease in pH that occurs in postmortem muscle is caused by?
Hydrolysis of ATP
Name one major muscle found in a beef round.
Biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus
What is the first alteration observed in ultrastructural integrity of postmortem muscle fibers?
Z disk degradation
What is the term used to describe pork meat that has undergone a sudden decrease in pH after slaughter?
Pale, Soft, and Exudative Meat
What are the two principal sources of juiciness in meat, as detected by consumers?
water and intramuscular fat (marbling)
What is used to rephosphorylate ADP to ATP during the onset phase of rigor?
Creatine phosphate or Phosphocreatine
What happens to the cartilaginous ends of vertebrae as animals age?
Ossification; They ossify
List the following muscle units in order or size from largest to smallest. Myofilament, muscle fiber, sarcomere, myofibril, muscle bundle, muscle
Myoflilament, sarcomere, muscle fiber, myofibril, muscle bundle, muscle
What are the 8 pieces of information required on a meat label?
1. Product or cut name, 2. Inspection legend and establishment number, 3. Handling statement, 4. Net weight, 5 address or signature line, 6. Safe handling instructions, 7 ingredients statement, 8. Nutrient facts
Which flavor is caused by the iron-catalyzed oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and becomes more noticeable when refrigerated, pre cooked, uncured meats are reheated?
warmed over flavor
The irreversible interaction of actin and myosin that is caused by the depletion of ATP in postmortem muscle is:
Rigor mortis
What is an infection that can be caused by eating undercooked pork from pigs fed raw garbage?
How many ribs are in a beef forequarter?
What is the predominant meat that PSE occurs in?
Pork (you could argue Turkey)
According to the standard of identity, what is the maximum fat content allowed in a frankfurter?
What is the name of the membrane that directly surrounds the egg yolk?
vitelline membrane
What is the name of a basic glycoprotein found in egg white that has the property of binding biotin?
What insoluble constituent makes up approximately 12% of an egg’s total weight?
the shell
Besides Salmon, name 1 other fish in the family Salmonidae.
whitefish, trout, char, grayling
Conalbumin is a protein found in what?
Egg white
What is the term used to describe storing refrigerated meat to improve tenderness?
Aging or dry aging
What condition results during thawing of muscle that frozen before it enters rigor mortis?
thaw rigor
What is the concern between eating canned white tuna versus canned light tuna?
canned white tuna is made from albacore which has 3 times the amount of mercury than skipjack tuna used in light tuna products.
What are two factors that determine meat quality grade?
Degree of maturity, degree of marbling
Type A gelatins are produced by what process?
Type A gelatin is derived from acid-cured tissue. Gelatin derived from an acid-treated precursor is known as Type A and gelatin derived from an alkali-treated process is known as Type B.
Bonus named three fruit derived enzymes and their sources, commonly used as meat tenderizer?
papain: papaya, bromiline: pineapple, Actidin: kiwi, ficin: figs
Describe electrical stimulation and the purpose it serves in meat tenderness/toughness.
Electrical stimulation prevents severe cold shortening by accelerating the rate of the processing leading up to rigor mortis by depleting ATP. The goal is to prevent the carcass from being chilled while pre rigor or while undergoing rigor mortis. This action reduces toughness and muscle shortening.
The most commonly used commercial method for freezing meat products is what?
Blast Freezing-the air blast freezer is one the oldest and commonly used freezing equipment due to its temperature stability and versatility for several product types.
Skirt steak is fabricated from which beef primal?
Short plate
What pigment results when fresh meat (oxymyoglobin) is oxidised?
What is the most widely eaten fish in the world?
Why is nitrite used in the manufacture of many processed meat items?
it limits or retards lipid oxidation, imparts cur color to products and inhibits growth of C. Botulirum.
The two twisted rope-like cords in eggs that serve to keep the yolk in the center are:
The stable, bright pink-red color of cured meats is caused by the reaction of what two compounds?
nitrite and myoglobin (nitrosomyoglobin)
What are the 6 sizes of eggs?
jumbo, extra large, large, medium, small and pee wee
What technology is commonly used to decrease heat ring and cold shortening of beef?
Electrical Stimulation
Mad cow disease is also known as BSE, what does that stand for?
bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Between which two ribs should a pork carcass be ribbed to measure loin eye area?
10th and 11th
What is the time between ribbing and grading of beef carcasses called that allows oxygenation of the ribeye pigments?
Bloom Time
What sausage manufacturing process involves grinding and mixing meat ingredients with cure to permit protein solubilization and chemical analysis before final mixing in sausage manufacture?
How long can eggs be stored under appropriate conditions?
6 months
The protein efficiency ratio (PER) is the ratio of weight gained by rats fed test protein to those fed what protein?
What is a batter-like meat product produced by forcing bones with attached edible meat under high pressure through a sieve or similar device to separate the bone from the edible meat tissue?
Mechanically Separated (deboned) meat
What is the name given to the flavor developed due to rancidity of fat in meat?
warmed over flavor
The oxidation of the iron in myoglobin to the ferric state results in the brown pigment called...
metmyoglobin (before cooking in fresh; if it is after cooking, its called dentaured metmyoglobin)
In what U.S. city was the first meat packing plant started in 1818?
What is the purpose of adding extenders, binders and fillers ot meat? Give three examples.
Extenders were originally used to reduce costs but they were later used to make meat products more healthy by adding dietary fiber, or to improve the texture
What country is the largest producer of rabbit meat?
What is the minimum temperature pork should be cooked at to kill Trichinella?
145 F
Name 2 major types of seafood intoxications.
ciguatera poisoning, scromboid fish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning
When was the Federal Meat Inspection Act passed?
The desirable color of cured meats is due to the pigment ____________
Name three functions of nitrate in cured meats.
anti c. bot, stabilize myoglobin, flavor
Which USDA agency inspects red meat products at slaughter?
Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
Oxygen storage in slow twitch fibers is achieved by what molecule?
What are fresh hams commonly called by the packing industry?
Green hams
What is the scientific name of the muscle from which canadian bacon is manufactured?
Longissimus dorsi
What is the term used to describe tying the intestine during evisceration?
Porterhouse steak is fabricated from which beef primal?
What year was the federal meat grading service established?
What vertebra is found in a T bone steak?
lumbar vertebra
Steer and barrow carcasses unlike heifer and gilt carcasses, have what adjacent to the posterior end of the aitch bone?
Pizzle eye
Name the two researchers who developed the most widely used and accepted machine to measure meat tenderness.
Kenneth Warner (developed in 1920) and Lyman Bratzler (developed in 1932)
Veal is meat from a calf that is: A. 4 months old or younger, B. fed grain for at least 130 days, C. younger than 1 year or D. 2 years or older?
A. 4 months old or younger
What beef hide defect costs the industry millions of dollars, but is a law some states ?
There are 8 grades of beef. Please list them in order of decreasing quality.
US Prime, US Choice, US Select, US standard, US Commercial, US Utility, US Cutter, and US Canner
This word means "sausage poisoning". It is caused by a powerful toxin that affects the nervous system.
What two beef wholesale cuts yield "middle meats"?
ribeye roll, lip-on; tenderloin; strip loin; top sirloin butt
What is a high quality fat lining the abdominal wall of pork carcasses?
leaf fat
What is the only meat cut rich in vitamin A?
In meat processing, what does the acronym STPP stand for and what is its primary function?
Sodium Tripolyphosphate - increases yields - increases pH --> more water holding capacity of meat proteins
What pigment reaction causes the greenish sheen during spoilage of cured meat products?
Myoglobin or oxymyoglobin are subjected to reducing reactions from bacteria, acerbate or other reducing agents.
Peppercorns and bay leaf are commonly used spices that give which beef product its distinctive flavor?
corned beef
What is the most abundant cytoskeletal protein in muscle?
What breed of cattle produces the most beef in the united states?
Muscle proteins are degraded during aging by what enzymes?
The Boston butt cut comes from what body region?
Upper shoulder
What are the large fat particles that coalesce at the ends of sausages during heating?
Fat caps
What is the name of the membrane surrounding a muscle fiber?
Name the three main ingredients of a “turducken”.
Turkey, Duck, Chicken
Edible sausage casings used for many sausages are made from which layer of the beef hide?
What meat processing procedure is used to obtain pork with high pH and high water holding capacity?
Which food has more zinc per gram? a. beef, b. chickpeas, c. pork chops, d. oysters
d. oyster
What is the hormone released by cows that allow milk to be released?
The odor of spoilt fish is due to :
TMA (trimethylamine) (TMAO is acceptable)
The muscle that makes up most of our meat is best classified as which of the following: A) Involuntary, smooth B) Voluntary, cross-striated C) Double obliquely striated
B) Voluntary, cross-striated
Fat deposited in the perimysial connective tissue of a muscle is called what?
What single kind of restructured meats represents the most volume and value and involves finding meat pieces into a single piece?
Sectioned and Formed
What is the most prevalent mineral in egg shell?
Dark meats tend to have a higher fat content than white meats.
What is cooking loss percentage of a roast that had a raw weight of 20 lbs and a cooked weight of 15 lbs?
cooking loss % = (cooked weight/raw weight) = 25 %
What enzyme inhibits calpains during the cooler aging process?
The main salt soluble protein of meat is:
myosin (actomyosin post rigor)
What are yield grades used to estimate?
What is the primary protein in the thin filament of a muscle?
What does the acronym NADA stand for?
new animal drug application
Bacon is obtained from the belly of the pork. From which part of pork is Canadian bacon obtained?
Back/ loin of the pork
Give the name of the product made from dired, fermented, smoked, skipjack tuna.
bonito flakes
What is the common name of the bones that resemble the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae ?
feather bones
What would be the internal temperature (degrees C) of a steak cooked to a medium degree of doneness?
Postmortem pH change in meat
7.2 to 5.5, lactic acid formation
In poultry, what is the difference between a "broiler" and a "fryer"?
Both are types of chicken that are raised for meat. Fryer are just a bit larger in weight than broiler.
What protein exhibits little or no emulsifying properties due to its unique triple helical structure, which is extremely stable and not readily solubilized?
What month is designated as National Meat Month?
What is depleted from muscle before slaughter to produce dark cutting beef?
The main salt soluble protein of meat is the molecule ______?
Between which two ribs is a lamb shoulder properly separated from a lamb rack?
The 4th and 5th ribs
Which red meat animal species has the lowest average dressing percent?
What polysacc from crustacean shells help lower cholesterol level?
Chitin, chitosan
What slaughter type performed according to prescribed rabbinical procedures, under supervision of authorized representatives of jewish faith?
Chuck comes from which part of beef?
Beef shoulder
Which USDA agency inspects red meat products at slaughter?
Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
What is the general term applied to any ingredient added to improve or modify flavor in processed meat products?
In Southeast Asia a type of echinoderm is in danger of being overharvested as it is considered a delicacy. What is the name of this echinoderm?
Sea cucumber
What is the most common industrial source of lysozyme?
Egg white
What is the largest national trade association representing the meat packing and processing industry and has the initials NAMI?
North American Meat Institute
What is the scientific name of the beef tri-tip muscle?
tensor fasciae latae
What does FSIS recommend as the minimum degree of doneness (F) for ground beef?
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