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social norms
societal rules about how people "should" behave
collectivist society
put emphasis on the family or group; you do things for the benefit of the group; the "us" culture…discourages public display of emotion (Japan, China, India are examples)
gambler's fallacy or predictable world bias
assuming that the odds of a streak continuing goes up/down, when in fact the odds do not change (Ex. A woman had 4 girls, thefore she believes that her next child "has to be" a boy, even though the odds of it being a boy are still 50:50.)
social desirability bias
when participants (mostly in surveys) do not answer truthfully; mostly due to societal pressure to give "socially appropriate" responses
out-group homogeneity
the belief that those not in your in-group are MORE ALIKE than they actually are (All (insert group name here) are all the same)
interpersonal attraction
proxmitiy, similarity, physical attractiveness are the "three keys"
Cognitive psychology
branch of psychology that focuses on how humans think and solve problems
influence of environment on physical expression of genes
stereotype threat
THREE PRONGED TERM: 1) when members of a group are made aware of a negative stereotype of that group, 2) they change their behavior, and 3) resultingly they tend to perform worse and cause the stereotype to come true
group polarization
tendency for members of a group discussing an issue to move toward a more extreme version of the positions they held before the discussion began
out-group bias
the "others"; those that are not part of your in-group
peripheral route to persuasion
attempting to change someone's attitude by using arguments that are not content specific (i.e. celebrity endoresment of product, speaker has a nice voice,etc.)
community psychology
specialize in the prevention of psychological disorders
Display rules (Paul Ekman)
cultures have an impact on how much emotion on our faces can be shown in public (Japanese girls cover their mouths while laughing)
pluristic ignorance
when a majority of group members privately reject a norm, but go along with it because they incorrectly assume that most others publically accept it.
reciprocity norm
if someone helps you, you help them; if someone hurts you, you hurt them
situational attributes
the impact of environmental factors on behavior
social trap
satisfying short-term goals which lead to more complicated problems in the long-term (not wearing a mask or getting a vaccine, so the pandemic goes on longer)
prisoner's dilemma
seeks to understand why people who should work together for their own benefit often do not work together
gender schemas
based on individual experiences, it is how one views what it means to be "male" or "female"
passionate love
type of love that contains intense feelings and sexual attraction; quick to develop but typically short lasting type of love
negative THOUGHTS directed against a person or group
superordinate goals
a task that requires joint effort by opposing groups to complete; leads to better cooperation between the groups
contact theory
the belief that working with or exposure to members of minority groups, leads to a decreased level of prejudice towards those groups
halo effect
tendency to ascribe positive personality characteristics (kindness, humor, caring, etc.) to attractive people
stereotype boost
when members of a group are made aware of a positive stereotype of that group, they tend to perform better because of stereotype
representative heuristic
using STEREOTYPES to draw conclusions about people, objects, or situations (Ex. "She's a woman, therefore she must be a bad driver.")
the belief that your culture (language, traditions, religion) is SUPERIOR to other cultures
belief perserverance
THREE PRONGED TERM: 1) you hold a belief, 2) that belief is proven wrong, 3) and you still believe it (Ex. Gary believes that women cause the most traffic accident, but when he is shown evidence from the NTSB that men actually cause more traffic accidents, he still believes that women cause more traffic accidents.)
informational social influence
individuals conform because they believe others possess knowledge that they do not
just-world hypothesis
the belief that people get what they deserve, the belief that the world is "fair"
bystander effect
people are less likely to offer assistance in an emergency situation if there are people around
instrumental aggression
planned aggression towards a goal; (Ex. Defensive lineman pushing people down to get to quarterback)
self-fulfilling prophecy
THREE PRONGED: 1) You hold a belief or expectation about ANOTHER person or group 2) You perform an action towards that person/group that is consistent with that belief/expectation 3) that action you take leads to the expected outcome in that person or group
when well-intentioned people make irrational or “non-optimal” decisions spurred by the urge to conform or the belief that dissent is not possible or allowed
social responsibility norm
it is our duty to help people who cannot or will not help themselves
negative ACTIONS directed against a person or group
external locus of control
the belief that events in ones life are determined by outside factors (luck, circumstance, divine intervention, etc.) (DO NOT USE THE WORD "BLAME")
instinct theory (evolutionary psychology)
humans motivated to stay alive and pass on genes to future generations
Industrial-organizational psychology
psychologists who attempt to improve the workings of companies or groups to make them operate more efficiently
when given a concept, it is the first example that comes to mind (similar to availability heuristic)
gender roles
cultural assumptions on what the different genders are supposed to do (i.e. men "work" and women "cook")
in-group bias
the "us"; people that you share a common identity with
self-serving bias
when something bad happens, blame external forces (I got a 1 on the AP exam because my teacher sucks); when something good happens, blame internal forces (I got a 5 on the AP exam because I'm really smart)…tends to be absent in depressed individuals
companionate love
type of love that contains intimacy and commitment; slow to develop but enduring type of love
Perceptual set
the influence of expectations (use this one as an example first on FRQs), experience(schemas), context, or culture on current perceptions
social inhibition
an audience tends to hinder your performance if it is a difficult task
social facilitation
an audience tends to enhance your performance if it is an easy task
scapegoat theory
when majority groups place "blame" for something on a "minority" group
diffusion of responsibility
the belief that "someone else will do it"…seen in social loafing and bystander effect
Humanistic psychology
branch of psychology that focuses on positive, growth seeking aspects of human nature (Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow)
social loafing
the tendency for individuals in groups to exert less individual effort towards a common goal.
when an individual (1)loses their sense of individuality (anonymity) while part of a group, which makes them (2) more likely to commit an anti-social act (impunity)
the belief that one can accomplish a task (I believe that I can get a 5 on this AP exam!)
past experiences or expectations that have a tremendous influence on our current perceptions (top-down processing)
normative social influence
individuals conform to gain approval or avoid disapproval from the group
internal locus of control
the belief that events in ones life are determined by personal choices and free will (DO NOT USE THE WORD "BLAME")
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the number of people who agree with you in a group
central route to persuasion
attempting to change someone's attitude by using arguments that are content specific (i.e. agreeing with someone on an issue, safety features of a car, etc.)
individualistic society
put emphasis on individual expression; you do things for the benefit of you; the "me" culture…encourages public display of emotion (the US and western Europe are examples)
hostile aggression
unplanned aggression typically associated with anger (Ex. Punching a wall)
elaboration likelihood model
two "routes" used to change someone's attitude (central and peripheral)
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