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Sensory and consumer science

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Define enhancement in the context of the interaction of stimuli presented simultaneously as mixtures.
The effect created when one substance increasing the perceived intensity of a second substance.
What is agnosia?
inability to recognize and identify objects, persons, or sounds.
What is the term used to describe the least energy capable of producing a sensation?
absolute threshold
You are determining how much a consumer uses a specific product. This is generally considered what type of sensory test?
acceptance test (acceptance is used of usage and preference for liking)
Describe error of habituation.
Tendency to continue to give the same response when a series of slowly increasing or decreasing stimuli are presented
Which of the following flavors can be felt at the tip of the tongue: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami?
All of them
What compound is generally used as the standard for bitterness in sensory evaluation?
caffeine or quinine solution
Why is flavor considered an organoleptic term?
it is considered a blending of aroma and taste
What 2 compounds are most commonly used as standards for bitterness in sensory evaluation?
quinine and caffeine
Who developed the flavor profile method?
Arthur D. Little
Describe the halo effect.
When more than one attribute of a sample is evaluated the ratings will tend to influence each other. Simultaneous scoring of various flavor aspects along with overall acceptability can produce different results than if each characteristic is evaluated separately
What is the first type of descriptive analysis test used in food sensory science?
Flavor profiling
What is the word for total loss of smell?
What is deglutition?
the act or process of swallowing food
Which taste qualities are NOT mediated by G-protein coupled receptors?
Sour, salty
JAR in sensory stands for?
Just about right
Define suppression in the context of the interaction of stimuli presented simultaneously as mixtures.
The effect created when one substance decrease the perceived intensity of a mixture of two or more substances
What three taste qualities share a common signaling pathway?
Bitter, sweet, umami
The force required to bite through something describes which sensory attribute?
What is the main difference between a triangle test and a 2 or 3-AFC test?
triangle tests the difference is unknown, 2-AFC the subjects are specified to what characteristic is different.
In regard to sensory evaluation, differentiate between "triangle test" and "duo-trio test".
Both are classified as difference tests. A triangle test consists of three samples, two are the same and one is different. The participant is asked to identify the different sample. A duo-trio test consists of three samples in which two are the same and one is different. One of the samples is presented as the reference sample and the participant is asked to identify the matching sample.
Describe the difference between hue, value, and chroma.
HUE: a color or shade . VALUE: value refers to the lightness or darkness of a color.When referring to pigments, dark values with black added are called “shades” of the given hue name. Light values with white pigment added are called “tints” of the hue name. CHROMA: purity or intensity of color E.G.In red hue, fire engine red, brick red & grey is pure red/high intensity, mid intense & low intensity, respectively
When referring to color, what does BCU stand for?
Baking contrast units
Which of the following words means 'Food expert'? A. Matoman B. Gastronome C. Bistrolog D. Aromist
B. Gastronome
How many taste buds does the average adult have?
Halo effect in sensory means?
Subjects rate the same attributes when they appear in a series of questions differently from when they were asked separately.
The flavor profile has become a standard approach to the sensory measurement of aromas and flavors. What company developed this method in 1948?
arthur d. little inc.
What is the scale on which liking or disliking of a stimulus is evaluated?
Hedonic scale
Mathematical model, d prime, in sensory descriptive determination test
Thrustonian model
The statistical test for comparison of means from small sample size (n less than 30) based upon their distribution when the standard deviation is known as
The t-distribution or Student's t-distribution
Rank sweetness from highest to lowest.
Sucralose > stevia > aspartame > sucrose > maltose
What compound is generally used as the standard for sweetness in sensory evaluation?
Sucrose or a sucrose solution.
What is the meaning of the term "organoleptic testing"?
Measuring of attributes of food that individuals sense via sight, sound, taste, smell, etc.
What is the standard texture scale used in sensory analysis?
general foods texture profile method
What is the number of combinations that can be used in a triangle test?
What experimental design should be used in consumer testing when there are too many samples to serve to each panelist? A. completely randomized design, B. randomized block design, C. balanced and complete block design, D. factorial design
C. balanced and complete block design
What is the influence of the condition of a surface on volatility?
At a given temperature, more volatiles escape from a soft, porous, and humid surface than from a hard, smooth, and more dry one
What are the subtractive primaries?
cyan, magenta, and yellow
In 1908 what new taste was discovered?
What are the 3 coordinates in the Hunter-Gardner color solid?
L, a, b
Which test would you use to determine whether Coke is sweeter than Pepsi?
Paired comparison for sweetness
Describe expectation error.
Subjects anticipate the sensation and report their response before it is applicable.
In a sensory what are the sensations elicited by volatile compounds?
Odour, smell
Give an example of cross potentiation.
Observer perceives more bitterness in the test sample because of the tasting of sucrose has heightened his sensitivity to bitterness
What is sensory adaptation?
A decrease in or change in sensitivity to a given stimulus as a result of continued exposure to that stimulus or a similar one
What is the probability of a duo-trio test?
List 5 types of biases that may be caused by order of presentation in sensory evaluation
Contrast effect, group effect, error of central tendency, pattern effect, time error/positional bias
CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) is a color space specified by the French Commission internationale de l'éclairage. What is the translation of the name of this commision in English?
International Commission on Illumination
What is the difference between somesthesis and kinesthesis?
somesthesis = tactile sense, skin feel; Kinesthesis = deep pressure sense of proprioception
What is the meaning of the term "organoleptic testing"?
evaluation involving use of the sense organs
Different types of difference tests in sensory.
Descriptive, affective, effective
On what binomial probability is the triangle test based
1/3rd or 33%
G protein couple receptors detect what three tastes?
Bitter, sweet, umami
The results of what sensory test are often plotted to give a flavor profile, with the resulting graph being referred to as a spiderweb plot?
Quantitative Descriptive Analysis
Enhancement or suppression involves the interaction of stimuli presented simultaneously as mixtures. Define Synergy in this context.
The effect of the presence of one substance increasing the perceived combined intensity of two substances, such that the perceived intensity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the intensities of the components
Name 2 food ingredients that are used as flavor enhancers
MSG, inosine phosphate, guava nectar, maltitol, neotame, yeast extract, etc.
What type of ANOVA should be used when the means being compared are based on multiple observations from the same group of individuals?
Repeated measures ANOVA
What is the so called "trigeminal senses"?
Free nerve endings (of the trigeminal nerve) present in the oral and ansl cavities which are sensitive to irritants (capsaisin, acetic acid, ammonia, astringents) and act as protection device against harmful chemicals, also detect texture and most other food characteristics
JIT in sensory stands for?
Just In Time
What is the difference between the following types of data: nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
Nominal = the items examined are placed in two or three groups that differ in name but do not obey any particular order or any quantitative relationship; Ordinal = the panelist places the items examined into two or more groups that belong to an ordered series (e.g. level of intensity); Interval = panelists place the items into numbered groups separated by a constant interval (e.g., three, four, five, six); Ratio = panelists use numbers that indicate how many times the stimulus in question is stronger than a reference stimulus presented earlier; Nominal data contains the least information. ordinal data carries more information and can be analyzed by most nonparametric statistical tests. Interval and ratio data are even better because they can be analyzed by all nonparametric methods and often by parametric methods. Ratio data is preferred by some because it is free from end of scale distortions, however, in practice, interval data, which is easier to collect, appears to give equal results
Which descriptive sensory analysis technique uses consumers instead of trained judges?
free choice profiling
Put these peppers in order from the least to greatest based on their Scoville units: Poblano, Carolina, Reaper, Cayenne, Birds eye chilli, Jalapeno
Poblano - 1250 Jalapeno – 5000 Cayenne – 50000 Birds eye chilli – 100000 Carolina reaper - 1500000
Name the receptors that detect the quality parameters of the appearance, odor, taste, and mouthfeel of foods.
Appearance – photoreceptors Odor – chemoreceptor (olfactory cells) Taste – chemoreceptors, taste buds Mouthfeel - thermoreceptor
Which compound is responsible for umami flavor?
Which alkaloid compound is an anti-malarial agent and is the standard for bitter taste sensation?
Name 3 of the 4 most common trigeminal sensations.
oral heat, metallic, astringency and pungency
Which of the following is flavor enhancer?: MSG, citric acid, mono potassium glutamate
What is responsible for the trigeminal senses?
free nerve endings present in the oral and nasal cavities which are sensitive to irritants (capsaicin, acetic acid, ammonia, astringents) and act as a protection device against harmful chemicals
What is the sensory effect that results from the interaction of calcium and pectin
Texture (firming)
If you have 8 panelists who will try all 4 samples, what type of experimental design would you use and how many degrees of variance would you have?
randomized complete block design; degrees of variance 8-4 = 4
An object that absorbs light in the red and the blue regions of the visible spectra will appear what hue?
On what binomial probability is triangle-test based?
Sensory tests may be divided into 3 groups on the basis of the type of information that they provide. What are the three types?
Discrimination, descriptive, affective (preference)
Which of the 5 basic tastes are humans most sensitive?
What are the 3 primary colors?
Red, Blue, and Green
Sensory evaluation methods that are devised to measure the acceptance of a product are called Affective Tests. Give an example.
A paired preference test, A preference ranking test, and The hedonic test method
In this discrimination test of sensory evaluation panelists must choose whether or not two coded samples are different.
paired comparison
In sensory analysis, what type of scale is generally used for acceptance testing?
What are the labels on a 9-point hedonic scale?
Neutral; Like/Dislike Extremely, Very Much, Moderately, Slightly
In sensory tests what scale is used to measure the appropriateness or optimum level of specific attributes?
Just about right
What is the term for investigation and quantification of how physical stimuli evoke sensations and perceptions?
Identify the name of this sensory test: each subject is presented with two samples, and are asked whether the samples are the same or different.
Same/difference of simple difference tests, may also be paired comparison (lacks predictable null hypothesis)
The R-index is a sensory difference test which is based upon what theory?
signal detection theory
What is the difference between a category scale and a ratio scale?
Category scale is made up of equal intervals, Ratio scale has the judge express ratios of intensities (sample compared to reference)
Humans taste with their tongues, what do butterflies taste with?
their feet
What is the average lifespan of a taste bud?
7 days
What is the name for the 5th basic taste, sometimes called savory?
What term describes the concentration of an aroma in a food divided by its threshold?
aroma value or odor activity value
In sensory analysis what is the term for when the brain allows very specific positive traits to influence overall evaluation?
Halo effect
How do the roles of consumers and trained, expert panels differ in sensory testing?
consumers tell you if a food is acceptable or not and trained panels identify and describe the product attributes.
What does the hunter color scale measure?
chroma, hue and value
Describe stimulus error.
This occurs when panelists notice otherwise irrelevent factors regarding samples or their presentation which modifies their perception.
In sensory, volatile compound sensation
Describe four aspects of appearance of a sample in sensory evaluation.
Color: hue + saturation + luminance Consistency: stickiness + loose particles Size: diameters + geometry Texture: shine + smoothness + roughness
In which of the following tests do you need a reference comparison: duo-trio, hedonic, paired comparison
duo-trio; paired comparison
What is an achromatic color?
– A color that has no hue (white, gray or black)
What is term used when the difference threshold is What is determined by changing the variable stimulus by small amounts above and below the standard until the subject notices a difference
Just noticeable difference
Arthur D Little attributed with
Development of flavor profile
Identify the name of this sensory test: five samples are presented and panelists are instructed that two are of one kind and three are of another. The panelists are then asked to identify the two different samples.
Two out of five test
What compound is responsible for “banana” flavor?
isoamyl acetate
Two methods to mask differences between sample appearances during sensory testing?
Change the lighting, use different lights such as red, darker in the room
What does the term oleogustation refer to?
the taste of fat
When can one-tailed test be used for sensory testing?
Describe logical error.
When two or more characteristics of the samples are associated in the minds of the assessors. Knowledge that a darker beer tends to be more flavorful, or that darker mayonnaise tends to be stale, causes the observer to modify his verdict, thus disregarding his own perceptions
Identify the name of this sensory test: each subject is presented with two samples and is asked whether the samples are the same or different.
Discrimination testing
The fifth taste response, whose substance are often called flavor potentiators like MSG is called
What is fuzzy logic in simple terms?
A form of logic which can take many values, as opposed to 1 or 0 or True or False, in conventional Boolean Logic
What does AFC stand for in a 2AFC or 3AFC sensory test?
alternative force choice
How would you determine which brand of pudding is preferred by customers?
sensory evaluation, preference tests
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