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Jesus speaks of a future kingdom of God when the son of man will come
Luke 21:5
And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself
Edwards- Jesus dies as a sacrifice- John 12:32
people failed to follow the vine and the vine became corrupt
Jeremiah 2:21
he was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all nations and peoples of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed
Daniel 7:14 (prophecy regarding the messiah)
Numbered among the transgressors
N. T. Wright- Jesus's life and ministry and death are framed by Jesus himself in terms of the SS of 2nd Isiah- luke 22:37
proof text referencing Jeremiah 31:15
Matthew 2:16-18
He took up our infirmities and bore our diseases
Matthew 8:14 (prophecy regarding the messiah)
thinks Jesus was wrong- Jesus thought KofG is imminent plus apocoliptic and present
Main birth stories are in
John is 'deliberately putting the traditional story of the crucifixion into a wider and more profound perspective'
Marsh- crucifixion
there are sacramental overtones
Relevant quote why did Jesus have to die 4
Culpepper- The Jews killed Jesus not the Romans- John 9:6
you will know the truth and the truth will set you free
C.H. Dodd - Johns definition of true kingship is the reign of truth- john 8:31-32 and 8:45-47
there is probably a hint of polemic in the way the evangelist cites scripture
Brown- commenting on Matthew's infancy narrative in the birth of the messiah
death is an essential part of Johns story and theological message
Edwards Atonement theory
prophecies that there will be a future messiah
Deuteronomy 18:15 (prophecy regarding the messiah)
first references Isiah 7:14 and says the name Immanuel which means God with us and then at the end of the gospel the last thing Jesus says is 'I am with you always' which matches this fulfilment text
Matthew 1:23 and 28:20
the only reference to a Galilean political figure- healing the officials son and the official has no concerns demonstrating his faith for Jesus publicly
Jesus has no conflict with Galilean political authorities- John 4:47-53
seen as Eucharistic
john 6:51-57
It would have been misunderstood as a claim to political kingship
Morna Hooker- The idea of the messianic secret being inserted in by the author is wrong
bread of life discourse in the synagogue in Capernaum (v important building)
no conflict between Jesus and Galilean religous authorities- Jesus and Galileans - John 6:59
Jews saw the torah as the light
psalms 119:105
(about the thing above) this is an attractive idea as it offers a way out of the present/future dilemma
Marshall - suggests the dilemma is a false one since a refrence to God 'acting in power' is not to be tied down
God made him who had no sin to be sin for us so that in him we might become the righteous of god
2 cor- 5:21
I have brought you glory on earth by finishing the work you gave me to do
Dodd- Jesus dies for completion and fulfilment- John 17:4
Jews try to stone Jesus
bread is linked with the temple
1 Samuel 21:4
Christians are in it for the 'long haul'
Hanz Conzlemann
the term Son of God is included for the sake of Gentile readers, for whom the term messiah would not mean anything
Ruth Edwards
I AM is a code word for absolute monotheism
prophesized that the messiah would bring light to the gentiles
Isiah 49:6 and 42:7
He thinks the healing of the officials son in John is the same as the healing of the centurion' servant in Mark and luke
C.K. Barrett- doesn't tell us about Jewish authorises in Galilee, but they might have had conflict
The Jewish leaders insisted, “We have a law, and according to that law he must die, because he claimed to be the Son of God
Jesus died because they thought he was blasphemous - John- 19:7
for even the son of man did not come to be served but to serve and to give his life as a ransom for many
as ransom mark 10:45
The kingdom of God is in your midst
KofG - Parable of the Ten Minas
Jesus strongly commands the mean he has just healed not to tell anyone
Messianic Secret- Mark 8:20
the Son of Man will be delivered over to the chief priests… who will mock him and spit on him, flog him and kill him. Three days later he will rise
use of son of man when talking about suffering and death- Mark 10:33-34
Son of Man
Obv human but also divine + apocalyptic- KofG - Daniel 7
You do not realize that it is better for you that one man die for the people than that the whole nation perish.
Jesus dies because of Utilitarianism- John- 11:50
for even the son of man did no come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many
suggests the idea of Jesus being the suffering servant (prophecy regarding the messiah) Mark 10:45
his death was believed to bring perfect forgiveness and was a perfect offering of obedience to the father
I am significance
I AM saying found in Jewish scripture- Isiah 43:10 & 41:4 & 46:9 & 51:12
sign of Jonah, 'for as Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites, so also will the Son of Man be to this generation
Son of man Luke 11:29-32
back to moses John 13:19
the writers of the early church have linked the two figures together (Jesus and the SS)
Morna Hooker- suffering servant
The word messiah is used when talking about a priest
Exodus 28:41
Proof of the theme of wisdom in the bread of life discourse- the life giving bread is seen as the teaching of Jesus
Brown- John 6:35-50
And having disarmed the powers and authorities, he made a public spectacle of them triumphing over them by the cross'
galatians 3:13
Jesus dies for the completion of sacrifice
no scholarly consensus on the inter pita tin of the phrase Son of Man
James Dunn
proof text referencing Isiah 11:1
Matthew 2:19-23
people will bow down before God… will rule over all nations…
nationalistic messiah- Psalms 22:27-28
Key quote for suffering servant
these contain the suffering servant passages Isiah 52:12-53:13
god is seen as a pilar of fire
exodus 13:21
Conveys the idea of a nationalistic messiah
psalms 22:27-28
Jesus's death is political
Rivkin- Jesus dies because the Romans killed him not the Jews
From conception Jesus will' save his people from their sins'
Early life of Christ Matthew 1:21
Jesus meets with the Samaritan woman
Samaritans- John 6:1-26
the kingdom of God will arrive when it is least expected
Luke 12:40
Jesus predicts his death and began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things… must be killed and after three days will rise again
use of son of man when talking about suffering and death- Mark 8:31
messiah is presented as a liberator…
Isiah 61:1-3
images of Shepard wars used for god and a king
I am the resurrection and the life- this is the most profound I AM saying according to Marsh
Marsh- John
Marshall says Luke 19:10 sums up Jesus's ministry
Marshall- Luke 19:10
Jesus was operating i the same framework as people from the 1st century
… this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened
Imminent to the time of Jesus or during the time of Jesus kofG- Luke 21:32
The kingdom of God is available to all especially those who were least on earth
Luke 13:30
I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.
Edwards- Jesus dies as a sacrifice- John 10:11
forms part of Jesus's farewell discourse
Jesus calls the Pharisees blind
Jesus is shown to be a devout Hebrew
suggests Jesus was a Pharisee- Jesus and the Pharisees John 2:13
god was seen as a gardener caring for the vine
Isiah 5:2
Herod Antipas arrested and executed him
demonstrates Galilean political authorities were willing to execute religous figures- John the Baptist- Mark and John 6:17-29 and 3:24
Before Abraham was born I AM
he has eternal existance - John 8:58
salvation history
Hanz Conzlemann
remember the sabbath day by keeping it holy
Keeping the sabbath- Exodus 20:8
Jesus taken to Annas who then sent him to Pilate
Annas John 18:13
If he believed himself to be in any sense the messiah the last thing he would do was to claim the title for himself
Morna Hooker- The idea of the messianic secret being inserted in by the author is wrong- Messianic Secret- Mark 1:44
emphasisisizes that Christs message is for all
Luke 2:32
the selfish Shepard caused the sheep to be lost
Ezekiel 34
Truly this man was the Son of God'- Centurion said this about Jesus when he is being crusified
shows the significance of the phrase son of God to Hellenistic culture- Matthew 27:54
son of David
fulfilling 2 Samuel 7:6- Early life of Christ - Matthew 1:1
Relevant quote why did Jesus have to die 2
Jesus is raised by God - Acts - 2:23-24
the crucifixion is an absolute expression of divine love
for Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed
Corinthians 5:7
if there is any thing distinctive about the teaching of Jesus it has to be the way he redefined God, replacing his harsh, confrontational image of judgement and condemnation with the language of family love and acceptance
Drane- taking humanity's place
proof text referencing Isiah 7:14
Matthew 1:18-25
I am the living bread that came down from heaven. Whoever eats this bread will live forever. This bread is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world
Edwards- Jesus dies as a sacrifice- John 15:13
I AM sig quote1
1 Samuel 17:34
I am in J.S
I AM saying found in Jewish scripture- Deuteronomy 32:39
Lord is my shepard'
psalms 23:1
one of te major differences is that Matthew choses to begin his story in a totally different way… to provide us with his key to the gospel…
M Hoker- the birth stories of Matthew's gospel are the prophetic key
The real problem is to discover at what point the denitrification of Jesus with the servant came into Christian thought: whether it was inherent in the teaching of Jesus, or whether it was introduced by the church to explain his death
Morna Hooker (prophecy regarding the messiah)
the lamb of God takes away the sin of the world
Edwards- Jesus dies as a sacrifice- John 1:29
jesus is called a 'ransom for many'
supports the idea of Jesus dies as a ransom- mark 10:54
Took up our pain and bore our suffering
Isiah 53:4 (prophecy regarding the messiah)
Maji came from afar
Jesus is not just for Jews
the first thing that was created was the light
light genesis
son of man is chosen by God for a special purpose
Son of man Ezekiel
messiah will preform signs
(prophecy regarding the messiah) Isiah 35:5-6
apocoliptic/ divine son of man
Daniel 7:13-14 (son of man)
Relevant quote why did Jesus have to die 3
Culpepper- The Jews killed Jesus not the Romans- john 19:12
KofG is spiritual and millitary
KofG - Psalms - Solomon 17
johns use of the I AM sayings leaves no doubt that this is a consciously used and theologically significant expression
this cup is the new covenant in my blood which is poured out for you
in the last supper he showed hw his death would lead to the forgiveness of sins and the reconciliation of God and humanity- as a sacrifice Luke 22:20
Everything that is written by the prophets about the Son of Man will me fulfilled … they will flog him and kill him. On the third day he will rise again
use of son of man when talking about suffering and death- Luke 18:31-34
the suffering servant will be 'a light' so that other nations will recognise God's 'saving power'
Suffering servant Isiah- 49:6
highlights universality of Christ's message and shortcomings of Judaism
Matthew 8:10-12, 21:43 & 23:1-36
in the origin of ancient times the use of “shepard” as a designation for a spiritual leader was widespread’
Jesus is a friend to outcasts and sinners
Luke 9:5-6 & 17:11-19
proof of the sacramental theme in the bread of life discourse- the living bread is Jesus's flesh and links with the Eucharist
Brown John 6:51-59
gift of mur
hinting Jesus will die Mark 1:11
the deaf hear, the dead are raised and the good news is proclaimed to the poor
shows that the kingdom of God was present then through Jesus- Luke 7:22
woman caught in adultery
John 8:2-11
the wold will live with the lamb, the leopard will lie down with the goat, the calf and the lion and the yearling together and a little child will lead them
all natural enimies even animals and their prey will reconcile- Isiah 11:6 (prophecy regarding the messiah)
John's gospel shows that Jesus is christ through I AM sayings
John 20:30-31
the Son of Man will be ashamed of them when his glory comes
use of son of man when talking about suffering and death- Luke 9:26-27
the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven
apocoliptic and divine son of man- Matthew 24:30
links with manna in the wilderness
exodus 16
you are my son; today I have become your father'
Mention of Son of God in Jewish scripture- Psalms 2:7
realised eschatology
C.H. Dodd
KofG is here
KofG - Luke- 17:21
Relevant quote why did Jesus have to die 5
Edwards- Jesus dies as a sacrifice- John 12:31
shows the importance of the missionary work of the early church and the disciples
-Matthew 28:16-20
the nation of Israel/ Palestine is seen as God's first born son
jesus explains that his 'kingdom does not belong to this world'
so not political- Pilate- John- 18:36
Jesus is special, he is born of a virgin, he is not ordinary
Hint- Jesus is the messiah Isiah 11:1
"Christ redeem us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us for it is written: "cursed is everyone who s hung on a pole""
galatians- 3:13
Christ suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps'
Jesus died as an example- 1 Peter 2:21
there are two parts to this the wisdom theme and the sacramental theme
Brown- I AM the bread of life
for the son of man came to seek and save the lost
Luke 19:10
Relevant quote why did Jesus have to die 1
Judas the Galilean - Acts- 5:37
isn't this the man they are trying to kill?
shows how they are comfortable and used to the idea of killing him- john 7:25
the common denominator for these four women is found in that they all represent an 'irregularity' in the Dividic line, an irregularity which is not only overcome with God's recognition of them as mothers of David's decendents: exactly by the irregularity the action of God and his spirit is made to manifest
Santon- Early life of Christ
KG will happen immediately
Luke Parable of the ten minas
refers to the son of man as being pre-existant
Son of man 1 Enoch
Sanhedrin was convened and Sadducees and Pharisees agreed that Jesus had to be executed
Sadducees and Pharisees-John- 11:47-53
refers to the vine being taken out of Egypt and being placed in Palestine
psalms 80:8
Jesus is often called Rabbi
suggests Jesus was a Pharisee- John- 1:38
messiah is presented as a liberator…
Isiah 61:1-3
the estate is clear, everything that was central in the relationship of God with the people of Israel has now found its true and final expression in the life of Jesus
healing of the lame man, Jesus was encouraging the Sabbath law to be broken and was blaspheming by calling God his father
Jews want to kill Jesus for blasphemy- John 5:2-18
gift of gold
hinting Jesus = king- Mark 1:11
Jesus encounters Samaritans
Samaritans- Luke 10:20-37
proof text referencing Micah 11:1
Matthew 2:1-12
messiah use to talk about a king- eg when David is anointed as God's chosen king by Samuel
1 Samuel 10:1
but if I drive out demons by the finger of God, then the kingdom of god HAS come upon you
B D Chilton- this means that the KG need not be tied down in time, it can refer to 'God;s self-revelation'- Luke 11:20
he will judge between the nations and will settle disputes for many peoples… nation will not take up swords against nation nor will they train for war anymore
the messiah will bring a new age of peace- Isiah 2:4 (prophecy regarding the messiah)
high preist questions Jesus and asks whether Jesus is the christ, the blessed one and Jesus says 'I AM'
I AM saying & Messianic Secret- Mark 14:53-65
Pilate is weak and was manipulated by the Jewish authorities
Culpepper- The Jews killed Jesus not the Romans
The Jews did not kill Jesus, they disapproved with him but they did not kill him
Rivkin- Jesus dies because the Romans killed him not the Jews
riot in temple would be clear reason for Sadducees to be concerned about Jesus
There were many other 'charismatic preachers' and even violent ones who weren't killed
Rivkin- Jesus dies because the Romans killed him not the Jews
Nicole us a Pharisee meme re of the Sanhedrin visits Jesus at night
John 3:1-25
the KofG is a place where Rome doesnt rule so there are political consequences
Rivkin- Jesus dies because the Romans killed him not the Jews
Debate over whether Jesus is a good man or a blasphemer
John- 7:11-13
divine self-revelatory formula
Richter - about Moses being bush I AM WHO I AM and how this ties in with I AM sayings showing Jesus is God
God says this to Moses- burning bush… Exodus 3:14
Supports the view that Jesus died as a sacrifice
Leviticus 5:17-18
emphasis on God's fulfilment of his promises and he makes clear that the events he describes are part of God's wider plan for the whole of human history
Luke 1:14-17 & 4:16-30
proof text referencing Hosea 11:1
Matthew 2:13-15
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