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SACE Biology Topic 1


DNA and Proteins


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restriction enzymes
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
Epigenome
The instructions that determine what and how genes are expressed in cells.
Agrobacterium
Infectious organism used to move genes into plants
Transgenic
organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species
electroporation
A technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse to a solution containing the cells. The pulse creates temporary holes in the cells' plasma membrane, through which DNA can enter.
transcription factors
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes.
Phenotype
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
mature mRNA
mRNA after splicing has occurred
Biotechnology
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
point mutation
gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
dideoxynucleotide
type of nucleotide with one less oxygen used during DNA sequencing to terminate synthesis
Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
antiparallel
The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix.
product
A substance produced by an enzyme-mediated reaction.
enzyme specificity
Enzyme specificity is the concept that each enzyme catalyzes only one kind of reaction.
Methylation
the addition of a methyl group to cytosine to affect the transcription of a protein
Effect of temperature on enzyme activity
As temperature increases, so does the rate of reaction up until the optimal temperature. After the optimal temperature, the rate of reaction decreases because the enzyme is denatured.
Mutation in somatic cells
Will not be passed on to next generation
coding strand
the strand of DNA that is not used for transcription and is identical in sequence to mRNA, except it contains thymine instead of uracil
46
The number of chromosomes in human cells
Down Syndrome
a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21
deletion mutation
a mutation in which one or more pairs of nucleotides are removed from a gene
tRNA
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
Cytosol
Fluid portion of cytoplasm
Anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
Ribosome
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Histones
protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
Polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
active site
The part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs.
Codon
A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
Translation
Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
RNA polymerase
Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
rRNA
ribosomal RNA
Nucleus
Control center of the cell
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
secondary structure
Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are formed when amino acids in the polypeptide chain form bonds with other amino acids
Chromatin
Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
Substrate
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
Mutation due to virus
Viruses can alter the DNA of their host cells
Thymine
the nucleotide that hydrogen bonds with the nucleotide adenine in DNA.
Ribose
A five-carbon sugar present in RNA
DNA polymerase
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
Rosalind Franklin
Scientist who generated x-ray images of DNA, she provided Watson and Crick with key data about DNA
silenced genes
Genes that are not expressed due to epigenetic changes
Crick and Watson
the two scientists who discovered the structure and shape of DNA with the help of Franklin and Wilkins
sticky ends
Single stranded ends of DNA left after cutting with enzymes
Splicing
removal of introns
Receptors
Proteins or glycoproteins in that are complementary in shape to messenger molecules
Gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
insertion mutation
a mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
Triplet
group of three bases on the template strand of DNA that are complementary to the triplet that occurs on mRNA
AUG
start codon (methionine)
Mutation in germ cell
passed on to the next generation
complementary base pairing
In DNA, T pairs with A; G pairs with C and in RNA, U pairs with A and G pairs with C
Ionising radiation
Type of radiation such as UV, X ray or gamma rays that can cause mutations in DNA.
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
gene of interest
A gene for a desired trait; the one being added to a plasmid.
Epigenetics
the study of influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
double helix
Shape of DNA
Helicase
An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.
mRNA
messenger RNA
EcoRI
a restriction enzyme that specifically cuts DNA with sequence GAATTC and creates sticky ends
Sanger sequencing
A procedure in which chemical termination of daughter strands help in determining the DNA sequence.
tertiary structure
Further folding of the polypeptide to give protein its shape
Uracil
Nitrogen base that pairs with adenine in RNA.
heat shock
increases the permeability of the cell membrane to DNA
Microinjection
the introduction of DNA into the nucleus of an embryo or other cell by injection through a very fine needle.
Effect of enzyme concentration on enzyme activity
Increased enzyme concentration = increased rate of reaction (more active sites available):
Transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Cas9
RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme associated with the CRISPR, produces single strand breaks in DNA
viral vectors
viruses used to deliver genetic material into cells (gene therapy)
template strand
the strand of DNA that specifies the complementary mRNA molecule
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
Introns
Noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding sequences.
hydrogen bond
the bonds formed between bases in double-stranded DNA
Exons
Coding segments of eukaryotic DNA.
primary structure
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
Plasmid
small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria
Cytosine
The base that pairs with Guanine with DNA
Mutagenic chemicals
Any chemical that can cause a mutation in DNA. e.g. nicotine
primer
A short segment of DNA that acts as the starting point for a new strand
Nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Ti plasmid
A plasmid of Agrobacterium that integrates a segment of its DNA into the host chromosome of a plant; frequently used as a carrier for genetic engineering in plants.
gel electrophoresis
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
Effect of pH on enzyme activity
All enzymes work best at optimal pH. above and below the optimal pH the rate of reaction decreases. Extreme pH changes can denature the enzyme.
antibody
A protein that acts against a specific antigen. it has a shape complementary to part of the antigen and binds to it to inactivate the threat.
competitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure is complementary to the active site.
Replication
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
Universality of DNA
All organisms use the same genetic code.
Circular chromosome
A chromosome found in bacteria
non-competitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its shape so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
cellular differentiation
the process by which a cell specializes to carry out a specific role
Guanine
The base that pairs with Cytosine in DNA
nuclear pores
small holes in the nuclear envelope
Chromosomes
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
substitution mutation
Mutation in which a single base is replaced, potentially altering the gene product.
Adenine
The base that pairs with Thymine in DNA
Enzymes
proteins that act as biological catalysts
peptide bond
covalent bond formed between amino acids
short tandem repeats (STRs)
repeating sequences of noncoding DNA used in DNA profiling
quaternary structure
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
induced fit
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
Mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome.
Deoxyribose
A five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity
Increased substrate concentration increases the rate of reaction up until the point when the enzymes are saturated and are all in use.
Protein
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids
Phenotypic expression
The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences. The expression of a specific trait, such as stature or blood type, based on genetic and environmental influences.
enzyme-substrate complex
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).
nitrogenous base
A molecule found in DNA and RNA that encodes genetic information in cells.
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
guide RNA
A small piece of RNA attached to Cas9 that tells it where to cut by binding complementary to the DNA to be cut
CRISPR
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
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