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100g serving : 5g fat, 4g protein, 3g carbs. Caloric value?
Which of the following foods should a sulfite-sensitive individual avoid?
wine, frozen hash brown potatoes, fruit cocktail with maraschino cherries, sauerkraut (ALL)
What is the approximate fat content(in %) of the following foods? 1 serving of each, Chicken breast, no skin (4 ounces), salmon, king crab, leg of lamb
Chicken breast, no skin, 49% Salmon, 10% King crab~2% Leg of lamb – 21%
Isohumulone is the precursor compound that reacts with light to what vitamin to cause skunky flavor in beer?
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
What 5 vitamins and minerals are enriched in flour?
Thiamine, folate, iron, riboflavin, niacin
What is the name of a vitamin B2 deficiency?
What are the sugar alcohols formed by the reduction of the following sugars: glucose, fructose, and xylose?
sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol
Name 7 of the 14 mandatory dietary components that must appear on the nutrition facts panel as stated in the Nutrition labeling and education act of 1990.
total calories, dietary fiber, trans fat, sugars, total fat, Vitamin A, Cholesterol, Vitamin C, saturated fat, sodium, iron, calcium, total carbohydrate, protein
Ketosis, the buildup of ketones in the blood, can be caused by dietary insufficiency of _________________.
Name five items that must be on a food label.
Name (statement of identity), weight (Net contents of the package), nutritional label, contact information, List of ingredients
What is the limiting amino acid in green peas?
Which amino acids are excpeotionally high in nuts?
How many different amino acids are there?
What is the disease caused by a deficiency of thiamin, and is common where polished rice is a major dietary item?
Our bodies are composed of the following nutrients put them in order of least concentrated to most concentrated carbohydrates, vitamins, protein, water, minerals and fat.
vitamin, carbohydrates, minerals, protein, fat, water
What organ converts lactic acid to glucose?
Chocolate prevents dental caries.
The deficiency of which vitamins causes the following diseases: Scurvy, Beriberi, and Pellagra
Vitamin C, Thiamin, and Niacin
What is the definition of essential amino acids?
amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be present in the diet
The best Vitamin A precursor that occurs in food is called
Hyperkeratinization, xerosis, bitot's spots, keratomalacia, and hyperkeratosis are symptoms of a deficiency of ________?
vitamin A
What is the compound in rhubarb, spinach and beets that result in kidney stone formation?
Calcium oxalate
Soy protein isolates have at least what percent protein?
Name the 5 vitamins added to enriched grain products.
iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and folate
What is the vitamin most associated with antioxidant activity in PUFAs?
vitamin E
A deficiency in what vitamin can result in hypochromic, microcytic anemia?
Hyperuricemia or the buildup of excessive uric acid results in what?
Starvation due to a lack of food is called:
The INQ or "index of nutritional quality" for a nutrient in a food is ...
a ratio between the amount of nutrient in food/calorie and the human need or allowance for that nutrient/calorie
Rickets is caused by?
Vit D deficiency
Typical caloric value of gram of caramel color.
4 Cal
What are the limiting amino acids in corn, potatoes, and green peas?
corn – lysine, potatoes – methionine, green peas - methionine
Give the food pyramid.
My pyramid includes grains, vegetables, fruits, milk and beans and excerise
What organ stores bile for release?
To the nearest percentage, what will be the percent of calories from fat in a product that contains four grams of fat, four grams of protein and five grams of carbohydrate?
Fat 9 kcal, CHO 4kcal, protein 4kcal; fat calories = (4*4+4*5+4*9 = 72), (4*5/72 = 50%)
Hitting the wall is a term runner sometimes uses to describe A. dehydration, B. competition, C. indigestion, D glucose depletion
D. Glucose depletion
The principle lipid component in milk is the class called which of the following: A) steroids B) phospholipids C) triacylglycerides
C) triacylglycerides
What vitamin is a necessary cofactor for transamination reactions?
pyridoxine (vitamine b6)
The deficiencies of what cause these diseases: scurvy, beri beri, pellagra
Scurvy: vitamin C; beri beri: thiamine; pellagra: niacin
Vitamin D increases the absorption ___________ and ____________ from the intestinal tract and is necessary for their efficient utilization.
Calcium and Phosphorous
What is the limiting amino acid of most cereal grains?
What is the common name for 4-amino-2-methyl-1-napthol?
Vitamin K (other names include menadiol acetate, menadiol sodium phosphate, and phylloquinone)
Name the 3 principal nutrients used to enrich rice.
thiamin, niacin, iron
What is another name for Vitamin E?
What is the measure of protein quality using weight gain in experimental animals when fed test item?
protein efficiency ratio(PER)
Too much iron can cause:
Phytic acid has what detrimental effect?
Chelates minerals
Which vitamin contains cobalt?
vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin
Arrange the following 4 cheese from highest to lowest protein content: cheddar, swiss, cottage, feta
cottage, feta, cheddar, swiss
What is a detrimental effect of phytic acid?
It chelates minerals, preventing absorption of minerals such as iron and zinc.
Name 5 food components as identified by “proximate” analysis.
Protein, carbohydrate (NFE), water, ash, lipid, fiber
What is the nutritional claim on a bottle of regular Coca-Cola?
very low sodium 35 mg or less per 240mL
What pigment is a precursor to vitamin A?
What is food intolerance?
a person has difficulty digesting a particular food.
What is a functional food?
a typical food that has had specific nutrients added to it.
What are the major antibodies present in the primary and secondary antibody responses?
for primary response that is IgM and for secondary response that is IgG
Milk is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals expect for what 2 items?
Vitamin C and Iron
Foods are fortified with iodine and to prevent which disease
What biomolecules are identified by the following acronyms: FAD, NAD+, ATP
flavin adenine dinucleotide, nictoinamide adenine dinucleotide, adenosine triphosphate
What is the amount of energy to raise the temperature of 2 grams of water from 14.5 deg C to 15.5 deg C?
2 cal
What elements does glutathione transferase require?
What compound can be smelled on a person's breath during ketosis?
What is kwashiorkor?
protein malnutrition in the presence of adequate calories
What is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius?
What is the function of erythromycin?
The levels of intake of essential nutrient considered adequate for meeting the known nutritional needs of practically all healthy persons is called what?
What is the main difference between a food intolerance and a food allergy?
food intolerance deals with the digestive system and food allergy with the immune system
What fat soluble vitamin has antioxidant properties?
Vit E
What is the term for the ratio of carbon dioxide evolved to oxygen consumed?
respiratory quotient
2 ketogenic amino acids
lysine, leucine
Why is skim milk fortified with Vitamin A?
Vitamin A is lost during processing.
What is the concentration of casein and whey in the protein fraciton of cow's milk?
~82% of milk protein is casein & 18% is serum, or whey protein
Give the numerical factor for converting %N to %crude protein to one decimal point for: soybeans, dairy products, meat products.
soy = 5.7, dairy = 6.4, meat = 6.3
What type of water can be used as a substitute for blood plasma?
Coconut water
What sterol synthesized by plant upon exposure to UV convert to Vit D
Name 3 blood plasma lipid classes
What is the term that describes food where an ingredient, such as a vitamin or mineral, has been added for dietary purposes only?
What is the Recommended Daily Allowance for Calcium?
1000 mg for adults
Give two dicarboxylic amino acids.
Glutamic acid and aspartic acid
What is the cholesterol content of peanuts?
Why are phytates considered to be anti-nutritional?
phytates bind/complex with metal ions and make the metals less bioavailable, most commonly with divalent ions (Ca, Fe, etc)
Rank the following lipoproteins by size: HDL, VLDL< IDL, chylomicrons
What are three positive effects of thermal processing on the nutritive value of foods?
inactivation of degradative enzymes (destruction of anti-nutrients) increased bioavailability of nutrients, reduction of microbes
Which of the statements about dietary fast is NOT true? A. consumption of fat should be <30% of daily calories. B. the healthiest diet contains no meat. C. moderate amounts of fat are essential for fat-soluble vitamin absorption or D. Fat adds flavor
B. Healthiest diet contains no meat.
What vitamin deficiencies caused the following deficiencies scurvy, Berry, Berry and pellagra?
Answer: Scurvy: Vitamin c, Berry Berry: Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Pellagra : niacin (vitamin B3)
Which enzyme is found in saliva and promotes the digestion of the breakdown of starch in the mouth?
What term refers to microorganisms added to the diet in order to provide health benefits beyond basic nutritive value?
Cow's milk is considered to be an ideal food for human health being rich in vitamins and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus however milk lacks one very important mineral. Which one is that?
What has the least number of calories: raw potatoes or potatoes boiled in their skin?
raw potatoes
What is the name of the Vitamin B1?
A high intake of which vitamin can mask a vitamin B12 deficiency?
What are 2 sources of cholesterol in human blood?
your diet and your liver (endogenous synthesis)
What are 3 functions of phosphorus in the human body?
bone deposition, membrane components, atp
Nutritionist refer to beta – carotene as ...
Pro – vitamin A
What are chylomicrons and what do they do?
A type of lipoprotein that delivers triacylglycerol to cells in the body
Put the following foods in order from least to greatest based on the grams of carbs per serving. 5-inch pancake, 8 oz flavored yogurt, 10 oz skim milk, 1 cup of bean chili, ½ cup applesauce
½ cup applesauce (5) 5-inch pancake (15) 10 oz skim milk (15) 1 cup chilli with beans (30) 8 oz flavored yogurt (45)
In what chemical form is glucose stored in the liver and muscles?
What are the 3 positively charged amino acids?
lysine, arginine and histidine
In asia, to prevent the occurrence of Beriberi, rice is fortified with what nutrient?
thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Essential amino acids.
histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine
What is the name of the childhood disease that results from a deficiency in vitamin D?
In general, red meat is a good source of what three minerals?
iron, phosphorus, and zinc
Which of the following food has a highest amount of zinc, per gram?
a ground beef b. chickpeas., c. oysters
List the following grains from high to low based on their glycemic index. Rye, barley, wheat, white rice and quinoa
White rice – 66 Quinoa - 53 Buckwheat – 49 Rye – 41 Barley – 25
What 3 foods contain a high availability of Silicon?
meat, milk, and beer
What are the units for basal metabolic rate?
J/hkg bodymass
Pernicious anemia is the Vitamin _____ deficiency disease and results from a lack of _________
b12; intrinsic factor
Why are linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid considered essential fatty acids?
Answer: they are omega 3 fatty acids taken through diet, because they cannot be synthesized by humans (N six and N three fatty acids cannot be synthesized in vivo)
Name 4 components of dietary fiber.
lignin, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, cellulose, gums, mucilages
What do you have to correct for after total dietary fiber
nitrogen in ash fro protein
What is the difference between glucose and glycogen? Where is glycogen found in abundance in the human body?
Glycogen is a readily mobilized storage form of glucose. It is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues that can be broken down to yield glucose molecules when energy is needed. Most of the glucose residues in glycogen are linked by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Glycogen is found in abundance in liver and skeletal muscle tissue.
What is the difference between anabolism and catabolism?
anabolism = synthesis; catabolism = breakdown
What vitamin can be synthesized from tryptophan, and what disease does its deficiency cause?
niacin, pellagra
Deficiency of what vitamin is associated with neural tube defects?
folate (B9)
In a single serving of 100g of food containing 23 grams of fat and 400 total calories, what percent of the calories come from fat?
What is a measurement based on weight gain of a test subject divided by its intake of a particular food protein during the test period?
Protein efficiency ratio (PER)
Where is 25 hydroxycholecalciferol hydroxylated to produce the active form of vitamin D?
What vitamin contains cobalt?
Answer: vitamin B 12
What term describes the state of chemical and metabolic equilibrium?
How much energy to you get from a gram of carbohydrates?
4 kilocalories
Which nutrient enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract?
Vitamin C
What is the conversion of protein to glucose called?
A nutrient which is needed by the body but is not produced by the body is called what?
An essential nutrient
Beriberi is caused by a deficiency of what vitamin?
How many vitamins are there in all?
What is resistant starch resistant to?
digestion by pancreatic enzymes
I, F, T, S, A amino acids
Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, threonine, serine, alanine
If a food label states it is a rich source of calcium, what does that mean?
20% or more of the daily value
Which disease caused by niacin deficiency is designated by dermatitis?
Give the names of the fat soluble vitamin produced by bacteria in the large intestine.
Vitamin K, Biotin
% protein in nuts: chest nut, hazel nuts, peanuts, pecan, pistachios
Hazelnut (15g), chestnut (2), peanut (26), pecan (9), pistachio (20)
What vitamin naturally occurs only in animal materials such as meat, milk, eggs, and the like?
Vit A
What is deglutition?
the act or process of swallowing food
What is the retinol equivalent?
a unit used for quantifying the vitamin A value of sources of vitamin A, includingboth preformed retinoids in animal foods and precursor carotenoids in plantfoods. RE is defined as 3.3 International Units of vitamin A. 1 retinol equivalent = 6 μg β-carotene or 1 μg retinol.
What 4 seeds are considered to be the richest iron source with 1.3-4.3 mg per 2 tablespoons?
Pumpkin seeds, sesame, flax and hemp
What are designer foods?
foods fortified with health promoting ingredients
One sulfur containing amino acid?
methionine, cysteine
Vitamin deficiencies cause many diseases. For each of the following give the vitamin deficiency it is associated with. Xerophthalmia, Korsakoff’s syndrome, scurvy, pellagra, Wernicke’s encephalopathy, rickets
Xerophthalmia – vitamin A Korsakoff’s syndrome – thiamine (or vitamin B-1) Scurvy – vitamin C Wernicke’s encephalopathy – vitamin B (vitamin B1 is also acceptable) Rickets – vitamin D
Define a calorie and specify the number of calories obtained from the consumption of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat
a calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by one degree centigrade. Carbohydrates and proteins: 4 kCal/g and fat 9 kcal/g. Remember that one food calorie is one kilocalorie in physics.
Name 5 water soluble vitamins.
vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12, pyridoxine, folic acid, thiamine
FAO Mg supplement should have what % of RDA minimum?
What is the only essential vitamin not found in the white potato?
Vit A
Give the order of sweetness for sucrose, maltose, trehalose, and fructose.
What is the purpose of catabolic processes?
break down complex compounds to release energy
What respiratory condition might cause someone to be allergic to cysteine?
How many oxygen molecules can bind to hemoglobin?
Which vitamins are destroyed by alcohol?
B complex vitamins
What drink was developed in 1767 to help mariners stay healthy on long sea voyages?
Tonic water/ carbonated water
Name the 4 fat-soluble vitamins.
A, D, E, and K
Trans fatty acids occur in what animal?
Ruminant animals like cow
Vitamin B6 supplement contain the chemical form of which vitamin?
Ingestion of high levels of mercury (or mercury intoxication) interferes with the function of which essential mineral in the brain?
What protein is universally considered to be nutritionally complete?
What is dehydroalanine? Which amino acids may form dehydroalanine? What is the significance of dehydroalanine in food?
dehydroalanine is a highly reactive product of the heating or alkaline treatment of protein; it arises via a post translational modification of serine or cysteine.; dehydroalanine may produce protein cross links from its reaction with other amino acids decreasing that protein's nutritive value
What are 3 folic acid rich foods?
leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits and juices, beans lentils, fortified breakfast cereals, broccoli
What are the 2 main functions of the pancreas?
exocrine function: aids in digestion, endocrine function: regulates blood sugar levels
What provides the most adsorbable iron? A. 1 apple, B. 1 cup milk, C. 3 oz steak, d. ½ cup spinach
C. 3 oz steak
A vitamin that is a 6-carbon compound with a very similar structure to glucose and is found in fruits and vegetables is what?
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
What is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide?
Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world.
Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate from glycolysis goes to what cycle in the mitochondria?
Citric Acid Cycle/ Krebs Cycle/ TCA
What is the function of erythromycin?
Answer: Antibiotic
What are any of the conducting cells of the nervous system called?
Probiotic & prebiotic combined are called?
What is the polysaccharide that is the main storage form of carbohydrate, largely stored in the liver, with lesser amounts in muscle tissue?
Name, a non digestible food ingredient that may affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and or activity of one or limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon.
The deficiency of what mineral results in a goiter?
In areas where corn was introduced as a staple crop a new disease soon developed. What is the disease and what causes it?
Pellagra, Niacin deficiency (50-80% of corn's niacin is unavailable)
In Canada, what is the minimum protein rating as a source of protein?
Give 3 methods for assessing protein quality.
BV, per, net protein utilization, amino acid score, net protein ratio, relative protein value, PDCAAS
Which vitamin increases calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes healthy bones?
Vitamin D
What vitamin is produced from cholesterol in the body?
vitamin D
What is the brand of seasonings/spices most often used in the US?
Which 2 elements increase Vitamin D adsorption?
Ca and Phosphorous
Does 1 cup of spinach have more, the same or less calcium than 1 cup of ice cream?
more (spinach = 244 mg, ice cream = 176mg)
Rank sweetness from least to most of the following compounds: sucralose, Acesulfame K, neotame, saccahrine
AceK, saccharin, sucralose, neotame
What does GDA stand for on nutrient labels?
Guideline Daily Amount
Give the names of the essential fatty acids for human nutrition.
Linoleic and a-Linolenic acids
Name 4 types of lipoproteins.
VLDL, LDL, HDL, IDL, chylomicrons
Iron can be found in 2 different forms in food. What are these 2 forms and what types of foods are they found in?
Heme – animals Non-heme - plants
What does the acronym NPN stand for?
Non-protein nitrogen
Name and give the corresponding numbers of 5 B vitamins.
B1 – thiamine, B2 – riboflavin, B5 – pantothenic acid, B6 – pyridoxine, B12 – Cobalamine, B4 – choline, B3 – niacin, B7 – Biotin, B9 – folic acid
Why can goats eat grass and paper while humans cannot?
Bacteria present in their stomachs break down the cellulose
Brazil Nuts are rich in what mineral?
What is the nutritional claim that can be made when a product serving is less than 140 mg of sodium?
Low sodium
What 2 vitamins are required for cell division?
folacin and B12 (cobalamin)
This compound is a polymer of glucose. The adult human body usually contains less than a pound. Most of it is found in the liver and muscle.
Which section of the gastrointestinal tract is the major area of adsorption of nutrients?
small intestine
Why are linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids considered essential fatty acids?
n-6 and n-3 cannot be synthesized in the human body
What sweeters are used in Coke zero sugar in the US?
aspartame and acesulfame K
From what amino acid is serotonin derived?
What are the deficiency and toxicity symptoms of vitamin D?
deficiency: rickets, abdominal protrusion; toxicity: soft tissue calcification, renal damage
What compounds found in many brassicas can be both cancer-protective and goitrogenic?
How many calories do you consume every time you lick a stamp?
1/10th of a calorie
What mineral is a major challenge in the fortification of many foods and beverages because of its poor taste and large daily value of 3.5 grams per day?
Manganese is a trace element that is an essential nutrient for humans. List 5 foods that are good sources of manganese.
raisin bran cereals, brown rice, oatmeal, spinach, pineapple, nuts
What polysaccharide from crustecean shells lowers cholesterol?
Vitamin D enhances the absorption of what two minerals?
phosphorus and calcium
What are the units of basal metabolic rate?
Answer: Joule/hour/kilogram body mass or watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min
What amino acid has the greatest molecular weight?
Marasmus is a type of PEM disease. What does PEM stand for?
Protein Energy Malnutrition
What is the difference between folate and folic acid?
Folate is a naturally occuring B vitamin. Folic acid is the synthetic form of this vitamin.
What is ageusia?
The inability to taste
What two essential amino acids contain Sulfur?
Cysteine, methionine
Which mineral can be used as an antioxidant?
Aspartame contains which 2 amino acids?
Phenylalanine and aspartic acid
PDCAAS stands for?
protein digestibility corrected amino acid score
Name one method of cholesterol removal.
Lysine, an essential amino acid is commercially produced by which genus of bacterium for use as a food additive?
What is the conversion factor of kilocalories to kilo joules?
4.184 kilojoules per kilo calorie
What is the enzyme from pineapple that has medicinal uses?
Products of starch hydrolysis having little to no sweetness (D.E. value <20), and commonly used as cryoprotectants and fat replacers are known as: ___________?
According to the FAO, a serving a magnesium supplement must contain a minimum of what percentage of the recommended daily intake?
Manganese is a trace element that is an essential nutrient for humans. List 5 foods that are good sources of manganese.
raisin bran cereals, brown rice, oatmeal, spinach, pineapple, nuts
Which food has the highest fiber content? Five prunes, ½ cup cooked lentils, 2 cups iceberg lettuce, or ¾ cup bran flakes
1/2 cup cooked lentils
Which disease is caused by niacin deficiency, characterized by diarrhea, dementia and dermatitis?
Answer: pellagra
Conditionally essential amino acids.
arginine, cysteine, glutamine, tyrosine, glycine, proline, and serine.
The caloric content of a large egg is A- 50, B-70, C - 100, D - 125
b. 70
Which digestive organ has the highest concentration of lactase enzyme?
Small intestine
What is the protein efficiency ratio (PER) of casein?
Egg yolks are one of the few food that naturally contain which vitamin?
Vit D
What fat soluble vitamin has a well-known role as an antioxidant?
Vitamin E
Which vit increases Ca absorption?
Vit D
Which of the following foods are considered a source of complete protein? A. chicken B. soybean C. yogurt D. A & C, E. all of the above
Why is raw soybean meal not as good a source of essential proteins as cooked or heat processed soybean meal?
soybeans contain trypsin inhibitors which reduce digestibility of soy protein; heating denatures the inhibitors
In 2010, how many calories are in a McDonald's' Big Mac?
Name 5 indispensible amino acids.
Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Histidine (PVT TIM HLL)
How many essential amino acids are required by adults?
Which pigment in tomatoes has disease-preventing characteristics?
Amino acid found exclusively in animal based protein and milk is considered essential to cats and infants?
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