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In 2003, the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) unveiled a new program which dramatically changed the way Grade A Milk Processing Facilities may be inspected and listed in the IMS list. What was this program?
Voluntary HACCP program
Why are enrichment techniques used when examining food for the presence of salmonella?
salmonella re usually present in small numbers. Enrichment allows salmonella to grow and outcompete non-salmonella microbes and also allows recovery of injured cells
In sucralose, some hydroxyl groups are replaced with which element?
What is the NLEA?
Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (in 1990)
What is the name of the cocktail that contains white rum, mint, soda water, lime juice and sugar?
Anti nutritional factor in rhubarb and spinach that prohibits calcium absorption?
Oxalic acid
Potassium sorbate is primarily used as a food preservative. Why is it used more than its acid form, sorbic acid?
Because the salt is more soluble in foods than the acid.
What milk product did the U.S. Agriculture Department propose as a substitute for meat in school lunches, in 1996?
What year was the Maillard reaction discovered?
Primary product of fat oxidation?
Acetyl CoA
What is the % fat in whole milk?
3.25 (by law)
What is the food dye carmine made from?
What are the typical organisms used in the production of cottage cheese?
lactococcus lactis subsp lactis, lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris; homofermentative fast acid producing
What is the measure of protein quality using weight gain in experimental animals when fed test item?
protein efficiency ratio(PER)
In Microwave processing, what is penetration depth?
The penetration depth is used to denote the depth at which the power density has decreased to 37 % of its initial value at the surface.
Enzymatic browning is caused by the oxidation of what type of compounds? Name the enzyme.
polyphenols; Polyphenoloxidase/phenolase
What food product was the first to ever have a barcode?
Wrigely’s gum
What does OFG stand for in a popular food science blog?
Official Food Geek
Why is having excess flour particulates in a milling plant hazardous?
Fire hazard
Name of the food derived from dried maize that has undergone nixtamalization)
Cornmeal that has been soaked in an alkaline solution, e.g., limewater (a process known as nixtamalization), it is called masa harina (or masa flour),
What is the term for a place where fresh healthy food is unaffordable or inaccessible?
food desert
What is the single most important phase of a sterile canning operation?
Name 2 wet methods for determination of fat content in milk.
gerber and babcock
What is the conversion of protein to glucose called?
The Christie—Atkins—Munch-Peterson (CAMP) test is used to identify what foodborne pathogen?
Listeria monocytogenes
In terms of plant respiration, what does the acronym RQ stand for and how is it defined?
Respiration Quotient. It is defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the plant to oxygen consumed by the plant
Why was Schwan’s ice cream recalled from the marketplace in October of 1994?
presence of Salmonella
Beef was traditionally suspended using which tendon, which was also a cause of muscle shortening?
What are the three functions of sulfuric acid in the Babcock test?
generate heat, precipitate protein, digest protein
Name three leavening agents.
Baking soda, baking powder, whipped egg whites, steam, dry yeast
Which USDA agency inspects red meat products at slaughter?
Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
What are the major pigments in yellow peppers?
What vitamin is a necessary cofactor for transamination reactions?
pyridoxine (vitamine b6)
What are the 3 coordinates in the Hunter-Gardner color solid?
L, a, b
Who was the first commission of the US Food and Drug Administration?
Harvey Washington Wiley
Why should olive oil be stored in a dark environment?
prevent photooxidation of PUFAs
What sausage manufacturing process involves grinding and mixing meat ingredients with cure to permit protein solubilization and chemical analysis before final mixing in sausage manufacture?
What is the Codex Alimentarious Commission?
a group of 144 countries that develop standards for food commodities internationally
What organic acids are associated with the following fruits? Apples, grapes and oranges
apples – malic acid, grapes – tartaric acid, oranges – citric acid
What are mohr's titration and volhard titration used for?
determining salt concentration
What is an infection that can be caused by eating undercooked pork from pigs fed raw garbage?
Of the following which is a fermented product: bologna, summer sausage, brausweiger or bratwurst?
summer sausage
What is the main ingredient in the Southern dish, the potlikker?
Collard Greens
Why is lactose-free milk sweeter than regular milk?
Lactose converted to glucose + galactose
Polyethylene is most often used in laminated packaging materials for __________
heat sealability
What is the nonprotein portion of myoglobin?
heme ring
Name three functions of nitrate in cured meats.
anti c. bot, stabilize myoglobin, flavor
What are the holes in Swiss cheese caused by and what are they called?
Carbon dioxide and they are called eyes.
What is poising capacity?
apparent resistance to change in redox potential
Lecithins are structurally like fats but contain what?
Phosphoric acid
What is the caloric content of alcohol?
7 Cal/g
What is the most commonly used proteolytic enzyme, an extract from the papaya plant?
Different types of difference tests in sensory.
Descriptive, affective, effective
What US state has the greatest number of farms?
In which dairy products is acetaldehyde a problem or defect?
Polymorphic forms of lipids in chocolate?
What European nation consumes more spicy Mexican food than any other country?
Name two conditions under which yeasts and molds will outcompete most bacteria.
low Aw (0.6-0.7) and pH <4 or >9
What happens if whipped cream is whipped too far?
The fat begins to turn into butter
When was the USDA created and who did Abraham Lincoln appoint as its first leader?
1862. Charles Wetherill
What type of carotenoid predominates in wheat flour?
xanthophyll and its esters (no vit. A activity)
Inosine methylene blue agar is used for?
Lactose fermenting
In 2008, what state ranked first in value of production of sweet corn, fresh market snap beans, fresh market tomatoes, and fresh market cucumbers?
What is the active enzyme in rennet? And what does it do to milk?
chymosin - breaks down the milk protein casein to paracasein which combines with ca to form calcium paracaseinate which separates out
What vitamin is produced from cholesterol in the body?
vitamin D
Protein A is eluted faster than Protein B on a gel filtration column. Which protein has a higher molecular weight?
Protein A
Toxins produced by molds are called _________?
The small deposits of fat within meat muscle generally characteristic of higher grades of meat is known by what name?
What is the limiting amino acid in green peas?
Which describes a class 2 recall? a. minor violations not subjecto FDA action b. exposure but no health consequences c. exposure may cause health consequences d. reasonable use or exposure will causes serious health consequences
c. exposure may cause medically reversible health consequences
Name a commonly available food source of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein.
Rooibos leaves are used to make what type of tea?
Red tea
Given in the proper order, what are the four steps in cleaning and sanitizing food equipment?
Cleaning, rinsing, sanitizing, air drying
What is the carcinogen found in mushrooms?
What polysaccharide from crustecean shells lowers cholesterol?
Name the three main components of cereal grains.
endosperm, germ, bran
Describe the halo effect.
When more than one attribute of a sample is evaluated the ratings will tend to influence each other. Simultaneous scoring of various flavor aspects along with overall acceptability can produce different results than if each characteristic is evaluated separately
What does a BCU of 0.00 indicate?
The BCU (baking contrast units) range from 0.00 (darkest) – 5.25 (lightest) BCU.
Which of the following is not considered an offal? a. Trotters b. Lights c. Tripe d. Rounds
d. Rounds Trotters: hooves, Lights: lungs, tripe: stomach lining, Rounds: rear leg cut
Please name a common detector specifically used to measure volatile sulfur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide.
PFD – pules flame photometric detection ( other acceptable answers PFD, pulse flame detection or SCD – sulfur chemiluminescence detector)
What is the irreversible first product produced during Maillard Browning?
Amadori rearrangement product
Name the four categories the plant pigments are classified in.
Carotenoids, anthocyanins, Betalains, chlorophylls
What compound is generally used as the standard for sweetness in sensory evaluation?
Sucrose or a sucrose solution.
Give the order of sweetness for sucrose, maltose, trehalose, and fructose.
Furfural mercaptan is a volatile largely found in what food?
Fresh roasted coffee
With regard to chemical structure, what do seed gums (locust bean, guar, arabic, mesquite) all have in common?
They are galactomannans
Regular orange extract contains 250 flavor compounds. How many are found in artificial orange?
The generally accepted oldest food law is the 'Reinheitsgebot' law aka German Purity Law which defines beer can contain what three ingredients?
Barley or malt as well as water but the third ingredient is hops.
What is the F Value in microbial death kinetics?
Lethality - the time in minutes required to bring about a required log reduction in target microbial population at a defined temperature.
As of 2005, what is the official soft drink of Maine?
What sweetener did ira remsen discover in 1879?
Carotenoids are formed from multiple units of what five carbon compound?
Name two types of insoluble fiber and a dietary source for each.
Lignin- flax, rye and some vegetables; Cellulose- whole wheat, bran, seeds
What is the shelf life of UHT processed milk?
six to nine months
What milk product is 42 % sucrose and 12% lactose?
Condensed milk
What equipment is preferable to sterilize canned soups?
rotary retort
Name a tree fruit that is referred to as a vegetable.
Cucumber, pepper, corn, tomato
The modern name “Walnut” comes from the German word Walnuss, What does Walnuss mean?
Foreign nut
What would you do to change a temperature reading from Farenheit to degree Rankine?
add 459.67
What is the sweetest occurring substance known to man?
guanidine (discovered in 2016) however thaumatin is also acceptable as this is what is in the Guinness book of world records.
What is hysteresis?
Hysteresis represent the history dependence of physical systems. If you push on something, it will yield: when you release, does it spring back completely? If it doesn't, it is exhibiting hysteresis, in some broad sense.
What does the Italian word linguine mean?
Little tongue.
Chickens that are beyond their production capacity for egg-laying and are no longer usable in human food are called what?
Spent hens
At what pH does phenolphthalein change color?
pH 8.5
Define a calorie and specify the number of calories obtained from the consumption of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat
a calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by one degree centigrade. Carbohydrates and proteins: 4 kCal/g and fat 9 kcal/g. Remember that one food calorie is one kilocalorie in physics.
What does HETP stand for in column design?
Height equivalent to theoretical plate
Explain IR radiation.
it is transmitted as a wave and gets converted into heat when it impinges on the food surface
Beriberi is caused by a deficiency of what vitamin?
How is orange juice defined by the US code of federal regulations?
unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called Ambersweet
Sensory evaluation methods that are devised to measure the acceptance of a product are called Affective Tests. Give an example.
A paired preference test, A preference ranking test, and The hedonic test method
What does "ETEC" stand for in microbiology?
Enterotoxigenic E. coli
What elements does glutathione transferase require?
How many carbons are in lactose?
What is kefir?
milk fermentation product from yeast and lactic acid bacteria (saccharomyces kefir)
What do we call the prolamines in corn?
What is carboxy-methyl-cellulose often used for?
What are the 2 main functions of the pancreas?
exocrine function: aids in digestion, endocrine function: regulates blood sugar levels
What is misbranding?
a food has been improperly labeled or filled/packaged to be misleading
What is the main advantage of an agitating retort over a still retort?
increase in heat transfer, decrease time for geometric center to reach desired temperature
What syndrome in swine brings an increased susceptibility to PSE (pale, soft, exudative) lean?
Porcine stress syndrome
What does TBHQ stand for and what is its function in food?
Tertiary butylhydroquinone, it is used as an antioxidant in fats and oils
This compound is a polymer of glucose. The adult human body usually contains less than a pound. Most of it is found in the liver and muscle.
The oxidation of the iron in myoglobin to the ferric state results in the brown pigment called...
Which part of a tree protects the seeds?
Outbreaks of Salmonellosis from consumption of raw almonds in 2000 and 2004 were caused by rare phage types of Salmonella Enteritidis. What were these two rare phage types?
PT 30 in 2000 and PT 9c in 2004
What are the 2 distinct syndromes of B. cereus gastroenteritis?
vomiting (emetic) type, diarrhea type
Acrolein is a potentially toxic product that can occur in food processing applications. Give the source and the type of degradation can yield this chemical.
Thermal decomposition of fats
In what year was the IFT student member classification established?
The desirable bright red color of cured meats is due to the pigment
How many polypeptide chains make up an antibody?
Which candy bar's name is derived from Tween biscuit sticks?
Per Codex in order for a food to be called semi bitter chocolate, what percentage of its weight must be made up of chocolate solids
a. 15% b. 30% c. 45% d. 70%
In what year were the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act signed into law by President Theodore Roosevelt?
What is the geometric configuration of double bonds in most natural fatty acids?
What type of packaging controls involves actively or passively controlling the masses surrounding a product?
The temperature at which the water vapor in the air under a constant barometric pressure will condense into liquid water is called?
the dew point
What is sodium silicoaluminate used for?
An anticaking agent
To be classified as Champagne a sparkling wine must have 90psi or 6 atm of pressure. What is the concentration of sugar added, known as the liqueur de triage, to achieve this pressure during the 2nd fermentation?
24 g/L
What is the scientific name of the most tender muscle in a beef carcass?
Psoas Major
Why would it be beneficial to modify the atmosphere of a package that contains a food with polyunsaturated fatty acids with nitrogen?
Reduce oxidative rancidity/ Reduce lipid oxidation
How many seconds should you wash your hands as stated by the CDC?
20 s in US, 15 s in Canada
What enzyme inhibits calpains during the cooler aging process?
Stability of egg foam is promoted by all the following except
concentration of protein, pH of the system, the addition of water, presence of sugar
What is the number of combinations that can be used in a triangle test?
What spoilage compound is associated with a medicinal off odor caused by alicyclobacillus?
What causes wrinkled casings of beef sticks?
There could be several reasons for these results. The temperature may have risen too high. The sausage may not have been showered with cold water immediately after it was finished smoking. The sausage casings may not have been stuffed to their full capacity.
When testing for c. perfringens, what is the only test result that is negative suggesting a positive confirmation of c. perfringens?
What color of ink is used to apply the red meat carcass inspection stamp?
What are the substrates for soy sauce?
soybean, water, salt, wheat
The sun can be approximated as a blackbody at what temperature?
What chemical compound is determined as an indicator of maillard browning?
What newly-imported substance caused the first major outbreak of tooth decay in Europe in the 1500's?
What is a nonsolvent wet extraction method used to measure fat in foods?
Babcock or Gerber extractions
What is the first alteration observed in ultrastructural integrity of postmortem muscle fibers?
Z disk degradation
What is invert sugar?
hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose
What element in commerical apple juice can be fatal in large amounts?
What makes milk white in color?
the casein micelles that scatter light.
Who has the prime responsibility for the safety, wholesomeness, and nutritional quality of food?
- Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the USDA seeks to ensure that meat and poultry products for human consumption are safe, wholesome, and correctly marked, labeled, and packaged if they move into interstate or international commerce. FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) seeks to ensure that all other foods are safe, sanitary, nutritious, wholesome, and honestly and adequately labeled
In what year was IFT founded?
The fifth taste response, activated by flavor potentiators like MSG, is called
What method used for protein analysis aids the researcher in determining relative percentage of alpha helix and beta sheets in a single protein?
IR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, Xray crystallography
When was the Bureau of Chemistry, later the FDA, founded?
What are some positive effects of precooling of fruit and vegetables?
slow degradation, reduce wilting, slow rotting
EDTA and citric acid are examples of what group of additives used in foods?
metal chelators - prevent oxidation
In thermoprocessing, what is the difference between "sterility" and "commercial sterility"?
Sterility: free from microorganism Commercial Sterility: Free from pathogenic microorganisms and reduced levels of spoilage microorganisms that does not affect quality of a product
Name 2 reasons why pectin is used in the processing of fruit juice.
To increase clarity and yield
What are the two principal sources of juiciness in meat, as detected by consumers?
Moisture and intramuscular fat (marbling)
Which vegetable is known as a ripening anomaly, ripen after it has been picked from the tree?
What amino acid has the greatest molecular weight?
Loganberry is a cross of what two berries?
raspberry and blackberry
What is the defect in ice cream that is caused by the formation of lactose crystals?
Amino acid found exclusively in animal based protein and milk is considered essential to cats and infants?
Thermal destruction of microorganisms obeys zero order, first order, or second order kinetics?
first order
What is the polysaccharide that is the main storage form of carbohydrate, largely stored in the liver, with lesser amounts in muscle tissue?
What does the “c” stand for in the equation E=mc^2?
the speed of light
What is the water activity to cause spoilage for bacteria, yeast, and molds?
Bacteria - 0.9, Yeast - 0.85-0.9, Mold 0.75-0.8
What is the minimum recommended doneness (F) for a whole chicken?
Controlled atmosphere is used for the long term storage of apples. What are the main components of controlled atmosphere?
low temperature, low oxygen, high carbon dioxide
To standardize the names of retail cuts, the meat industry has adopted a common list of names called what?
Uniform retail meat identity standards (URMIS)
What is the most common pathogen found in cheese outbreaks?
What causes the pH to drop during the aging of eggs?
loss of carbon dioxide through the egg shell
What is the difference between recombinant bovine growth hormone and natural bovine growth hormone?
Recombinant version has an additional Methionine
What two spices are derived from the fruit of the nutmeg tree?
Nutmeg and Mace
What carbon to carbon number bonds are present, most commonly, in the straight and branched chains of starch?
straight: alpha 1-4, branch: alpha 1-6
What 1 bacteriocin is approved for food preservation in the US and in what product may it be used?
Nisin - pasteurized process cheese spread
Name a salt soluble meat protein.
myosin, actin
A plot of 1/Vmax plotted against 1/ substrate concentration is called what?
lineweaver burk plot
What is the limiting amino acid of most cereal grains?
Titles of CFR pertaining to food.
Title 7, 9, 21, 27, 50
Haagen Dazs is : a- the new last name of Sonja haagen after she married frank Dazs, b - a century old Dutch ice cream company that started marketing in the US in 1957, c- the name of an ice cream company originally founded by US entrepreneur Reuben Mattus, who thought up the name while taking a shower, d - an ice cream company founded by pillsbury company
When viscosity of a fluid increases, what happens to the reynolds number?
What is the scientific name of the honeybee?
Apis mellifera
Mezcal is an alternate name of which popular alcoholic beverage?
Taquila when cannot be called tequila
Five other vegetables have the same species name as head cabbage (brassica oleracea). Name two.
Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kale, Kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, Collards
What might the Doppler effect be used to measure in food settings?
Flow velocity or food intake
Name three methods for the calculation of lethality.
general, formula (ball) method, and numerical
HLB values for oil in water emulsion.
High value (8 to 16)
What is the protein source in TVP (textured vegetable protein)?
What is a strecker degradation?
part of a browning reaction, where an amino acid and a dicarbonyl produce CO2 and flavorful aldehydes
Name two types of rancidity.
Hydrolytic and oxidative
E. coli O157H7 was first identified as a human pathogen in 1982. But what year was it first isolated from an infected person?
What foodborne parasite is found in cat litter?
Toxoplasma gondii
According to dietary guidelines in US, how much sodium should be consumed daily?
2300 mg
Which compound is responsible for umami flavor?
What provides the most adsorbable iron? A. 1 apple, B. 1 cup milk, C. 3 oz steak, d. ½ cup spinach
C. 3 oz steak
Name one chemical compound that is used to sanitize food processing equipment.
Hypochlorites, quaternary ammonium, Peroxyacetic Acid (PAA)
What are designer foods?
foods fortified with health promoting ingredients
If the freezing point of milk is closer to zero degrees C, what could be the cause?
Adulteration with water
What is a set of directions that should (must) be followed to ensure food safety when completing certain tasks such as cooking chicken, cooling a food, or sanitizing a work surface?
Standard operating procedures
How many teams will be competing in the College Bowl competition finals in June?
The interaction of glutenin and gliadin forms a class of proteins called
When was Journal of Food Science first published and by what name?
1936, Food Research
What structures do bacteria such as e. coli use for movement?
In what country did the Jerusalem artichoke originate?
Name genus and species of most common mango fruit.
Mangifera indica
Name the main microorganism used in malolactic fermentation.
Oenococcus oeni
Name the compound responsible for pungency in mustard, horse radish, wasabi, radish.
Give 2 ways to measure ethylene.
There are several ways to measure ethylene: 1) gas chromatography (best but expensive); 2) kitagawa tubes, or equivalent; 3) other types of chemical sensors; or 4) another plant that is sensitive to ethylene.
What is the shape of the federal inspection stamp for exotic meat?
A triangle
What is the term used to describe pork meat that has undergone a sudden decrease in pH after slaughter?
Pale, Soft, and Exudative Meat
Anions form hydration shells in water by what type of interaction?
What is a food infestation?
the consumption of a food containing a parasite
Per Codex, what % cocoa dose semi-bitter chocolate need to be? a. 15 b. 30 c. 45 d. 70
b. 15%
The PBS/HBO children's television show Sesame Street features a blue muppet character named after a snack and is always hungry for it. Name the character.
Cookie Monster
In material/energy balance for continuous processes, what must also be considered?
Which vit increases Ca absorption?
Vit D
What is the difference between direct and indirect heating systems?
direct: having steam condense into a product (directly contacts product). indirect: the use of equipment to exchange heat between the surface that is heated and the product
Steam table disease is caused by consumption of meat dishes adequately cooked but held at 50-55 degrees C for several hours. the causative agent is _____________.
Clostridium perfringens
What is Capsaicin and where is it found?
Pungent flavor of hot peppers
What property of a protein can be determined using SDS electrophoresis?
molecular weight
Kirsch is a brandy made of which fruit?
What amino acids, with an aromatic side chain, have hydrophilic properties?
Fresh lime juice to protein solubility.
increase or decrease solubility
What inorganic compound in red meat is needed for the manufacture of many enzymes and hormones in the human body?
A popular south asian delicacy, Balut is a dish cooked by boiling or steaming what and eaten from its shell?
Fertilized developing duck egg embryo
The R-index is a sensory difference test which is based upon what theory?
signal detection theory
What does power dissipation measure and what are the units?
conversion of microwave energy to heat, and W/cm^2
What specific vitamins and minerals are added to enrich macaroni and noodle products?
Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron
What does the M in M & Ms stand for?
Mars & Murrie, to co-creators of the candy
What is the difference between gelato and ice cream in terms of sugar and fat content, and overrun?
Gelato is higher in sugar, lower in overrun and fat
How many new food and drink products are launched worldwide each year?
You are determining how much a consumer uses a specific product. This is generally considered what type of sensory test?
acceptance test (acceptance is used of usage and preference for liking)
Name three metabolic products of heterofermentative microorganisms.
acetic acid, ethanol, formic acid, and CO2
Why does the pH of albumen in freshly laid eggs change from 7.6 to 9.7 during storage?
diffusion of solubilized CO2 through the shell
What is the established legal level for reduced cholesterol in food?
25% reduction
What nut is traditionally on the Waldorf salad?
What two myofibrillar proteins form cross-bridges during muscle contraction?
actin and myosin
Describe error of habituation.
Tendency to continue to give the same response when a series of slowly increasing or decreasing stimuli are presented
The accumulation of adipose tissue around the bundles of muscle fibers in beef is called what?
Is apple juice sweeter when it is colder?
A 6D process reduces the population of the target organism by what percent?
The process of vacuum sealing raw or fresh food items in a plastic pouch and partially or completely cooking the food in low temperature water is called?
Sous Vide
Bromelain from pineapple, ficin from figs, papain from papaya, trypsin from pancreas may all be added to meat to serve as what type of agent?
What is the scale used to measure the bitterness of commercially brewed beers?
IBU (International Bittering Unit)
When wine is said to be completely dry it is lacking in what?
What is the building block structural component of carotenoids called?
Isoprene or isoprenoid units
What are the prolamins in corn called?
What was margarine called when it was first marketed in England?
What are the 3 main types of indirect heating?
PHE, THE, SSHE (plate heat exchanger, tubular heat exchanger, and scraped surface heat exchanger)
This condiment was originally sold as a medicine in the 1830’s.
What does IMF stand for and what is the range of water activity?
intermediate moisture foods, 0.6-0.9 water activity
How does food irradiation kill pathogens?
Genetic material is disrupted
Name the favorite drink of the fictional secret agent James Bond and how he likes it served.
Dry Martini, shaken not stirred (vodka martini and dirty martini acceptable)
When was the Federal Meat Inspection Act passed?
Improvement in baking quality occurs during storage of flour. What type of chemical reaction is the cause?
What is the only beverage more popular than tea?
Why are "cereal adjuncts" added in beer making?
Cereal Adjuncts can impact color, flavor, and stability of the product.
Why is listeria monocytogenes of greater concern in refrigerated foods than in foods stored at ambient temperature?
L. m. is a psychrotroph that selectively grows at low temperatures
What is Krausening (used in beer production)?
natural carbonation, the CO2 from fermentation collected and added back into the beer later
What is the purpose of adding extenders, binders and fillers ot meat? Give three examples.
Extenders were originally used to reduce costs but they were later used to make meat products more healthy by adding dietary fiber, or to improve the texture
When and where was the first annual feeding tomorrow for early IFT foundation fund run held?
it was held in New Orleans in 2001
Besides Salmon, name 1 other fish in the family Salmonidae.
whitefish, trout, char, grayling
What is the equation for the Ideal gas Law?
PV = nRT
Which of the following has the greatest market share of food packaging? A. flexible packaging, b. glass, c. other metals or d. paper & board
D. Paper and board
What are the 3 USDA quality grades of rabbits?
US Grade A, US Grade B, and US Grade C
Food Chemistry codex publisher is:
US Pharmacoepia
What is the common name for the pelt removal process during sheep slaughter?
What term refers to the physical location of a gene on a strand of DNA?
Locus, plural is loci.
Bacteria overgrowth on fish can result in the production of scombrotoxins. Name one food process that Scrombotoxins are resistant to.
smoking, cooking and canning
Bitter compounds in coffee after roasting?
Chlorogenic acid, phenyl indane
What % fat in bovine milk exists as TAGs? a. 83% b. 88% c. 93% d. 98%
d. 98%
What does the Fiske-Subbarow assay measure?
Levels of inorganic phosphate in biological samples
A food that is marketed as a modified food which does not fully meet the requirements of the standard is classified as
modified or immitaiton version of the standard food
In culinary terms, what can be meat from deer, elk, moose, antelope, caribou, and pronghorn?
What is the minimum proof of rum?
What term describes the state of chemical and metabolic equilibrium?
What foodborne pathogen can cause peptic ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori
What general class of packaging materials is used in aseptic brick packs and pringle cans?
Oxygen storage in slow twitch fibers is achieved by what molecule?
Fermented food of Mexico?
How to express in concentration, ppm equivalent as weight per volume?
mg/L or microg/ mL
What is absolute humidity?
mass of water/mass of dry air
Which genus of bacteria are used in the production of kimchi?
What protein in eggs can kill bacteria?
What is the difference between accuracy and precision
accuracy is how close the experimental value is to the true value, precision is how close experimental values are to themselves
What is the term for determining the magnitude of reflection, refraction, and transmission of microwave radiation?
Fresnel equations
What does the acronym NPN stand for?
Non-protein nitrogen
What is the purpose of a deaerator in an aseptic processing system?
to remove air and prevent lipid oxidation as the product temperature is increased during the process
What commercial product can be described as dilute acetic acid?
Name one of the two hormones known as the hunger hormones.
Leptin, ghrelin
The stable, bright pink-red color of cured meats is caused by the reaction of what two compounds?
nitrite and myoglobin (nitrosomyoglobin)
MC: Which sugar has the highest sweetness? a. lactose b. sucrose c. fructose d. maltose
c. fructose
Lack of proper handwashing is commonly associated with what?
Who is the current president-elect of IFT?
Michele Perchonok
Less starch granule damage occurs during milling of soft wheats because?
The softer wheats have a less compact starch–protein complex which results in less starch damage and lower water absorption.
What is the name of structural carbohydrate found in lobsters, crab, shellfish and insects?
What are facultative anaerobes?
microorganisms that can grown and survive with or without oxygen
Why are phytates considered to be anti-nutritional?
phytates bind/complex with metal ions and make the metals less bioavailable, most commonly with divalent ions (Ca, Fe, etc)
What is croquembouche?
French Christmas cake, puff pastry that they assemble into a cone or tree shape
IFT has several annual awards for excellence. For what is the William V. Cruess Award given?
Excellence in Teaching
Who is the current chair of Feeding Tomorrow?
Bernhard van Lengerich
Named after the Italian physician & physicist Luigi Galvani, name the instrument used to measure electric current.
Galvanometer (Ammeter also acceptable)
What does FALCPA stand for and what does it require of the food industry?
Food industry must:list major food allergens on food labels, either in the ingredient statement or as contains _________;FDA must:report back to congress on progress within 18 months; increase inspection with regard to allergen prevention; Develop a final rule within 4 years allowing the use of "gluten free" on food labels; increase inspection with regard to allergen prevention
Who won the william cruess award?
Soo-Yeun Lee
The door of a microwave is often glass with a metal mesh imbedded, why is that so?
while microwaves can go through glass, they cannot go through metal, and so the mesh has holes small enough that microwaves cannot pass through but allows for the person to view the food inside
What are the two general types of adulteration of foods?
economic adulteration; addition of foreign material
What is a high quality fat lining the abdominal wall of pork carcasses?
leaf fat
Sensory tests may be divided into 3 groups on the basis of the type of information that they provide. What are the three types?
Discrimination, descriptive, affective (preference)
What color are anthocyanins at acidic pH and basic pH?
acidic=red, basic=blue or yellow
What is the name of the structural carbohydrate found in lobsters and insects?
What innovation in beef marketing did IBP perfect in 1967 that dramatically changed the beef industry?
boxed beef
What is the difference between rennet and rennin?
rennet - the commercial extract from cleaned, frozen, and dried 4th stomach of calves, kids, or lamb. Rennin - the actual enzyme (known as chymosin)
What is the maximum recommended storage temperature for eggs and dairy products?
40 deg F or 4 deg C
An element found in proteins but not in carbohydrates is what?
Which airline was the first to have in-flight kitchen in 1937?
United Airlines
What is "unsaponifiable matter"?
Fat soluble matter remaining after saponification
What are some of the benefits of using a conveyor system in an air impingement oven?
help cook food well/evenly, control temperature and time, control cooking, cook large amounts of food in a continuous process, shorter process times, improved product quality, can use for both heating and freezing foods
What color is expected when many starches react with iodine?
Top 3 microbial causes of foodborne illnesses.
Norovirus, salmonella, clostridium perfringes
In milk, what does lactose react with to cause maillard browning?
Lactose reacts with the free amino acid side chain of milk protein (Mainly e-amino group of lysine residue)
Name the plastic used in McDonalds’ clamshells before the company stopped using them.
Rank the following lipoproteins by size: HDL, VLDL< IDL, chylomicrons
What is the rate limiting step in a beer fermentation?
Beer fermentation must continue until yeast uptake the diacetyl they excreted during fermentation. Diacetyl must be lowered to between 0.1 and 0.01 mg/L
Which muscle type is multinucleated?
In the US the legal processing for low-acid foods requires what?
exposure to temps for a period equal to 12 D values fo C. botulism
Isohumulone is the precursor compound that reacts with light to what vitamin to cause skunky flavor in beer?
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
What is the major law in the U.S. which controls the safety of food, drugs, medical devices, and cosmetics?
the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic act of 1938
What does ELISA stand for?
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
What is a monosaccharide. A) polyalcohol b) poly acid c) polyether d) all of the above
In which of the following tests do you need a reference comparison: duo-trio, hedonic, paired comparison
duo-trio; paired comparison
What organism causes typhoid fever?
Salmonella typhi
Muscle cells are multinucleated, cylindrical cells surrounded by an outer member called what?
What is an incipient contaminant?
naturally present on the food product
What pepper is named as the "state native pepper" of Texas and is sometimes called Indian pepper, turkey, bird’s eye, or simply bird peppers?
chiltepin, chiltepe, or chile tepin
What flavor attribute does milk that has been UHT processed typically have?
cooked flavor
On average in the US how many tons of food will a person eat in their lifetime?
35 tons
Reduced fat ice cream has how much less fat than regular ice cream?
At least 25%
A chicken is labelled as fresh chicken if it has not been stored under what temperature?
27 F or 3.3 C
When material naturally absorbs water?
Name heat resistant enzyme use in modern PCR.
TAQ DNA Polymerase
Which is the enzyme that is tested to check for the pasteurization of milk?
alkaline phosphatase
Term for temp at which Vapor Press = press of surrounding?
Boiling pt
Which U.S. President signed the Wholesome Meat Act into law?
Lyndon B. Johnson
How hot should you cook a burger before eating it?
160 degree F
What are covalent chemical bonds linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a protein chain called?
peptide bonds
If you take 20 mL of a 0.1M NaOH salutation to titrate 40 mL of an HCL solution to the phenolphthalein end point. What is the molarity of the HCL solution?
0.05M HCL
Withholding feed for 12 to 24 hours prior to slaughter results in greater ease of what?
What off flavor of milk develops as a result of the release of hydrogen sulfide?
Cooked flavor
What end product does the Voges-Proskauer test detect?
What is the coordination number of stable ice-I?
Often phage or viruses are used for DNA cloning, what is the process called?
What is the name of a food process which is considered to be a food additive under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act?
What does the AACC stand for?
American association of cereal chemists
The temperature at which water boils_______ as elevation increases?
At which frequency, 915 or 2450 MHz will the penetration depth be larger?
915 MHz
What happens to a catalyst in a reaction?
Concentration remains same (ideally)
What are three different methods for blow molding plastic containers?
extrusion, injection, stretch
What is a brine of salt, water, and sugar cure?
sweet pickle
What compound is commonly used to color cheese?
Annatto extract
What is one of the most bitter natural compounds known?
What is the name of the fruit that is described as a seeded apple?
Kielbasa is a polish sausage made primarily of coarsely ground pork with some amount of beef blended in. What is the typical seasoning used in Kielbasa?
What was the round copper container first used to deliver pizza in Naples in 1800s?
What is the milk fat % in heavy cream?
At least 36%
What is the temperature scale that follows Fahrenheit, but gives you absolute temperature?
What is the term used when garnishing with almonds?
What is a farinograph used for?
shear and viscosity (or properties is acceptable) of dough
Type of food spoilage organisms depend on food composition and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Give 3 each of intrinsic and extrinsic factors
intrinsic: physical structure, Moisture content, pH. Extrinsic: temperature, relative humidity, gas atmosphere, light
The official distilled spirit of the US is what?
Bourbon or bourbon whiskey
Name 2 glycosidic linkages in mixed-linked glucans in oats and barley.
B-1-3 and B-1-4
What is the ‘best if used by/best before’ date used for?
a guide to the quality or flavor profile of a food product
What is an intermediate moisture food?
contains 10-50% water with an Aw of 0.60 - 0.90
Alcohol-insoluble solids content in vegetables is an indicator of what?
maturity or ripeness
What is the nonprotein portion of myoglobin?
What beverage is caramel color most used for?
coloring beer
What common purpose is sodium metasilicate, Sodium hexametaphosphate, and sodium pyrophosphate is served in the food industry.
alkaline cleaners.
What salt is traditionally used to coagulate tofu?
Calcium sulfate
Name 2 food born pathogens that can grow at refrigerator temperatures.
Yersinia enterocolitican, aeromonas hydrophilia, listeria monocytogenes
What is the difference between a nanoparticle and a colloid?
Size, nano particles are smaller than colloids. Nanoparticles are 1-100nm, colloids range from a nanometer to micrometers.
What is the pigment form that gives cured meat its typical pink color?
What is the name for the French dish of thin pancakes?
What class of chemical compounds are responsible for the brilliant red color in paprika?
Enzymes are used extensively by the food industry as processing aids for ingredient production. The enzymes alpha amylase, glucoamylase, and glucose isomerase are used in sequence to produce what food ingredient?
High fructose corn syrup
What is the sea foods division of the IFT now known as?
aquatic food products division
What single kind of restructured meats represents the most volume and value and involves finding meat pieces into a single piece?
Sectioned and Formed
Which common food borne bacterial pathogen is microaerophilic and requires temperatures above 32 degrees C for growth?
Campylobacter jejuni
Rooibos leaves are used to make what type of tea?
Red tea
What is the process of staling of bread?
What is the full name of MRS agar used for lactobacilli cultures?
De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar
What is the name of the classic Mexican sauce containing chilies, nuts, and chocolate?
Which form of mercury is associated with sea food toxicity?
Methyl or organic mercury
What does URP stand for?
unique radiolytic product
How does altitude affect boiling point?
the air pressure decreases so the boiling point lowers.
True or False: "Patent Flour" is lighter in color and lower in ash than "straight flour" and is made from purified endosperm middlings
Where is commercial lecithin (food additive) obtained?
What are three applications of lactase?
hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose, prevent sandiness in ice cream, lactose intolerance
What is the trisaccharide found in beets?
What is the concentration of casein in human milk compared to cow milk?
Lower concentration
What are the terms of the 2-step process when using a pre-fermented mix of bread making?
Sponge and dough
In University, TA is typically understood to mean teaching assistant. However, this initalism also refers to what type of spoilage in canned food?
Thermophilic, anaerobic spoilage
Veal is meat from a calf that is: A. 4 months old or younger, B. fed grain for at least 130 days, C. younger than 1 year or D. 2 years or older?
A. 4 months old or younger
Claviceps purpurea causes what type of food poisoning?
Falling film is a type of which equipment in food processing?
What is piperine and where is it found?
An alkaloid that is responsible for the strong peppery kick in black and white pepper
What organism can cause symptoms similar to appendicitis?
yersinia enterocolitica
Thiobarbituric acid number or value indicates what?
Thiobarbituric acid– lipid oxidation
What is the so called "trigeminal senses"?
Free nerve endings (of the trigeminal nerve) present in the oral and ansl cavities which are sensitive to irritants (capsaisin, acetic acid, ammonia, astringents) and act as protection device against harmful chemicals, also detect texture and most other food characteristics
What is the only essential vitamin not found in the white potato?
Vit A
Replacement for sourdough
A cup of milk and 1 tsp lemon juice (correct)
How many flavors of fruit loops come in a typical box?
What were british sailors named after?
Reserva Cava is a sparkling wine. What is the age difference between Reserve Cava compared to NV Champagne?
915 months on lees, the same as NV champagne
Formula to calculate D-value.
D1 = D2 × 10(T2 - T1)/Z
Solids are __ to thermal radiation.
What is sushi traditionally wrapped in?
Preferred by one in five Americans, which is the most popular flavor of pie in the US? A. Apple B. Cherry C. Pumpkin D. Chicken
A. Apple
What are the harmful compounds formed during hydrogenation of fatty acids
trans fatty acids
At what temp does a solution of 20% amylose and 80% water boil?
100 C
Which lipoprotein transports triglycerides from the liver to adipose tissue?
What is the protein coat of a virus call?
Name the different components of the food pyramid and the recommended number of servings for each.
1) Fats, oil, sweet (use spraringly) 2) Milk, yogurt, cheese group (2-3 servings) 3) Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs & nuts group (2-3 servings) 4) Vegetable group (3-5 servings) 5) Fruit group (2-4 servings) 6) Bread, cereal, rice and paste group (6-11 servings)
What is the equation named after german and canadian scientist?
Michaelis Menten equation
How do you calculated amount of protein a person needs per day?
0.8*kg body weight
What fat soluble vitamin has a well-known role as an antioxidant?
Vitamin E
The single most important phase of a sterile canning operation is what?
If 2 M NaOH solution contains 80 g of NaOH, how much NaOH does a 1 M solution contain?
40 g
Name one method of cholesterol removal.
What is the fish most commonly used for making Surimi?
Alaskan Pollock
If you have 8 panelists who will try all 4 samples, what type of experimental design would you use and how many degrees of variance would you have?
randomized complete block design; degrees of variance 8-4 = 4
Name the two methods of making two piece steel cans.
The two methods are draw redraw, and drawn and wall ironed.
Name 2 non-thermal food processing technologies?
UV light, ultrasound, high pressure, pulsed light, pulsed electric field, irradiation
Botswick measures what?
Popular for measuring consistency, flow rate and viscosity in a variety of viscous materials.
Which of the following is not found on pyschrometric chart: Enthalpy, abs humidity, wet bulb temp, thermal conductivity
thermal conductivity
What is the temperature and time range for commercial sterilization?
116-121 C (240-250 F) for 50-90 min
What is the traditional source of rennet?
the fourth stomach (abomasum) of calves
What is the term for butter without milk solids and water?
Clarified butter/ ghee
What is the desired crystallization type for tempering chocolate?
Type 5
What is the most valuable by-product of cattle?
The hide
Which vitamins are destroyed by alcohol?
B complex vitamins
What is the pH of chyme in human stomach?
about 2
What is the term for inverting a bottle of champagne to move sediment from the bottle to the neck?
Name food made from dried maize undergone alkali treatment
The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence of a ray of light on the surface separating two media to the sine of its angle of refraction is called:
refractive index
In 2017, IFT launched an initiative to look at how ingenuity will feed the world. What is the name of that initiative's documentary?
Food evolution.
What does the acronym IuFoST stand for?
International Union of Food Science and Technology
How does ultraviolet light effect fat oxidation?
it speeds it up.
What is the boiling point of water in Fahrenheit, Celsius and kelvin?
212 deg F, 100degC, 373degK
True or false: An oil in water emulsion is best achieved with an emulsifier having a low HLB value.
False. those are for w/o emulsions
What is the most widely grown red wine grape variety in the world?
What is the complementary nucleotide sequence to A-G-C-T?
The milling of rice involves a process called what?
Why is "Japanese" or "short grain" rice more sticky than "indian" or "long grain" rice after cooking?
waxy variety (high amylopectin). Long grain rice has more amylose, and gives off less starch than short grain, high amylopectin rice.
In anaerobic organisms, pyruvate is used to regenerate what?
What instrument is a recording dough mixer that measures and records the torque developed by the action of the blades on Joe during mixing?
Farinographs measure and record the resistance to deformation of a flour/water dough against the mixing action of blades over time and at a specific speed (rpm) and temperature.
Thermal treatment of Ginger will give
Shogaol and gingerone
What three cereal grains contribute more than 50% of all calories consumed by humans worldwide?
Rice wheat and corn
What is the source of the milk used in making Roquefort cheese?
Ewe/female sheep
Which microorganism creates a heat stable toxin?
Staphylococcus aureus
What is the 12D process?
the time/temperature process that will reduce the microbe spore population (typically C. bot) by 12 log cycles
What is the equation used to convert deg C to deg F?
F= 9/5C+32
Give two reasons why nitrites are added to cured meats
Impart color, flavor and inhibit Clostridium botulinum
Which was the first civilization to make marshmallows?
Ancient Egypt
What did the Delaney Clause do?
food additives were added to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in 1958.
What is the rendered form of beef and mutton fat called?
What is the term for the ratio of carbon dioxide evolved to oxygen consumed?
respiratory quotient
Define wheat middlings.
Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) are the product of the wheat milling process that is not flour.
Name two methods for irradiation of foods.
Cobalt 60, x-rays, or E-beam
True or false: the following steps should be followed for cleaning food contact equipment and utensils: 1) prerinse 2) soap and scrub (washing) 3) rinse 4) sanitize 5) air drying
What meat processing procedure is used to obtain pork with high pH and high water holding capacity?
If you order your food 'a la carte', you order it from: Drive-through window, daily specials, over the phone, menu
The Menu
What is a cornmeal based suspension of head meat and/or pork sausage originating from the pennsylvania dutch?
A can seam defect call “cut over” is also known as what?
Sharp seam
What two factors determine the melting range of a lipid?
unsaturation (or saturation) and carbon chain length
What was the first year for IFTSA?
what was the previous name of the FDA?
Food drug and insecticide administration (renamed 1931)
What is an achromatic color?
– A color that has no hue (white, gray or black)
Mofongo', a common dish in Dominican restaurants and kitchens, actually originated in which country?
Puerto Rico
Give the genus/species of the organism used in processing Brie and Camambert cheeses what forms a white crust.
Penecillium Camambertii
Thinking, memory, and learning in the brain are closely linked to what levels in the body?
What scientist won a nobel prize for being the first to deduce the amino acid sequence of insulin and second for being the first to sequence DNA?
frederick sanger
Pomegranate peel can be used as a natural dye. What color does it produce?
What is the most common source of foodborne illness in Japan?
vibrio from seafood.
What is required of the food industry under the public health security and bioterrorism preparedness and response act (aka the Bioterrorism act) of 2002?
1) Food facilities register with FDA, and 2) FDA be given advance notice on shipments of imported food.
How does Mozarella get its stringiness?
Stretching or kneading of the curd
Who was the first president of IFT?
Samuel C Prescott
On what continent were potatoes first cultivated in ca. 200 AD?
South America
What are the names of the connective tissue layers surrounding the whole muscle, muscle bundle, muscle fibers and sarcolemma
Which is the name of the process where a foods temperature goes from 32deg F to 25degF in 30 minutes?
Quick freezing
% fat content existing as TAG in dairy?
What type of sugar is cotton candy made up of?
Granulated sugar
Explain what beer's law equation is used for, state the equation, and explain what each variable is.
Beer's law is used in calculations dealing with spectrophotmetric analyses. Absorbance = elc. E is the molar absorbtivity constant, L is the length of the cell holder/cuvette and c is the concentration of the solution
What is the percent RNA and protein in a ribosome?
60% RNA, 40% protein
The time in minutes required to destroy 90% of a population at a given temperature.
D value – decimal reduction time
Why was the McDonalds cherry pie discontinued?
too few cherries per pie.
What does GMP stand for?
Good manufacturing practices
What are the enzymes calpains and cathepsins associated with?
Meat tenderization/ degradation
Chiffon, marble, and bundt are types of what?
What is the meaning of Mai Tai in Tahitian language?
Out of this world
Name one bacterium that is in the nodules of roots of leguminous plants.
What quantitative analysis method is based on the oxidation of reducing sugars by copper ions under alkaline conditions?
Fehling's test
What is the time between ribbing and grading of beef carcasses called that allows oxygenation of the ribeye pigments?
Bloom Time
Integration of lethality will determine which value?
F- value
Name the compound responsible for the characteristic buttery flavor of fermented dairy foods.
Why are chelating agents used in dairy products?
de-aggregate casein complexes
Name the only fruit or vegetable that is never sold frozen, canned, processed, cooked or in any other from except fresh.
Anthocyanins belong to what general class of chemical compounds (or structures)?
Name four functions of edible film.
inhibit mass transfer, carry ingredients, improve mechanical integrity, improve appearance
What is the maximum amount of fat per RACC (reference amount customarily consumed) allowed in a product labeled "fat free"?
0.5 g
Why is flash cooling important?
it produces a consistent product density
What is the name of the Vitamin B1?
A soxhlet extractor was originally designed to extract what from solid foods?
True or False: Yeast contains glutamic acid.
True, 8-10% of whole yeast
What enzyme is responsible for the development of garlic aroma upon cutting or cellular damage?
Depot fats and related animal fats are characterized by their high content of which fatty acids?
primarily C16 – C18 saturated, and C18:1 and C18:2
The polysaccharides in oats that provide viscosity and filtration problems in the brewing industry are called
beta glucans
What part of the plant is the potato tuber derived?
The INQ or "index of nutritional quality" for a nutrient in a food is ...
a ratio between the amount of nutrient in food/calorie and the human need or allowance for that nutrient/calorie
What is the main type of bond found in starch molecules?
Covalent bond
What is the most commonly occurring food allergy in infants and young children?
Cow's milk
In areas where corn was introduced as a staple crop a new disease soon developed. What is the disease and what causes it?
Pellagra, Niacin deficiency (50-80% of corn's niacin is unavailable)
Baird parker mediums are used to detect and enumerate which organism or groups of organisms?
Staphylococcus aureus or staphylococci
Name three types of freezers.
air blast freezer, contact or plate freezer, spray or imersion freezer
What is the name for the Italian-style sausage composed of very finely chopped, cured pork and beef with added cubes of white fat; delicately spiced with garlic, nutmeg and coriander; stuffed into larger diameter casing and sliced?
What additive can be legally used to restore the color of fresh meat?
Ingles coming procedure is used for what assay?
Fiber Assay
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
the total energy of a system and its surroundings must remain constant, although it may be changed from one form to another.
What are the class of food pigments which have similar structure and properties to anthocyanins, but are yellow in color called?
Eureka and Lisbon are the two most common varieties of what fruit?
What process is done prior to freezing or dehydration to inactivate enzymes?
blanching, chemical inactivation
Which chemical bond has functional groups on opposite sides of the chain?
Rank sweetness from highest to lowest.
Sucralose > stevia > aspartame > sucrose > maltose
How do you make baking powder at home?
combine baking soda and cream of tartar
What substance is formed when collagen is heated in the presence in water?
What compound causes salmon to turn pink?
What continent does Macadamian nuts originate?
One of the benefits of IFT professional membership is the ability to apply for CFS status. What does CFS stand for?
Certified Food Scientist
What act of 1999 requires timely reporting of livestock market data?
Livestock mandatory reporting
What pigment is a precursor to vitamin A?
What popular canned sausages, similar to frankfurters, although more bland in flavor and smaller?
vienna sausages
What is the scientific name of the muscle from which canadian bacon is manufactured?
Longissimus dorsi
What grain has been cultivated for more than 8,000 years?
In what year was there a patent registered for use of a commercial refrigeration process for fish?
Porterhouse steak is fabricated from which beef primal?
Define "microencapsulation".
Microencapsulation is the science of trapping components (core or active) into a secondary material (encapsulant, wall material, carrier, or cover), producing small solid particles (1–500 ?m in size). These particles are able to release their contents at a specified rate or under specific conditions.
The beef rib and chuck are separated between which two ribs?
5th and 6th
What stromal protein comprises the Ligamentum nuchae?
What is the initiation step in crystal formation?
What are edible meat by-products better known as?
Variety meats
Surstroming', the swedish dish so smelly it's usually opened outdooors, is the fermented product of what seafood?
Fermented sea herring
What is the name for a tall chef’s hat?
Why is listeria monocytogenes of greater concern in refrigerated foods than in foods stored at ambient temperatures?
listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotroph that selectively grows at low temperatures
What is the name of propylene polymer stretched in various directions?
What is the nutritional claim on a bottle of regular Coca-Cola?
very low sodium 35 mg or less per 240mL
What part of pig is Boston butt?
What is the state fruit of Tennessee?
What british desert shares a name with an early atomic model?
plum pudding
According to WHO Food and agriculture organization, most commonly consumed meat in world? Chicken, goat/sheep, beef, pork
The Codex general standards for labeling, what is the only situation that ingredient list is not needed?
if it is single ingredient
A microbial population has been decreased by what percentage when it undergoes a one-log reduction?
What is the term the FDA uses to describe the maximum amount or natural or unavoidable decfects in a products?
defect action levels
Imported to Europe for the first time by Dutch traders around 1610. It was sold for the first time in England around 1660. What is it?
Name 1 way for genetic material exchange between bacteria.
transduction, conjugation, transformation
What is aseptic processing?
food and container are sterilized separately and then filled in a sterile environment
What are the units for basal metabolic rate?
J/hkg bodymass
Name 2 chemical agents used to accelerate bleaching of wheat flour.
chlorine dioxide (widely used), and benzoyl peroxide
On average how many eggs do wild chickens lay each year?
What is the main aroma compound found in banana oil?
Isopentyl acetate
What is the leading U.S. beef export item?
short plate
What are the toxic glycosides present in lima beans and cassava?
cyanogenic glycosides
What is the predominant component of the Gram (+) cell wall?
The Fehlings test uses CuO, which reacts with aldehydes. In glucose presence, what is the color of the precipitate formed?
Animal used for truffles traditionally?
When was the "food guide pyramid" unveiled by the secretary of agriculture Edward Madigan?
4/1/1992 12:00:00 AM
This spice consists of the stigmas of a crocus native to the eastern Mediterranean
To which of the following filament protein does Ca++ bind, and regulate actin myosin interaction during muscle contraction : a) myosin, b) actin, c) troponin
On St Patricks day, which food is used to color beer green?
Which of the 5 basic tastes are humans most sensitive?
What are the 3 positively charged amino acids?
lysine, arginine and histidine
What is the process in which beer is matured at colder temperatures for many weeks, even up to a year?
What is the country of origin for Kolsch, a type of beer?
Why is beer frequently used for deep fried foods?
the protein in beer helps with browning
Hydrolysis of RNA with 5-phosphodiesterase yields 5-nucleotides that are used in the food industry as ______________________.
flavor enhancers, GMP, IMP
Which cows produce milk with higher fat content: Holsteins or Jerseys?
What are psychrophiles?
Bacteria or archae that grow over the range of sub zero to 20 C with an optimum around 15 C
What herb is considered a key component of a traditional American turkey stuffing?
In 1990 which state became the first to ban tetra-pak juice boxes in its landfills?
Additional component in mass and energy balance equation in food processing
- Time sucrose +heat + acid --> Hydrolysis/inversion
The enumeration technique for microorganisms which uses 3 sets of tubes with, 3, 5, or 10 tubes per set is called what?
most probable number
True or false: As a result of exposure to heat, most carotenoids undergo isomerization from trans to cis isomers
Why is 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, also called ethephon, sprayed on tomato fields?
it forms ethylene which causes uniform ripening prior to harvest
What are the 2 main proteins in gluten?
Glutenin and gliadin
What is the boiling point definition?
the temperature at which the vapor pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure (760 nm)
Who conducts the voluntary seafood inspection program on a fee-for-service basis?
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
The portion of the cereal grain that contains starch granules and protein bodies is called
What is the distillation method used to measure moisture called?
What is defined as the ability of meat to retain its water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating, grinding, or pressing?
water holding capacity
What was the location of the first Kentucky Fried Chicken franchise?
Salt Lake City, Utah
Who regulates alcohol?
TTB (Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau)
What country is the world’s largest producer of Vanilla?
What fat substitute was recently confirmed as GRAS when used in frozen desserts?
In 1928, the first automatic bread slicer, developed by Otto Rohwedder was put into service at Frank Bench’s Chillicothe Baking Company. What state did this take place in?
What is the enzyme from pineapple that has medicinal uses?
Which to indigenous groups made peanut butter by first grinding roasted peanuts into a paste?
Ancient Incas and the Aztecs
What are the 2 main methods of plate counting?
Spread and pour plating
Apart from carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen, which other gas is allowed in some countries for MAP?
Carbon Monoxide
What is the protein efficiency ratio (PER) of casein?
On what food stuff is the mycotoxin patulin most commonly produced on?
Standards of identity include which of the following: a) ingredients that must be used; b) ingredients that may be used; C) Ingredients that may not be used
All (a, b, c)
This compound is a polymer of glucose. The adult human body usually contains less than a pound. Most of it is found in the liver and muscle.
In what year and by which president what the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act enacted?
FDR in 1938
For what foods has irradiation been approved as a preservation method?
Poultry, pork and spices
Another name for thermal death time is
F value or sterilization value
Why is sucrose added to dough when making bread?
it increases viscosity & increases foam stability
What popular drink did a Dutch medical professor produce in his laboratory while trying to come up with a blood cleanser that could be sold in drugstores?
The main lipid class in lean or low fat fish is ____________?
Mouthfeel of fat is most influenced by
solid fat content
Which artery is used when a ham is artery pumped?
What is the Weissenberg effect?
the tendency of some viscoelastic fluids to climb up a rod that is rotating in them. (fluid flows in a right angle to the direction of shear stress)