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What toxin is found in potatoes?
Solanin
What graph tracks the course of the drying process of a food, relative to water content and water activity?
desorption isotherm
What are the 3 forms of water in food?
free water, adsorbed water (loosely bound), and water of hydration (tightly bound)
What is the name of the holes in swiss cheese and what are they caused by?
Eyes; the carbon dioxide produced by the microbe Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii
The sun can be approximated as a blackbody at what temperature?
5800K
For the D configuration of sugars, the reference hydroxyl group is on the _________ side in fischer projection formulas.
right
What is the effect of drying on Vitamin C?
vitamin C reduction/loss
In terms of plant respiration, what does the acronym RQ stand for and how is it defined?
Respiration Quotient. It is defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the plant to oxygen consumed by the plant
Flour and water mixtures that are used for manufacture of extruded pasta products are called what?
Alimentary pastes (do not accept batters)
How are two piece jar lids made?
draw and redraw
The enzyme used to manufacture the liquid center of candies is:
invertase
What is the official shelf life of a Twinkie?
25 days.
Citrus HLB is a bacterial disease. What does it stand for?
Huanglongbing or citrus greening
What military leader offered a prize to scientists to develop preserved foods for the armies of France?
Napoleon Bonaparte [Napoleon's Food Preservation Prize (1795)]
what are the 2 main components of food that absorb far-IR energy?
water and organic compounds (such as proteins and starches)
What will a successful injunction action by the FDA do to your company?
The injuction is a civil judicial process that will stop or prevent violation of the law, by halting the flow of the product in insterstate commerce, and to correct the condition that caused the violation
What chemical compound is determined as an indicator of maillard browning?
hydroxymethylfurfural
What is the CDC's gold standard for microbe fingerprinting?
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)
The extraction technique used by the meat industry to remove fats from most by-products that have no better market potential is called what?
rendering
Define a calorie and specify the number of calories obtained from the consumption of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat
a calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by one degree centigrade. Carbohydrates and proteins: 4 kCal/g and fat 9 kcal/g. Remember that one food calorie is one kilocalorie in physics.
The amount of effervescence in a sparkling wine is dependent on the amount of what compound?
CO2
What is the water activity to cause spoilage for bacteria, yeast, and molds?
Bacteria - 0.9, Yeast - 0.85-0.9, Mold 0.75-0.8
What country is the origin of coffee plant?
Ethiopia
What spice from the dried leaves of an herb in the mint family gives pork sausage its typical flavor?
Sage
What pathogen reduction step utilizes a steam chamber for carcasses?
Steam pasteurization
What type of oil is consumed the most around the world?
Soyabean
What does Thiobarbituric acid number or value tell you?
degree of lipid oxidation
What is the common name of the bones that resemble the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae ?
feather bones
What term refers to the percentage change in length of a material due to pulling stress before breakage?
elongation or strain
Who is the current IFTSA past-president and what school are they from?
Morgan Von Staden, Mississippi State University
What are surfactants?
organic molecules that exhibit both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties due to the presence of poplar and nonpolar groups.
What is the role of salt in surimi production?
salt solubilizes myofibrillar proteins
What food-borne parasite can be found in hogs eating uncooked food waste?
Trichinella Spiralis
Balancing cost, speed, and ease of use, which rapid quality control for syrup is used by the industry? a. forced draft oven b. reflux distillation c. hygrometer d. NIR
c. hygrometer
What additive can be legally used to restore the color of fresh meat?
none
Which genera of bacteria can fluoresce and spoil fresh cut vegetables and meat?
Pseudomonas
What are other names for the baobab tree?
Monkey Bread Tree, Tree of Life, Bottle Tree or Upside Down Tree
What color is expected when many starches react with iodine?
blue-black
Ingestion of gradients and other insects as may cause a reaction in people allergic to which common?
shellfish crustaceans
What is absolute humidity?
mass of water/mass of dry air
In sensory analysis, what type of scale is generally used for acceptance testing?
hedonic
What two factors determine the melting range of a lipid?
unsaturation (or saturation) and carbon chain length
What are some two reasons for roasting cocoa beans for chocolate making?
Flavor development, separate outer husk from inner bean (makes cracking and winnowing much easier), virtually sterilizes cocoa been (prevent growth of bacteria/fungi/molds), even color and texture
What common purpose is sodium metasilicate, Sodium hexametaphosphate, and sodium pyrophosphate is served in the food industry.
alkaline cleaners.
What is the name of the evergreen shrub from which we get capers?
Caper Bush (Capparis spinosa)
Name the musical fruit.
beans
What is the most widely eaten fish in the world?
Herring
What organism is responsible for Q fever?
coxiella burnetii
Muscle proteins are degraded during aging by what enzymes?
Calpains
Give the names of the essential fatty acids for human nutrition.
Linoleic and a-Linolenic acids
What is the IFT Council?
An IFT governance body composed of representatives from Sections and Divisions which serves as the grass roots forum and approves constitution and bylaw revisions
What is the probability of a duo-trio test?
0.5
What is carboxy-methyl cellulose often used for in foods?
Thickener
CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) is a color space specified by the French Commission internationale de l'éclairage. What is the translation of the name of this commision in English?
International Commission on Illumination
Name two fermentation sources of chymosin.
kluyveromyces marxianus variety lactis and e. coli
What are the main protein types in: corn, oats, rice?
corn-prolamins, oats-globulins, rice-globulin
Name a halophilic food infectious bacteria
Except for V. cholerae and V. mimicus, all Vibrio species are halophilic (salt requiring) Example: Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Products of starch hydrolysis having little to no sweetness (D.E. value <20), and commonly used as cryoprotectants and fat replacers are known as: ___________?
maltodextrins
Describe the pasteurization process.
product heated to desired temperature, product held at desired temperature for defined time (typically for 12D reduction), product cooling, and product handling/distribution under refrigeration
Another name for triacylglycerol is?
Triglycerides
What template is used in conducting real-time PCR?
DNA
What are the spore-forming foodborne pathogens?
bacteria such as the Bacillus and Clostridium species are able to form spores. These spores, also referred to as endospores, are the dormant form of vegetative bacteria and are highly resistant to physical and chemical influences.
T/F Chocolate prevents dental caries.
True
What is the z value of Clostridium botulinum?
10 C or 18 F
What is the dielectric constant?
a quantity measuring the ability of a substance to store electrical energy in an electrical field
In 2003, the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) unveiled a new program which dramatically changed the way Grade A Milk Processing Facilities may be inspected and listed in the IMS list. What was this program?
Voluntary HACCP program
In what year was IFT founded?
1939
Coliform general characteristics.
rod-shaped Gram-negative nonspore forming and motile or nonmotile bacteria that can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C.
What is the most accurate and sensitive method for quantitative determination of metals and metalloids
Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Absorption spectroscopy
The beef rib and chuck are separated between which two ribs?
5th and 6th
What is one advantage and one disadvantage to direct heating?
advantage: rapid heating minimizes organoleptic changes, less fouling/burn-on. disadvantage: requires culinary steam (expensive), increases volume of product (adds water from steam), bad for products containing oil (oxidizes quickly)
What is the name of the sweetener that does not participate in maillard browing?
xylitol
Why are corrugated boxes produced with flutes in the vertical direction?
Flutes provide structural reinforcement- improve strength in terms of crushing and stacking
Name two emulsifying salts used to make processed cheese.
disodium phosphate, sodium citrate, sodium tartrate, sodium pyrophosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate
Steer and barrow carcasses unlike heifer and gilt carcasses, have what adjacent to the posterior end of the aitch bone?
Pizzle eye
What fruit has extremely high levels of vitamin A?
Mango
What is the nonprotein portion of myoglobin?
heme ring
This condiment was originally sold as a medicine in the 1830’s.
Ketchup
What talk show host was sued by cattle producers because of an episode aired in April 1996 about Mad Cow Disease?
Oprah Winfrey
In the Middle Ages this spice was used to pay rent and taxes.
Black pepper
Enzymes are used extensively by the food industry as processing aids for ingredient production. The enzymes alpha amylase, glucoamylase, and glucose isomerase are used in sequence to produce what food ingredient?
High fructose corn syrup
To be classified as whole milk what is the legal percentage of butter fat required?
0.0325
In 2010, how many calories are in a McDonald's' Big Mac?
540
The temperature at which water boils_______ as elevation increases?
Decreases
What is the process that keeps milk fat from floating atop the liquid component of milk?
Homogenization
How many times higher is the mobility of proton in ice over water?
100
At what pH does phenolphthalein change color?
pH 8.5
The International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians (IAMFES) have recently undergone a name change. What is the new name for this organization?
International Association for Food Protection (IAFP)
What is the name of the reagent used in food analysis which forms a fluorescent compound with primary amines?
Fluorescamine
What is the monetary prize of the food disruption challenge pitch for the selected pitch as well as the people’s choice award?
$25 K for winner, $5 K for people’s choice
What pigment produces white color in vegetables?
Anthoxanthin
What instrument is used to measure soluble solids in foods?
refractometer
As of 2005, what is the official soft drink of Maine?
Moxie
Why is flash cooling important?
it produces a consistent product density
Define thermal death time.
the time it takes to kill a specific bacteria at a specific temperature
What are some ways to heat process food?
retort, aseptic, pasteurize, blanch, hot fill
Define viscosity.
The state of being thick, sticky and semifluid due to internal friction. measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress
How many times more acidic is something with a pH of 2 than a substance with a pH of 5?
1000x more
When was the Bureau of Chemistry, later the FDA, founded?
1906
What is FAD?
Flavin adenine dinucleotide
Commonly used fish in sushi.
tuna (maguro, shiro-maguro), Japanese amberjack, yellowtail (hamachi), snapper (kurodai), mackerel (saba), and salmon (sake). The most valued sushi ingredient is toro, the fatty cut of the fish.
How many calories do you consume every time you lick a stamp?
1/10th of a calorie
Why are phytates considered to be anti-nutritional?
phytates bind/complex with metal ions and make the metals less bioavailable, most commonly with divalent ions (Ca, Fe, etc)
What is the state fruit of Tennessee?
Tomato
What are the foodborne bacterial intoxications?
staphylococcal intoxication: an enterotoxin produced by S. aureus, botulism: a neurotoxin produced by clostridium botulinum
What does AOAC stand for?
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists
What are the coenzyme forms of niacin?
NAD, NADP
In sauerkraut production, salt promotes the growth of what group of bacteria?
lactic acid bacteria
What is the sweetest occurring substance known to man?
guanidine (discovered in 2016) however thaumatin is also acceptable as this is what is in the Guinness book of world records.
What part of the banana is used to make banana oil?
no part - Banana oil is a synthetic compound made with amyl alcohol
Name the genera of Downy mildew disease and fruits and vegetables.
Sclerospora and Bremia
What color is phenolphthalein under acidic conditions?
colorless
Who regulates alcohol?
TTB (Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau)
Current version military sampling dimensions?
ASQ/ANSI QUALITY CONTROL STANDARDS Z1.4 & Z1.9
The hydrolysis of a specific bond in kappa casein (phe 105 - Met 106) results in what?
destabilization of the casein micelles (cheese curd formation)
What is the name for the chord that anchor that enter egg yolk?
In a fresh egg, you can see two white cords attached to the yolk. These two cords, called chalazae, are made of twisted strands of mucin fibre, a special form of protein. The role of the chalazae are to anchor the yolk in the centre of the egg.
S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide is the chemical precursor to the major flavor compounds in what foodstuff?
onions or leeks
Which is the Sweetner developed by Cargill?
Eversweet
If the absorption of a sample is being determined spectrophotometrically at 420nm what color is the sample?
Yellow
Define wheat middlings.
Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) are the product of the wheat milling process that is not flour.
The single most important phase of a sterile canning operation is what?
retorting
Normally the lipid levels in fruits and vegetables is less than 1%. What are the two exceptions?
avocado (20%) and olives (15%)
The best Vitamin A precursor that occurs in food is called
B-carotene
What milk product is 42 % sucrose and 12% lactose?
Condensed milk
What is the USDA legal limit for moisture in dried apples?
0.22
What compound is produced by lactobacillus San Francisco (Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis) that is important to making sourdough bread?
lactic acid
True or false: the name margarine comes from a fatty acid, margaric acid, named by Chevreul in 1813.
True, although later studies showed there is no such thing as margaric acid
What does the “c” stand for in the equation E=mc^2?
the speed of light
What is "latent heat of vaporization"?
The amount of energy required to convert a unit mass of liquid to gas at its boiling point.
Juice or beverage spoilage by Alicyclobacillus primarily leads to what spoilage compound, associated with a medicinal off odor?
Guaiacol
What is the primary purpose of retorting low aci canned foods?
reduce spores of C. bot by 10^12
Okara is a by-product of what processing?
Soy
What is the medical term or name given to the condition where bacteria are actively multiplying in the bloodstream?
Septicemia
Fermented cheese named after cities of origin: Cheedar , applewood, Mozralla, Yarg
Chhedar
Give two dicarboxylic amino acids.
Glutamic acid and aspartic acid
Why does a hold tube have an upward slope?
to eliminate air pockets and ensure self draining
Which fatty acid would be expected to have the highest iodine value: linoleic, oleic, or linolenic?
linolenic (18:3) more unsaturation
What does the acronym NPN stand for?
Non-protein nitrogen
What 3 foods contain a high availability of Silicon?
meat, milk, and beer
What is the main ingredient in guacamole?
Avocado
Who is the publisher of food technology?
Institute of food technologists
What are the approximate temperatures at which fermentation takes place for ale and lager beers?
ale: 10~23.9 C, lager: 0-12.8 C
What is the main water soluble component of coffee?
caffeine
What food color requires mandatory labeling?
All of them
What is the botanical name of the plant that hops are extracted from?
Humulus lupulus
What is the most common psychrotropic bacteria?
Pseudomonas
How many teams will be competing in the College Bowl competition finals in June?
8
The unit used to measure an absorbed dozes of ionizing radiation is the “RAD”. What does “RAD” stand for?
radiation absorbing dose
What is the fundamental driving electrophoresis?
The speed of a molecule is proportional to the surrounding voltage gradient.
Identify which cereal grains contain gluten: teff, oats, buckwheat, triticale, monleena
only triticale
Name 2 food born pathogens that can grow at refrigerator temperatures.
Yersinia enterocolitican, aeromonas hydrophilia, listeria monocytogenes
In asia, to prevent the occurrence of Beriberi, rice is fortified with what nutrient?
thiamine (Vitamin B1)
What type of sensors have resistance characteric fall off with increasing temperature?
negative temperature coefficient
Addition of alpha-amylase on starch gives what disaccharide?
Maltose
Name one genus of bacteria that can cause ileocecitus, a disease that mimicks appendicitis.
Yersenia, Camplyobacter, Salmonella
Hydroxylation of lysine to hydroxylysine in collagen is dependent on which cofactor?
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
What property of a protein can be determined using SDS electrophoresis?
molecular weight
what is the ideal pork color described in the pork quality standards?
reddish pink
What are two types of fruit and vegetable peelers?
caustic or lye; steam; hot water; abrasive
Name three climacteric and non climacteric fruits.
Climacteric - Apple, peach, avocado, banana, passionfruit, tomato; Nonclimacteric - lemon; orange; pineapple; cherries, grape, strawberries, other citrus
When counting bacterial colonies, the acronym TNTC stands for what?
Too numerous to count
What is the temperature the air needs to be cooled to (at constant pressure) in order to achieve a relative humidity (RH) of 100%?
dew-point
How does the high sugar content in food affect the drying process?
It takes longer, as sugar attracts water.
Two other government agencies along with the FDA which have responsibility for ensuring the safety of imported foods are ______ and _______
USDA and U.S. Customs
The Ames test is used to identify which organism? a. E. coli b. Staph aureus c. Salmonella __? d. Salmonella typhimurium
D. Salmonella typhimurium
When viscosity of a fluid increases, what happens to the reynolds number?
Increase
A food product would not be considered adulterated if: a) It contained a new animal drug; b) It contains FD&C Yellow #4; C. It contains carmine; D. If it is the product of an animal that did not die by slaughter
C
Which thermoduric, acidophilic, spore forming bacterial species is an emerging spoilage issue for juice and beverage processors?
Alicyclobacillus
What respiratory condition might cause someone to be allergic to cysteine?
asthmatics
Food and Drug administration is responsible for the enforcement of food additives regulation in US. Which canadian agency is responsible for the same?
CFIA (Canadian food inspection agency)
What is the pigment that is responsible for the green color in cooked broccoli?
Pheophytin
What is the simple term for conversion of raw materials or ingredients into a consumer food product?
Food Processing & Engineering
What are the 3 USDA grades of eggs?
AA, A, B
What is the process in beer to carbonate the beer without using sugars or other adjuncts?
krausening
When baking, what can you substitute for buttermilk?
1 tsp salt + 1 cup whole milk
What is the only fruit or vegetable that is never sold processed, only fresh?
Lettuce
Which is the enzyme that is tested to check for the pasteurization of milk?
alkaline phosphatase
What food product was the first to ever have a barcode?
Wrigely’s gum
What is the equation named after german and canadian scientist?
Michaelis Menten equation
The occupational safety and health administration enforces standards on safety in the workplace through ______ and __________
inspection and penalties
Genera for Downy Mildew disease.
Sclerospora bremia
In 2003, the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) unveiled a new program which dramatically changed the way Grade A Milk Processing Facilities may be inspected and listed in the IMS list. What was this program?
Voluntary HACCP program
What is the inverse of attenuation factor?
penetration depth
What was margarine called when it was first marketed in England?
Butterine
What is miso?
fermented soybean paste
Name heat resistant enzyme use in modern PCR.
TAQ DNA Polymerase
Maltol and ethyl maltol are effective at sparing what common food ingredient
sugar
What is the 2020 Firmenich flavor of the year?
Classic Blueberry
Which pigment in tomatoes has disease-preventing characteristics?
lycopene
Which of the following is a non-reducing sugar? A. Lactose, B. glucose, C. sucrose, D. maltose
Sucrose
What is the boiling point of water in Fahrenheit, Celsius and kelvin?
212 deg F, 100degC, 373degK
Roux is used for?
thickening of sauces
What is a high quality fat lining the abdominal wall of pork carcasses?
leaf fat
What are the two types of bloom in chocolate?
sugar bloom and fat bloom
What is the name of a freze-dried potato product in Bolivia and Peru?
Chuno
What is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation?
The equation to estimate the pH of a buffer solution containing given concentrations of an acid and its conjugate base
According to the standard of identity, what is the maximum fat content allowed in a frankfurter?
0.3
In Reverse phase HPLC, what component retains highly hydrophobic impurities from going onto the analytical column and permanently interacting with the stationary phase which ultimately prolongs the analytical column's capacity?
Guard column
What milk product did the U.S. Agriculture Department propose as a substitute for meat in school lunches, in 1996?
Yogurt
What 2 vitamins are required for cell division?
folacin and B12 (cobalamin)
Passage of the food drug and cosmetic act of 1938 was motivated by
The tipping point came in 1937, when an untested pharmaceutical killed scores of patients, including many children, as soon as it went on the market.
What are the two general types of adulteration of foods?
economic adulteration; addition of foreign material
Name the toxic substances in unprocessed cassava roots.
cyanogenic glycosides (lenamaric, lotaustralin)
What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency?
wavelength= speed of light / frequency or speed of light = frequency * wavelength
According to the FAO, a serving a magnesium supplement must contain a minimum of what percentage of the recommended daily intake?
15%.
What is the caloric content of alcohol?
7 Cal/g
What is the name for a tall chef’s hat?
Toque
In what year was the blue M&M introduced?
1995
What is the term for the parts of a label that is most likely to be displayed presented shown under customary conditions of display for retail sale?
Principle display panel
What is the spectrum range for thermal radiation?
0.1 um to 1000 um (1 mm)
What is the value for the increase in temperature required to decrease the D value by 10 (or one log cycle reduction)?
z-value
The Howard Mold Count was developed as a method of monitoring the quality of what type of food products?
Tomato products
Why are linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids considered essential fatty acids?
n-6 and n-3 cannot be synthesized in the human body
Which amino acids absorb light under UV range?
phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan (all with aromatic groups)
What is a facultative anaerobe?
a microbe that can grow with or without oxygen
What are the five major classes of micro organisms based on temperature?
Mesophile thermophile, psychrotroph psycrophile extremophiles
What is the D value?
Time in minutes, at specified temperature to destroy 90% or 1 log reduction of the microorganisms in a population.
What does BATF stand for?
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
What organism is used in the manufacture of blue cheese?
penicillium Roqueforti and Penicillium Glaucum
What is the term for farming and grazing practices that, among other benefits, reverse climate change by rebuilding soil organic matter and restoring degraded soil biodiversity resulting in carbon drawdown and improving the water cycle?
Regenerative Agriculture
Name 3 types of heat treatment during food processing and what is their purpose
blanching (inactivates enzymes), pasteurization (kill pathogenic bacteria), and sterilization (kill all bacteria and other organisms)
How many hydrogen atoms benzene has?
6
What is a commercial undercounter refrigerator known as?
A lowboy or a bar refrigerator
Name the strongest biochemical bond and the weakest biochemical bond.
strongest=covalent, weakest=hydrophobic
What main agency is charged with enforcing standards that limit exposure to ionizing radiation?
US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
Define "indirect" additive
substances that may come into contact with food as part of packaging or processing equipment, but are not intended to be added directly to food.
What is the most commonly occurring food allergy in infants and young children?
Cow's milk
Generally, what is the net rate of heat transfer of food?
rate of absorption- rate of emission
In dairy, what is PMO?
Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
Which company worked with NASA to develop HACCP?
Pillsbury
Resistance temperature detectors, also known as RTD are PTC sensors. What does PTC stand for?
positive temperature coefficient
What is a mathematical technique for determining the best use of available resources when these resources can be used in other products?
least cost formulation
What does the acronym NADA stand for?
new animal drug application
Which of the following is not found on pyschrometric chart: Enthalpy, abs humidity, wet bulb temp, thermal conductivity
thermal conductivity
TF high density polyethylene is made up of carbon chains that are highly branched.
False
What is microencapsulation?
a process in which tiny particles or droplets are surrounded by a coating to give small capsules.
What are the top 3 sea foods consumed in the U.S.?
Shrimp, Salmon, Tuna
What is aseptic processing?
food and container are sterilized separately and then filled in a sterile environment
Enzyme used to cut DNA: Conversion, Mannic, Conjungtion and restriction
restriction
What common component of oranges is missing in navel oranges?
the seeds
Give any two factors that affect egg foaming ability.
pH, sugars, contamination with yolk, age of the egg, etc.
What mineral is a major challenge in the fortification of many foods and beverages because of its poor taste and large daily value of 3.5 grams per day?
potassium.
What are the three types of emulsions?
semi permanent, permanent, and temporary
Given the highest dose of a chemical that causes no effect in rats is 300mg; what is the accepted daily intake for humans?
3 mg, (100 fold safety factor)
Improvement in baking quality occurs during storage of flour. What type of chemical reaction is the cause?
Oxidation
What common farm animal is decendant of callus gallus?
Chicken
Term for temp at which Vapor Press = press of surrounding?
Boiling pt
Which amino acids are excpeotionally high in nuts?
Arginine
What spoilage compound is associated with a medicinal off odor caused by alicyclobacillus?
Guaiacol
What are the 3 simple components of a radio frequency heating system?
radio frequency generator, electrodes, and product
The reaction of secondary amine with nitrous acid results in the formation of powerful carcinogens called
nitrosamines
True or false: the following steps should be followed for cleaning food contact equipment and utensils: 1) prerinse 2) soap and scrub (washing) 3) rinse 4) sanitize 5) air drying
True
Which additive banned in Europe in 2020?
TiO2
What is the name of the fruit that is described as a seeded apple?
pomegranate
What is the major protein in milk?
Casein
What is defined as the ability of meat to retain its water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating, grinding, or pressing?
water holding capacity
Which microorganisms make the following hydrocolloids?
xanthan - xanthomonas campestris, curdlan - alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes, gellan - pseudomonas elodea
Name the acids that are present in the following: oranges, grapes, apples, and yogurt
orange: citric, grapes: tartaric, apples: malic, yogurt: lactic
Who was the president of the US when the USDA was formed?
Abraham Lincoln
What is the genus/species/variety for popping corn?
Zea mays everta
What are the 2 types of food poisioning possibly recieved from consuming fish?
ciguatera and scombroid
Why do carrots not lose their orange color during cooking?
carotenoids are heat stable and fat soluble
What year was Food Technology established?
1947
Name the genus and species of the organism predominantly responsible for mellow lactic fermentation in wine.
Oenococcus oeni (known as Leuconostoc oeni)
Glutelin oryzenin is found in what food?
Rice
The Baby Ruth candy bar was introduced in 1920 by the Curtis Candy Co. Who is it named after?
Eldest daughter of President Grover Cleveland (not the baseball player)
What were british sailors named after?
limes
A higher attenuation factor does what to the distribution?
makes the distribution less uniform
The first federal food law was passed in 1906. What was it?
Food and Drugs Act and/or Meat Inspection Act, both June 30th, 1906.
Which compounds found in grapefruit act to inhibit Cytochrome P450 Enzyme and cause potentially dangerous drug interactions?
Furanocoumarins interfere with blood settings so they can be dangerous.
Microorganisms that can survive low water activity conditions are called
xerophilic
What is misbranding?
a food has been improperly labeled or filled/packaged to be misleading
The quality assurance system called HACCP stands for ...
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
Name 3 enzymes that work on pectin.
Polygalacturonase, Pectin lyase, Pectin methyl easterase
Give the name of the product made from dired, fermented, smoked, skipjack tuna.
bonito flakes
What is depleted from muscle before slaughter to produce dark cutting beef?
Glycogen
Which company had a long running slogan of '57 varieties'?
Heinz
What condition results during thawing of muscle that frozen before it enters rigor mortis?
thaw rigor
To standardize the names of retail cuts, the meat industry has adopted a common list of names called what?
Uniform retail meat identity standards (URMIS)
In sensory tests what scale is used to measure the appropriateness or optimum level of specific attributes?
Just about right
Genus and Species of the bacteria involved in the Irish Famine.
Phytophthora infestans
What might the Doppler effect be used to measure in food settings?
Flow velocity or food intake
What is another name for carob gum?
Locust Bean Gum
Ratio of viscous/elastic portion in rheology:
tan delta or damping factor
Describe the difference between shear and normal stress.
Shear is parallel to the surface, normal is perpendicular
Inosine methylene blue agar is used for?
Lactose fermenting
What two types of heating are dielectric heating?
microwave and radio frequency
Define enhancement in the context of the interaction of stimuli presented simultaneously as mixtures.
The effect created when one substance increasing the perceived intensity of a second substance.
What is cooking loss percentage of a roast that had a raw weight of 20 lbs and a cooked weight of 15 lbs?
cooking loss % = (cooked weight/raw weight) = 25 %
What food is most associated with the foodborne illness agent enterobacter sakazakii?
Infant formula
Durio zibethinus is a distinct smelling tree fruit that is native to South Asia. What is the common name for this fruit?
Durian
In plants, what amino acid is used to synthesize ethylene?
methionine
Give an example of cross potentiation.
Observer perceives more bitterness in the test sample because of the tasting of sucrose has heightened his sensitivity to bitterness
What happens to a catalyst in a reaction?
Concentration remains same (ideally)
In beer making what is the liquid fraction of the mash called?
Wort
What is the most popular fish in alaska?
coho salmon
The protein that is about 58% of all egg white protein is called _____
ovalbumin
What flavor compound is responsible for the flavor of the Italian liquor Amarreto?
Benzaldehyde and taste a little bit like cherries.
What is the name of a sweet, dark liquor made from blackcurrants?
cassis or crème de cassis
8 cups: ? gallon
half gallon
From what source is C. bot first isolated?
Smoked ham
The Lohmann reaction is catalyzed by ATP creatine phosphotransferase. Its function is to replenish ______
ATP
Veal is meat from a calf that is: A. 4 months old or younger, B. fed grain for at least 130 days, C. younger than 1 year or D. 2 years or older?
A. 4 months old or younger
What is the difference between a food law and a food regulation?
Law: Enacted by an elected governing body (Congress). Regulation: Written and enforced by an agency with appointed members. FDA regulations are also federal laws. Also regulation can be found in title 21 COF and the public typically can input before FDA issues a final regulation
What temperature do leftover foods need to be reheated?
165°F
What is the difference between a foam and an aerosol dispersion system?
foam – inner phase is gaseous, outer phase is liquid Aerosol – inner phase is liquid or solid, outer phase is gaseous.
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
the total energy of a system and its surroundings must remain constant, although it may be changed from one form to another.
What milk protein is responsible for iron binding and enhanced iron adsorption into the body?
Lactoferrin
In which country did Reisling originate?
Germany
What test would you use to measure oxidation in meat products?
Thiobarbituric acid analysis (TBA)
What is the primary ingredient in sand?
silica (silicon dioxide)
What is the state of muscle when permanent cross-bridges form and prevent sliding of filaments so that the the muscle becomes inextensible?
rigor mortis
In a sensory what are the sensations elicited by volatile compounds?
Odour, smell
If capillary breakage occurs in fat, the condition is commonly referred to as what?
Fiery Fat
Hyperkeratinization, xerosis, bitot's spots, keratomalacia, and hyperkeratosis are symptoms of a deficiency of ________?
vitamin A
Mercene, Limonene, and Pinene all belong to what family of hydrocarbons?
Terpenes
In 1883, the brothers Oscar and Meyer lease a failing Chicago meat market and made the company, a success within five years, named the company.
Oscar Meyer.
With respect to distillation, what is a vaporize/condensation stage called?
A theoretical plate
Why store olive oil in dark?
to prevent from photooxidation
The statistical test for comparison of means from small sample size (n less than 30) based upon their distribution when the standard deviation is known as
The t-distribution or Student's t-distribution
In poultry, what is the difference between a "broiler" and a "fryer"?
Both are types of chicken that are raised for meat. Fryer are just a bit larger in weight than broiler.
TWEEN belongs to what groups of food additives?
Emulsifiers
What are the parameters that are controlled during post harvest preservation of fruits and vegetables?
temperature and humidity
In this discrimination test of sensory evaluation panelists must choose whether or not two coded samples are different.
paired comparison
Eversweet was developed by which company?
Cargill
Protecting consumers health and ensuring fair practices in the food trade are the goals of what international document?
Codex Alimentarius
What is piperine and where is it found?
An alkaloid that is responsible for the strong peppery kick in black and white pepper
Which is the 2nd most abundant polysachharide?
chitin
What is resistant starch resistant to?
digestion by pancreatic enzymes
What city hosts a Solar egg frying contest every July 4?
Oatman, Arizona
In Aug 2013, Chef Richard McGeown cooked what for the first time?
Lab grown meat hamburger
What is the main class of color compounds found in raspberries?
anthocyanins
When material naturally absorbs water?
Hygroscopy
What are edible meat by-products better known as?
Variety meats
how many carbon atoms and how many double bonds are in arachidonic acid?
20 carbons and 4 double bonds
What is a bacteriophage composed of?
A nucleic acid molecule surrounded by a protein structure.
What is fuzzy logic in simple terms?
Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on "degrees of truth" rather than the usual "true or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.
How many carbons are in lactose?
12
Bromelain for pineapple, ficin from figs or papain from papaya may be added to meat to serve as what type of agent?
Tenderizers
Name one chemical compound that is used to sanitize food processing equipment.
Hypochlorites, quaternary ammonium, Peroxyacetic Acid (PAA)
Probiotic & prebiotic combined are called?
synbiotic
Name the genus of bacteria added with the starter culture for Swiss cheese.
Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspecies shermanii
This condiment was originally sold as a medicine in the 1830’s.
Ketchup
Name the company that patented Olestra.
Proctor and Gamble
In whiskey making, wetting the barley grains to stimulate germination is called:
Malting
What flour is from dried hominy is used to make Mexican tortillas and tamales?
masa white corn flour
What is the name of the plant that capers come from?
Caper plants (Capparis spinosa)
What are the scientific name for ale and lager yeasts?
ale: saccharomyces cerevisiae lager: saccharomyces pastorianus(formerly saccharomyces carlsbergensis)
What effect is described by a visco elastic fluid climbing an impeller shaft during mixing or agitation?
The Weissenberg Effect
What is the graph of water activity vs. water content called?
moisture sorption isotherm (MSI)
Which cows produce milk with higher fat content: Holsteins or Jerseys?
Jerseys
Under what conditions is the formation of lysinoalanine favored in foods?
alkaline treatment of proteins
What are the two components of muscle contribute most to the sensory perception of juiciness in meat?
water and intramuscular fat (marbling)
In which year did belgian chemist ernest solvay patented his method for the industrial production of sodium carbonate?
1882
What positions are on the board of directors of IFTSA?
VP chapter engangement, VP membership engangement, VP competitions, VP volunteer development, VP digital and social media and Member-at-large
What is the most popular instrument for measuring the textural quality of foods?
Instron
How many foodborne illness cases every year?
48 million
What is the maximum recommended storage temperature for eggs and dairy products?
40 deg F or 4 deg C
What two essential amino acids contain Sulfur?
Cysteine, methionine
What are the minimum times and temperatures for LTLT and HTST pasteurization of milk?
LTLT – 145 degF (62.8 degC), 30 minutes HTST – 161 deg F (71.7 deg C) 15 seconds
A saturated fat has how many double bonds?
None
What was the first year of the IFTSA product development competition?
1991
Shear stress is linearly proportional to shear strain in which type of fluids?
Newtonian fluid
What color of ink is used to apply the red meat carcass inspection stamp?
Purple
What was the real name of Chef Boy-ar-dee?
Ettore “Hector” Boiardi
What 2 antibiotics are legal food additives?
nisin & natamycin
What is the milk fat % in heavy cream?
At least 36%
Why are "cereal adjuncts" added in beer making?
Cereal Adjuncts can impact color, flavor, and stability of the product.
Integration of lethality will determine which value
F sub zero
Name the microorganism responsible for tequila fermentation.
zymomonas mobilis
Which lactic acid producing bacteria found in sourdough bread takes its name from a California city?
Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis
Enzymatic browning is caused by the oxidation of what type of compounds? Name the enzyme.
polyphenols; Polyphenoloxidase/phenolase
What is "converted rice" and how is it manufactured?
Whole grain rice is parboiled or steeped in hot water prior to removal of the hulls, bran, and germ in milling. The rice loses fewer nutrients as the B vitamins and minerals from the hulls, bran, and germ are leached into the endosperm. The converted rice is then dried, milled, and polished
What are any of the conducting cells of the nervous system called?
Neurons
What type of enzymes are commonly added to fruit prior to juice production?
pectic enzymes (specifically polygalacturonase, pectinesterase, and cellulases, and other enzymes)
What is the most abundant unit that makes up the structure of pectin?
galacturonic acid
The part of the beer making process that involves heating malt and water to 60 C to facilitate enzymatic reactions is called
mashing
Assuming an average lifetime of 70 years, how many seconds is 1 billionth of an average lifetime?
2.2 seconds
Name the 3 principal nutrients used to enrich rice.
thiamin, niacin, iron
What organism causes typhoid fever?
Salmonella typhi
When viewed under a microscope after gram staining, gram negative bacteria appear what color?
Red
How many main effects are there in a three way ANOVA?
3
How hot should you cook a burger before eating it?
160 degree F
PDCAAS stands for?
protein digestibility corrected amino acid score
At what temperature are bacterial spores destroyed?
250 F
What is the term for determining the magnitude of reflection, refraction, and transmission of microwave radiation?
Fresnel equations
What is the main aroma compound found in banana oil?
Isopentyl acetate
What happens when a natural cheese is heated to a high temperature?
stringiness, toughness, and separation of fat
What foodborne pathogen can cause peptic ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori
Who was the French inventor of airtight food preservation, and is also known as the "father of canning"?
Nicolas Appert
What is the name of the tool used to shred cheese?
Grater
What is the 12D process?
the time/temperature process that will reduce the microbe spore population (typically C. bot) by 12 log cycles
What phenomena in wine is a visualization of the Gibbs-Marangoni effect?
Tears or the wine legs
What is the purpose of the heat penetration test in thermal processing?
to determine the temperature of slowest heating zone in a food container, and use the time/temperature data to calculate a thermal process that will render the product commercially sterile
What are the advantages of traditional thermal processing over non-thermal processing?
Thermal processing can destroy spores
What is an exotoxin?
Toxic proteins secreted by bacteria and released outside of the cell
What are two examples of natural antioxidants?
vitamin C, vitamin E, beta carotene
What is the cause of cardboard flavor in milk.?
Oxidation of fat
What toxin causes acute liver damage?
Aflatoxin
What two amino acids have the highest pKa?
arginine and asparagine
What two grains make up crispix?
rice and corn
What year was the federal meat grading service established?
1927
Among the following plastic films, which one is the most oxygen permeable? Plain celophane wrap, low density polyethylene, mylar (polyester)
low density polyethylene
There are 2 main differences between scotch and whiskey. What are they?
geography, scotch is made in Scotland, and bourbon in the USA (Kentucky). Scotch is made from malted barley and bourbon from distilled corn.
Hydrolysis of RNA with 5-phosphodiesterase yields 5-nucleotides that are used in the food industry as ______________________.
flavor enhancers, GMP, IMP
Give the resultant color for each of the following L*a*b* scores: 1) L* = 50, a*= 50, b* = 50; 2) L* = 50, a*= 0, b* = 0; 3) L* = 40, a*= 10, b* = 40
red, gray, brown
Which of the following is a non-reducing sugar? A. Lactose, B. glucose, C. sucrose, D. maltose
C. sucrose
What is Food Babe's real name?
Vani Hari
What is the log of 1?
0
The accumulation of adipose tissue around the bundles of muscle fibers in beef is called what?
marbling
What is the common vector for inserting foreign genes into a bacteria?
Plasmid
What are the names of the connective tissue layers surrounding the whole muscle, muscle bundle, muscle fibers and sarcolemma
endomysium
What is LD50?
The amount of an ingested substance that will kill 50% of a test sample. Expressed in milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight.
What is the name of a polypeptide antibiotic produced by some streptococcus lactis strains?
Nisin
What type of botulism is mainly involved in seafood?
type e
What did the Delaney Clause do?
food additives were added to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in 1958.
How many square centimeters in a standard Petri dish?
35mm--area of 8.55 square cm. 50 mm or 5 cm--area of 19.60 square cm. 100 mm or 9 cm-- area of 56.75 square cm. 135 mm-- area of 143 square cm.
What percent of the O-H bond in a water molecule is ionic character?
0.4
You are trying to pasteurize milk to reduce the amount of E. coli. If you are treating the milk for 15 seconds what temperature is needed?
149 deg F or 65 deg C
What is the name of the crop species resulting from a plant breeder's cross between wheat and rye?
triticale
What type of method is the phenol sulfuric acid value, and what does this assay determine?
colorimetric, total carbohydrates
What are the 3 coordinates in the Hunter-Gardner color solid?
L, a, b
What are the 6 stages of tomato ripening?
green, breakers, turning, pink, light red, red
What are the 2 types of food poisoning possibly received from consuming fish?
ciguatera and scombroid
Identify three types of fungi commonly consumed in foods.
Yeast, molds and mushrooms
Which legume accounts for one sixth of the world's vegetable oil production?
The peanut.
What is the SI unit for pressure?
Pascal
Who is regarded as the inventor of modern chewing gum?
Thomas Adams
What method of food preservation did the Incas first use on potatoes?
freeze-drying
What is the Weston A. Price Foundation?
An organization that, among other things, promotes the consumption of animal fat, consumption of raw milk
What is the main type of bond found in starch molecules?
Covalent bond
What are myosin and actin?
major contractile proteins in muscle
What is the name of the membrane surrounding a muscle fiber?
sarcolemma
Rank sweetness from highest to lowest.
Sucralose > stevia > aspartame > sucrose > maltose
What is measured on the basis of the dipole moment of a single molecule?
dielectric constant
How long can eggs be stored under appropriate conditions?
6 months
What compounds found in many brassicas can be both cancer-protective and goitrogenic?
glucosinolates
What is the sea foods division of the IFT now known as?
aquatic food products division
What causes trichinosis?
It is a type of roundworm infection is acquired by eating Trichinella species larvae in raw or undercooked meat
What color of anthocyanin pigment predominates at an acidic pH?
Red
What are two factors that determine meat quality grade?
Degree of maturity, degree of marbling
What does GCMS stand for?
Gas chromatography mass spectrometry
At what temp does a solution of 20% amylose and 80% water boil?
100 C
In cocoa processing, what does NARS stand for?
Nibs alkalizing roasting and sterilizing
What are some critical factors in designing a thermal process?
type of food, target microorganism, location of cold spot, shelf life requirement
Hydrolysis of glycerol molecules from the TAG is called?
saponification
What breed of cattle produces the most beef in the united states?
Holstein
Describe expectation error.
Subjects anticipate the sensation and report their response before it is applicable.
What is the source of the milk used in making Roquefort cheese?
Ewe/female sheep
This important packaging material was patented in 1810 by Peter Durand of England.
Tin can
What sausage is probably produced in the greatest amount in the world? In some regions, the green pistachio nut is a traditional ingredient
mortadella
What was the location of the first Kentucky Fried Chicken franchise?
Salt Lake City, Utah
The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence of a ray of light on the surface separating two media to the sine of its angle of refraction is called:
refractive index
During which phase of microbial growth is bacteria the easiest to kill?
log or exponential phase
On average how many eggs do wild chickens lay each year?
15
What is the common name for 9,12,cis-cis-octadienoic acid?
Linoleic acid
What is the percent RNA and protein in a ribosome?
60% RNA, 40% protein
What is the indicator organism used for thermal processing?
Bacillus stearothermophilus
Name 2 chemical agents used to accelerate bleaching of wheat flour.
chlorine dioxide (widely used), and benzoyl peroxide
Excessive amounts of nitrite in meat cures may result in a green pigment. What is this often referred to as?
nitrite burn
What does PSE stand for?
Pale, soft, exudative
Which food additive did Morton Salt add to their product that allows them to say "When it rains, it pours"?
calcium silicate
What is hysteresis?
Hysteresis represent the history dependence of physical systems. If you push on something, it will yield: when you release, does it spring back completely? If it doesn't, it is exhibiting hysteresis, in some broad sense.
A thermal death curve plots ___ against _____.
temperature vs. time
What is the name for the outside coating of wheat?
Bran
What was the first type of student competition held by IFT?
undergraduate research paper forum
Describe the difference between hue, value, and chroma.
HUE: a color or shade . VALUE: value refers to the lightness or darkness of a color.When referring to pigments, dark values with black added are called “shades” of the given hue name. Light values with white pigment added are called “tints” of the hue name. CHROMA: purity or intensity of color E.G.In red hue, fire engine red, brick red & grey is pure red/high intensity, mid intense & low intensity, respectively
What major breed of dairy cattle has the highest fat % milk?
Jersey
If oxygen attacks an unsaturated fatty acid at the double bond what is the resultant product?
aldehydes (2 aldehydes)
Candy corn is made to look like corn kernels, how many times larger is a candy corn compared to a real corn kernel?
3 times larger
Where did the kiwi fruit originate?
China
Relating to food service, in a three compartment sink what is each sink used for?
washing, rinsing, and sanitizing
What are the names of the three gnomes tha represent Kellog's Rice Krispy Cereal?
Snap, Crackle, and Pop
What is the traditional source of rennet?
the fourth stomach (abomasum) of calves
What are 2 species of Vanilla beans used in the US food industry?
Vanilla Planifolia and Vanilla Tahitensis
What is the processing difference between fresh pack and salt stock (genuine) pickles?
Fresh pack pickles are only marinated (with vinegar and salt and sometimes sugar) , whereas salt stock pickles are fermented.
What is the name for the 5th basic taste, sometimes called savory?
Umami
What is the name of a food process which is considered to be a food additive under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act?
Irradiation
What do you have to correct for after total dietary fiber
nitrogen in ash fro protein
Which food has the highest fiber content? Five prunes, ½ cup cooked lentils, 2 cups iceberg lettuce, or ¾ cup bran flakes
1/2 cup cooked lentils
What is isotachophoresis?
technique used to separate out ionic analytes
What is the term for determining the microwave absorptivity of a material and absorbed microwave energy determines the amount of energy converted to heat?
dielectric loss factor
What vegetable oils are approved for use in butter manufacture?
None
What two spices are derived from the fruit of the nutmeg tree?
Nutmeg and Mace
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is the precursor of what plant hormone?
ethylene
What is most abundant myofibrillar protein?
myosin
What bacteria is added to Swiss cheese for eye formation?
Propionibacterium shermanii
Dark meats tend to have a higher fat content than white meats.
True
Blue Tanner and Dungeness are types of what meat products?
Crab
Rickets is caused by?
Vit D deficiency
What are the 3 positively charged amino acids?
lysine, arginine and histidine
What is the color of freshly slaughtered beef?
Deep purple
What actions can FDA take against companies or individuals who market adulterated or misbranded cosmetics
FDA can pursue action through the Department of Justice in the federal court system, request a federal district court to issue a restraining order, may be subject to seizure or crimal action
How is citron different from most other citrus fruit?
It is primarily pith with only a small amount of juice/pulp
How many FDA regions are there in the U.S.?
5
Give the equation for determining loss tangent, also called dissipation factor.
dielectric loss factor divided by dielectric constant
True or false: Dark meats tend to have a higher fat content than white meats.
True
What fruit is the international symbol for hospitality?
pineapples
The step in which fatty acids of higher melting point are separated by cooling during edible oil manufacturer is called?
winterization
What slaughter type performed according to prescribed rabbinical procedures, under supervision of authorized representatives of jewish faith?
kosher
Which red meat animal species has the lowest average dressing percent?
Sheep
What is the vitamin most associated with antioxidant activity in PUFAs?
vitamin E
The decrease in pH that occurs in postmortem muscle is caused by?
Hydrolysis of ATP
How would you determine which brand of pudding is preferred by customers?
sensory evaluation, preference tests
What is the fibrous Italian cheese, that's name means spun curd due to the due to the unique stretching process?
Pasta filata, also known as “stretched curd” or “spun paste”, refers to the process of heating and stretching curd directly before forming a final cheese
Sharp freezing can be described as ___________?
still air freezing
Name the main microorganism used in malolactic fermentation.
Oenococcus oeni
Which amino acid gives strong reaction with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent?
tyrosine (aromatic ring)
What percent of the Earth's water is potable, or fresh-water?
0.025
What compound(s) most aptly describes the aroma of durian fruit?
ethyl-2-methylbutanoate and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol), (ester and volatile thiol is also acceptable)
Which genera contains bacteria that can fluoresce and contains members that commonly cause spoilage of fresh cut vegetables and meats?
Answer: Pseudomonas flurescens
What is the address for the Washington DC office of IFT?
818 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20006-2702
Which fruit/ vegetable is known as gator legs?
avocado
An emulsified with a high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value would promote which type of emulsion: oil in water or water in oil?
Oil in water
Define and differentiate between GMPs and cGMPs.
GMPs are Good Manufacturing Practices used by the food industry; cGMPs are Current Good Manufacturing Practices regulations under FDA codified at 21 CFR 110
What European nation consumes more spicy Mexican food than any other country?
Norway
Explain thixotropic and pseudoplastic.
Thixotropy is the property of certain fluids and gels of becoming thinner when a constant force is applied. A pseudoplastic fluid is a fluid that increases viscosity as force is applied. The main difference is that viscosity of thixotropic fluids decreases upon applying a force whereas the viscosity of pseudoplastic fluids increases upon applying a force.
Name a reagent used to determine the amount of reducing sugar present in food.
Benedict's reagent
What is the minimum temperature pork should be cooked at to kill Trichinella?
145 F
What is a food intoxication?
An intoxication results when a person eats food containing toxins that cause illness
What four types of animals are legally called meat?
bovine or cattle, pigs, lambs, goats
What are the 5 main types of botulism?
foodborne, infant, wound, Adult intestinal toxemia, Iatrogenic botulism
What substance did Canadians Charles Best and Fredrick Banting discover in 1922?
Insulin
The fifth taste response, activated by flavor potentiators like MSG, is called
umami
In North America, what is the standard size of the pallets used in the Dairy industry?
40"x 40"
Another name for thermal resistance constant is
z-value
What elements does glutathione transferase require?
selenium
What is the rate limiting step in a beer fermentation?
Beer fermentation must continue until yeast uptake the diacetyl they excreted during fermentation. Diacetyl must be lowered to between 0.1 and 0.01 mg/L
With respect to food processing, what is SS 316?
SS 316 is a food grade austenitic stainless steels
The endosperm of wheat consists of starch granules embedded in a what?
protein matrix
What is the usual protein content range of cereal grains?
8-13%
What is the most abundant component of skeletal muscle?
Water
Which of the following has the greatest market share of food packaging? A. flexible packaging, b. glass, c. other metals or d. paper & board
D. Paper and board
what is the difference between bottled beer and draft beer?
draft is unpasteurized and hence has a shorter shelf life
What was the live weight of a lamb with a "hide off, head on" carcass weight of 60 lb and a dressing percentage of 50.0?
120
What is the name of the process that is used for high-acid foods? The food is held at 170-190 deg for 25-30 minutes.
hot, fill, hold
At what temperature (in degrees F) does meat freeze?
28
What happens if whipped cream is whipped too far?
The fat begins to turn into butter
The results of what sensory test are often plotted to give a flavor profile, with the resulting graph being referred to as a spiderweb plot?
Quantitative Descriptive Analysis
What are the prolamins in corn called?
Zein
What is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only be converted from one form to another. The total amount of energy of an isolated system is constant.
What is the difference between somesthesis and kinesthesis?
somesthesis = tactile sense, skin feel; Kinesthesis = deep pressure sense of proprioception
What does the term "con carne" mean in mexican food?
With meat
What are BOD, COD and what are their units of measurement?
biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, mg/L
What is the name of the substance, which can form colloid suspension as a defect in apple juice?
Pectin
What is the state fruit of West Virginia?
Golden Delicious Apple
What legume accounts for one sixth of the worlds vegetable oil production?
Peanut
What year was the Maillard reaction discovered?
1912
What is the name of the compound responsible for the grapefruit flavor of grapefruit?
1-p-menthene-8-thiol (or thioterpineol)
What is the microbial gum commonly used in salad dressings?
Xanthan gum
What is zymology?
the science of fermentation
What is the artificial color number of Sunset Yellow?
Yellow No. 6
When was the USDA created and who did Abraham Lincoln appoint as the 1st leader?
1862, Charles Wetherill
Describe one way nanoparticles are used in food processing.
nanocapsules to improve the availability of neutraceuticals and/or flavors. Nanotubes and particles as gelation and viscosifying agents Particles that bind and remove chemicals and pathogens
This sweetener has about 150-250 times the sweetness power of sucrose and is a dipeptide of aspartic acid and phenylalanine 1-methyl ester
Aspartame
Vitamin D enhances the absorption of what two minerals?
phosphorus and calcium
Name 2 reasons why pectin is used in the processing of fruit juice.
To increase clarity and yield
MC: Which sugar has the highest sweetness? a. lactose b. sucrose c. fructose d. maltose
c. fructose
Xenobiotic definition?
substances that are foreign to the body or to an ecological system
What are the sugar alcohols formed by the reduction of the following sugars: glucose, fructose, and xylose?
sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol
Which young french wine is released annually on the 3rd Thursday in Nov?
Beaujolais nouveau
On St Patricks day, which food is used to color beer green?
Spinach
In which dairy products is acetaldehyde a problem or defect?
Yogurt
What is the purpose of an energy crop?
low-cost, low-maintenance crop used/processed/combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat, etc.
What is the molarity of pure HCL in a pH 7 solution?
10-7 molar
What is the trisaccharide found in beets?
raffinose
What is an infection that can be caused by eating undercooked pork from pigs fed raw garbage?
trichinosis
Name the 5 IFT Student Association competitions.
Graduate student paper, Undergraduate student paper, College Bowl, Student Chapter of the Year, Product Development
What is the quantitative analysis for the oxidation of reducing sugars by Cu+ ions under alkaline condition?
Benedict's test
The mash obtained in the fermentation of soy to produce soy sauce is called
miso
What is the common name for the pelt removal process during sheep slaughter?
Fisting
What is a dextran?
glucose polymer joined by alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond
What is the D value of a microorganism that is decreased in population by a factor of 10 in 2 minutes?
Two
What are five functions of surfactants in foods?
emulsification, aeration and foam stabilization, prevention of starch complexing, protein interaction and fat crystal modification
What beer style do you need sour cheeries to?
Lambic
What substance is formed when collagen is heated in the presence in water?
gelatin
What is the protein source in TVP (textured vegetable protein)?
Soy
How many pecks are in a bushel? 2, 4, 8, 16
b. 4
What substances in low quantity can be found in food?
Indirect additives
What country eats the most lamb and mutton per capita per year?
New Zealand
How many seconds should you wash your hands as stated by the CDC?
20 s in US, 15 s in Canada
In glycolysis how many moles of NADH are produced per mole of glucose consumed?
2
What is a material property that determines the distribution of energy within the material?
attenuation factor
What does GRAS stand for?
Generally Recognized As Safe
What equipment is preferable to sterilize canned soups?
rotary retort
What is the cholesterol content of peanuts?
0
Name a chart used in unsteady state heat transfer.
gurney-lurie chart, heisler chart
What mineral is best known as an antioxidant?
Selenium
In which states are the following IFT sections located: Puget Sound; Magnolia; Nutmeg; Dogwood; Cactus
Washington and Alaska; Mississippi; Connecticut; North Carolina; Arizona
What main compound is responsible for the smell of lavender?
linalool or linalyl acetate
The carboxy end of the fatty acid is called the _____ position.
alpha
Under what Presidential Administration was FSMA signed into law?
Barack Obama
What are the big 3 canned products?
corn, tomatoes, green beans
The Maillard reaction is a reaction between what two specific components in foods
Reducing sugar and amino acid
What is Raoult’s law?
vapor pressure of a solution = vapor pressure of the solvent x mole of solvent fraction
Why does the pH of albumen in freshly laid eggs change from 7.6 to 9.7 during storage?
diffusion of solubilized CO2 through the shell
What is PCR? Why is it used?
It is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and used to "amplify" - copy - small segments of DNA.
what substances are prohibited in foods by the delaney clause?
any substance shown to cause cancer in man or animal
Enzyme pills available over the counter can be added to milk to predigest lactose to glucose and galactose. The name of the enzyme is ....
Lactase (b-galactosidase) or Lactase
Another name for thermal death time is
F value or sterilization value
What proteolytic enzymes are located in lysosomes?
cathepsins
Name 2 approved bleaching agents used in flour production.
Cl2, NOCl, N2O4, benzyl peroxide, ClO2, NO2, lipogenase
In packaging terminology, when does EVOH stands for?
ethylene vinyl alcohol
What is the pH range of beer? a. 2-3 b. 3-5 c. 5-6 d. 6-7
b. 3-5
What is maximum level of nitrites allowed in finished hams?
200 ppm
In milk, what does lactose react with to cause maillard browning?
Lactose reacts with the free amino acid side chain of milk protein (Mainly e-amino group of lysine residue)
What toxic pigment is found in cottonseed endosperm?
Gossypol
What is fibrous italian cheese spun curd method?
Pasta filata
What is the process of staling called?
Retrogradation
What are the smallest and largest amino acids by MW?
glycine and tryptophan
What color is the inside of a cranberry?
white
What is the common name obtained from laurel tree often used to flavor soups, sauces?
Bay leaves
What is the main difference between a food intolerance and a food allergy?
food intolerance deals with the digestive system and food allergy with the immune system
What is the major antioxidant in rosemary extract?
Diterpenes - carnosic acid
What is a chemical leavening system, and what are the two essential components of a chemical leavening system?
A Chemical leavening system is a system of controlled carbon dioxide release to give rise to baked products, the two components are a leavening agent. sodium bicarbonate) and acidic agent
Kielbasa is a polish sausage made primarily of coarsely ground pork with some amount of beef blended in. What is the typical seasoning used in Kielbasa?
Garlic
What is the name of the degradation compound of chlorophyll?
Pheophytin
With regard to wines, what does the abbreviation AOC mean?
AOC – Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée The French term for a wine’s place of origin. It also refers to the complex rules regarding viticulture and vinification that vary from place to place.
What are fresh hams commonly called by the packing industry?
Green hams
What does the Fiske-Subbarow assay measure?
Levels of inorganic phosphate in biological samples
What does the M in M & Ms stand for?
Mars & Murrie, to co-creators of the candy
What is the equation for the Ideal gas Law?
PV = nRT
What are some of the disadvantages of using the general method to calculate lethality?
the initial temperature and time/temperature profile used in production must remain consistent with those used at the time of the heat penetration tests, not recommended for process development, there is a need for thermocouple nad measurement accuracy (with accurate calibration)
Sauerkraut results from what kind of fermentation process
Lactic acid
What is the term given to the contents of the GI tract at the time of slaughter and affects dressing percentage more than most other factors?
fill
Deficiency of what vitamin is associated with neural tube defects?
folate (B9)
What is a secondary metabolite produced by fungi and can cause unnatural or "deleterious biological changes in plants, animals, humans, or microorganisms?
mycotoxin
How many IFT achievement awards will be given out at the 2018 IFT annual meeting?
19