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Why can goats eat grass and paper while humans cannot?
Bacteria present in their stomachs break down the cellulose
Glass is composed of what 3 materials?
Sand (SiO2), soda ash ( Na2CO3), and Limestone (CaCO3)
Ergotism 17th century case
Salem witch trials
Which vegetable is the immature flower bud thistle found in sunflower family
What is the web address for IFT?
bromelain from pineapple, ficin from figs, papain from papaya, trypsin from pancreas may all be added to meat to serve as what type of agent
Marasmus is a type of PEM disease. What does PEM stand for?
Protein Energy Malnutrition
Why is the recommended storage temperature for potatoes greater than 25 degrees C?
Lower temperatures result in more reducing sugar formation creating the potential for browning (called Cold-Induced Sweetening)
What happens to the cartilaginous ends of vertebrae as animals age?
Ossification; They ossify
hydroxylation of lysine to hydroxylysine in collagen is an important step leading to what
conversion of a-chains, b and g chains (crosslinks),,, The collagen molecules are then spontaneously self-assembled into a fibril and stabilized by covalent intra- and inter-molecular covalent cross-linking
4 quarts
Between which two ribs is a lamb shoulder properly separated from a lamb rack?
The 4th and 5th ribs
What is a mycotoxin?
Secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that can cause disease and death in humans and animals.
The animal fat which is characterized by containing appreciable amounts of shorter chain fatty acids (C4 – C12) is
Milk fat
What are the main stages of canning?
heating phase (removal of air, come-up time, holding time at processing temperature), cooling phase
Name two factors that determine meat quality grade.
Marbling and maturity
What is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide?
Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world.
What happens to the melting point of a lipid/oil when its overall level of saturation is increased?
melting point increases
what are the five types of bonds found in proteins?
Peptide, Ionic, disulfide, Hydrogen, hydrophobic interactions
What is the rendered form of beef and mutton fat called?
FDA has recently approved a Western Center for Food Safety. At which University is this center located?
University of California - Davis
What drupaceous fruit were Hawaiian women once forbidden by law from eating?
tests for which two bacteria must be conducted under the final rule on pathogen reduction and HACCP?
generic E. coli and salmonella
Which act established Land grant universities in 1862?
Land-Grant College Act
resistance temperature detectors, also known as RTD are PTC sensors. What does PTC stand for?
positive temperature coefficient
what graphs the relationship betwee water content and water activity?
sorption isotherm
Where are lipovitellin and livetins found?
in egg yolks
What organ converts lactic acid to glucose?
What is an indicator organism?
An organism used to test changes in water quality conditions or food microbiological analysis by detecting for the presence of harmful pathogens .
How many carbon atoms are in one molecule of beta-carotene?
40 (most carotenoids are made up of 8 isoprene units)
the causative agent of typhoid fever is
salmonella typhi
Which fruit has its seeds on the outside?
The strawberry
What is the term the FDA uses to describe the maximum amount or natural or unavoidable decfects in a products?
defect action levels
In meat processing, what does the acronym STPP stand for and what is its primary function?
Sodium Tripolyphosphate - increases yields - increases pH --> more water holding capacity of meat proteins
In which year was the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act enacted?
In material/energy balance for continuous processes, what must also be considered?
What is the primary purpose of retorting low aci canned foods?
reduce spores of C. bot by 10^12
Pig belly
during typical food heating, what is the starting size of gap that microwaves cannot pass through?
0.122 m to 0.328 m
what value measures the heat resistance of a microorganism?
Taquila when cannot be called tequila
on 9/30/85, IFT OSPA became a functioning entity with the goal to establish IFT as the authoritative source of info on food science and technology. What does the acronym OSPA stand for
office of scientific public affairs
On what binomial probability is the triangle test based
1/3rd or 33%
The protein that is about 58% of all egg white protein is called _____
What was the original name for cheerios
In what year was the first Nicolas Appert award awarded?
What are the 2 distinct syndromes of B. cereus gastroenteritis?
vomiting (emetic) type, diarrhea type
which mineral can be used as an antioxidant?
Which kind of Carageenan is associated with the formation of a thixotropic gel?
iota carrageenan
what are the spore-forming foodborne pathogens?
bacteria such as the Bacillus and Clostridium species are able to form spores. These spores, also referred to as endospores, are the dormant form of vegetative bacteria and are highly resistant to physical and chemical influences.
Name heat resistant enzyme use in modern PCR
THQ Polymerase
who won the william cruess award?
Soo-Yeun Lee
What common enzyme can be used to modify lipids from their original triacylglycerol form?
What type of carotenoid predominates in wheat flour?
xanthophyll and its esters (no vit. A activity)
sauerkraut results from what type of fermentation process
lactic acid
what is the nonprotein portion of myoglobin
The water content of lean beef muscle normally ranges from A) 40-50% B) 70-75% C) 90-95%
B) 70-75%
What is the name of the Fruit Loops mascot?
Toucan Sam
As of 2005, what is the official soft drink of Maine?
The protein efficiency ratio (PER) is the ratio of weight gained by rats fed test protein to those fed what protein?
How many times more acidic is something with a pH of 2 than a substance with a pH of 5?
1000x more
Inosine methylene blue agar
Lactose fermenting
What are covalent chemical bonds linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a protein chain called?
peptide bonds
A difference of ___ BCU is estimated to be a visual difference in a product
Which of the following is used to see whether or not milk has been pasteurized? A - phosphatase test, B - refractometer test, C - Jelmeter test, D - Acidophilus test
a – phosphatase test/ Alkaline Phosphatase test.
The sterilization value, also known as F sub zero describes what?
the integrated impact of time and temperature on the microbial population, expressed as time at the reference temperature, calculated by using the lethal rate times heating time
In 2008, the author of Modern Food Microbiology, currently in its 7 revision, passed away. Who is this author?
James Jay
What is another name of vitamin E?
how are two piece jar lids made
draw and redraw
What is the flavor that is created from the two chemicals of S – (1- propenyl) – L – cysteine sulfoxide and thiopropanol – S oxide ?
Why are linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid considered essential fatty acids?
Answer: they are omega 3 fatty acids taken through diet, because they cannot be synthesized by humans (N six and N three fatty acids cannot be synthesized in vivo)
Difference between glucose and galactose
4th carbon hydroxyl group orientation
Name the two major meat proteins that are salt soluble
myosin and actin
what is flash cooling?
the process of removing heat, moisture, and entrained air from the product prior to filling
what are the approximate temperatures at which fermentation takes place for ale and lager beers
ale: 10~23.9 C, lager: 0-12.8 C
Does a smaller or larger electrode gap result in faster heating of the product?
smaller electrode gap
What is a psychrometric chart?
A psychrometric chart is a graphical representation of the psychrometric processes of air. Psychrometric processes include physical and thermodynamic properties such as dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, humidity, enthalpy, and air density.
what are the 3 regions of IR radiation?
near-IR, mid-IR, and far-IR
How long does a patent last?
20 years from the date filed. Note: the patent holder is required to pay maintenance fees to keep his patent valid
A thermal death curve plots ___ against _____.
temperature vs. time
Which genera contains bacteria that can fluoresce and contains members that commonly cause spoilage of fresh cut vegetables and meats?
Answer: Pseudomonas flurescens
Fear of cooking
what company produces and markets sterling silver beef and pork and cattleman's selection beef?
Excel (Cargill)
Higher alcohols esterified with fatty acids are called?
what is the most prevalent mineral in egg shell?
The uncurling of tea leaves when hot water is poured on
The agony of leaves
What organism is included in the fermented sausage starter culture?
Pediococcus cerivicea
What is the cause of cardboard flavor in milk.?
Answer: oxidation of fat
the n-acetylmuramidase enzyme found in egg whites that hydrolyzes the cell walls of gram positive bacteria has the common name
what test is used to measure the viability of starter culture during the fermentation of cottage cheese?
Ta, TTA, or titratable acidity
Why was the Animal Crackers box designed with a string handle?
The animal shaped cookie treats were introduced in 1902 as a Christmas novelty and packaged so they would be hung from the Christmas tree
Kielbasa is a polish sausage made primarily of coarsely ground pork with some amount of beef blended in. What is the typical seasoning used in Kielbasa?
What is the major nutraceutical compound found in red wine and grape skins?
What is the protein content of straight (hard wheat) flour used for making white bread?
12-14% protein
deficiency of what vitamin is associated with neural tube defects
folate (B9)
why is flash cooling important?
it produces a consistent product density
What food is most associated with the foodborne illness agent enterobacter sakazakii
Infant formula
The generally accepted oldest food law is the right Hi Scott law which defines beer can contain what three ingredients
Barley or malt as well as water but the third ingredient is hops.
3 cereal grains most consumed:
Wheat, rice, corn
What is the flavor enhancer manufactured from glutamic acid?
MSG- Monosodium Glutamate
where is 25 hydroxycholecalciferol hydroxylated to produce the active form of vitamin D
What are the dispersed and continuous phases of each of the following: Foam, aerosol, emulsion
Dispersed: gas, liquid or solid, liquid;Continuous:liquid or solid, gas, liquid
Integration of lethality will determine which value
F sub zero
Who was the first "celebrity chef", cooking on a show called "Chez Bon Viveur"?
Fanny Cradock
another name for thermal resistance constant is
How did pound cake get its name?
One pound quantities of the key ingredients (sugar, butter, eggs and flour in the original recipe)
The odor of spoilt fish is due to :
TMA (trimethylamine) (TMAO is acceptable)
What is the most common preservative in processed meats?
What is the name of a polypeptide antibiotic produced by some streptococcus lactis strains?
What genus and species is used in the manufacture of blue cheese?
Penicillium roqueforti
What is the sensory effect that results from the interaction of calcium and pectin
Texture (firming)
what are the main protein types in corn? Oats? Rice?
corn-prolamins, oats-globulins, rice-globulin
Name 2 types of retorts
still (not agitating, vertical, horizontal, hydrostatic), agitating
What is the process of adding salt, sugar and sodium nitrate for the purpose of color developments over enhancement preservation and safety
what is the measurement of oxygen utilized in the stabilization of organic matter by microorganisms over a 5 day period at 20 C called?
biological oxygen demand
Tonka beans have a high concentration of which dangerous compound?
Quality assurance employees in beef packing plants routinely perform AQL tests. What does the acronym AQL represent?
Acceptable quality limits
How many IFT achievement awards will be given out at the 2018 IFT annual meeting?
What acid causes the pH of normal muscle to drop after slaughter?
Lactic acid
Sensory evaluation methods that are devised to measure the acceptance of a product are called Affective Tests. Give an example
A paired preference test, A preference ranking test, and The hedonic test method
what are the substrates for soy sauce?
soybean, water, salt, wheat
Which book brought attention to the effects of widespread use of pesticide?
Silent Spring
what is the maximum amount of aflatoxin allowed in food by FDA
20 ppb, .5 ppb for milk, aflatoxin 61 is the most potent known naturally-occurring liver carcinogen
The layer of connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers is called the what?
In milk, what does lactose react with to cause maillard browning?
Lactose reacts with the free amino acid side chain of milk protein (Mainly e-amino group of lysine residue)
What protein structure refers to the spatial arrangement obtained when a linear protein chain with a secondary structure folds further into a compact three dimensional form
Tertiary structure
What does CAFO stand for?
concentrated animal feeding operation
what is the most common psychrotropic bacteria?
What is the condition caused by dehydration and oxidation from the frozen surface of a food product
freezer burn
What are the four categories of food additives established by the FDA?
GRAS, prior sanctioned, regulated, banned
Which airline was the first to have in-flight kitchen in 1937?
United Airlines
What is the single most important phase of a sterile canning operation?
What is the state mushroom of Oregon?
Pacific Golden Chanterelle
Who developed cocoa butter, cocoa powder, and the Dutching process?
Coenraad Johannes van Houten
Kirsch is a brandy made of which fruit
What respiratory condition might cause someone to be allergic to cysteine?
What is the process of sterilizing the product and package separately called?
aseptic or ultra high temperature (UHT) processing
What pathogenic bacteria can grow at aw=0.86
Staph Aureus
what is deglutition
the act or process of swallowing food
This packaging material can be made by heating soda ash and sand
What are the two roles of salt in bread making?
changes taste, effects rheological properties by making dough stronger
Define a calorie and specify the number of calories obtained from the consumption of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat
a calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by one degree centigrade. Carbohydrates and proteins: 4 kCal/g and fat 9 kcal/g. Remember that one food calorie is one kilocalorie in physics.
What is gingerol and where is it found?
Characteristic ginger flavor from the ginger root
Which digestive, Organ has the highest concentration of lactase enzyme
Small intestine
According to CODEX Al, extra virgin olive oil difference?
Oleic acid content
What are the major antioxidants found in Rosemary extract
Rosmarinic acid, carnosol and carnosic acid
What is the concentration of casein and whey in the protein fraciton of cow's milk?
~82% of milk protein is casein & 18% is serum, or whey protein
What talk show host was sued by cattle producers because of an episode aired in April 1996 about Mad Cow Disease?
Oprah Winfrey
What are two types of processes that involve the removal of thermal energy and at what temperatures are these two processes?
refrigeration (40 F or 4.4 C) and freezing 0 F or -17.8 C)
The bitter glucoside in olives is called ______________
What is the citrus fruit "Pomme" also known as?
Per Codex, what % cocoa dose semi-bitter chocolate need to be? a. 15 b. 30 c. 45 d. 70
b. 15%
What stromal protein comprises the Ligamentum nuchae?
who is the publisher of food technology
Institute of food technologists
What is required for a product to bear the label "organic"?
Products labeled “organic” must contain at least 95 percent organically produced ingredients (excluding water and salt). Any remaining ingredients must consist of non-agricultural substances that appear on the NOP National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances.
What study was conducted in 1991, 1995, and 2000 to establish baselines for beef quality shortfalls and identify targets for desired quality levels?
National Beef Quality Audit
What is the term used to describe pork meat that has undergone a sudden decrease in pH after slaughter?
Pale, Soft, and Exudative Meat
How does fat have "shortening power"?
It interlaces between protein and starch structures and makes them tear apart easily and 'short' rather than allowing them to stretch long. This is a tenderizing effect for meat and baked goods.
What polysaccharide from crustecean shells lowers cholesterol?
When two particles merge and don't retain their properties
what is characterized by extensive fat infiltration into muscle fibers, often caused by denervation of muscles?
List all the different types of thermocouples
J, K, E, T, N, B, R, S
What law of filtration rate to change in presse drop across a filter bed?
Dary's law
How many flowers are in the design stamped on each side of an oreo cookie?
What is the top selling spice in the world?
Black pepper
When ingredients are described on baker’s percentage, how are the amounts of all ingredient s determine
Weight percentage of flour
PSE pork is an important problem that occurs in certain breeds of hog. PSE stands for what?
Pale, Soft, Exudative
In 2003, the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) unveiled a new program which dramatically changed the way Grade A Milk Processing Facilities may be inspected and listed in the IMS list. What was this program?
Voluntary HACCP program
Enzymes are used extensively by the food industry as processing aids for ingredient production. The enzymes alpha amylase, glucoamylase, and glucose isomerase are used in sequence to produce what food ingredient?
High fructose corn syrup
Gel formation in frozen egg can be prevented by
2-10% NaCl 8-10% sucrose
Cleave of K-casein by rennet gives which 2 peptides?
para-kappa casein and glycomacropeptide
While dough is being mixed, yeast produces which two compounds by anaerobic respiration?
Carbon dioxide and ethanol
Name 2 glycosidic linkages in mixed-linked glucans in oats and barley.
B-1-3 and B-1-4
name three drying methods used
spray drying, freeze drying, bed, drum, convection, sunlight, dehydration
in thermoprocessing, what is the difference between "sterility" and "commercial sterility"?
commercial sterility means the probability that spores or cells survive is low but not absolute. Sterilization means the destruction of all viable microorganisms that may be present, and they cannot grow because of pH, temperature of storage, etc.
What color is the inside of a cranberry?
What is triple sec?
Orange-flavored liqueur, originated in France, 20-40%
Give an example of cross potentiation
Observer perceives more bitterness in the test sample because of the tasting of sucrose has heightened his sensitivity to bitterness
What is the difference between recombinant vs. natural bovine growth hormone?
Recombinant has extra methionine
what are three positive effects of thermal processing on the nutritive value of foods?
inactivation of degradative enzymes (destruction of anti-nutrients) increased bioavailability of nutrients, reduction of microbes
What is the single most important phase of a sterile canning operation?
What is the genus and species of the fungus that caused the Irish famine?
Phytophora infestans
What is the most valuable by-product of cattle?
The hide
what is SCP?
single cell protein
What is commercial sterilization?
destroys both vegetative cells and spores of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms that would be capable of growing in the product under normal storage conditions
What is fibrous italian cheese spun curd method?
Pasta filata
What is the culinary term used to describe splitting open a bird carcass and flattening it?
butterflying or spatchcooking
What is meant by the "signature line" on a package?
the name and address of manufacturer, distributor or importer
With regard to protein gelation, define thermally irreversible gel and thermally reversible gel. Give the predominant type of inter protein bonding and an example of food gels in each classification
A thermally reversible gel forms upon cooling after heating; hydrogen bonding is primary; gelatin is an example. A thermally irreversible gel forms during heating; covalent (disulfides) is primary bonding; examples include egg white, whey protein, soy protein, etc.
Can a food be marketed as a modified food product under a standard name even if it does not meet all the requirements of the standard?
If listed as a modified or imitation version of the standard product
What is a brine of salt, water, and sugar cure?
sweet pickle
t/f Prior to dehydration, many fruits are exposed to sulfur gas in order to prevent microbial growth and browning
What country recently became the top producer of vanilla in the world?
What is the term used to describe the ratio of the viscous portion to the elastic portion
Tan delta or loss factor
What is the name of the reaction when an acid and base react to give water?
what is the main source of vibrio cholerae?
Name a halophilic food infectious bacteria
Except for V. cholerae and V. mimicus, all Vibrio species are halophilic (salt requiring) Example: Vibrio parahaemolyticus
The International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians (IAMFES) have recently undergone a name change. What is the new name for this organization?
International Association for Food Protection (IAFP)
What are the 3 simple components of a radio frequency heating system?
radio frequency generator, electrodes, and product
What common farm animal is decendant of callus gallus?
Why are the seven principle cereal grains?
Rice, corn, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and oats
What is the name of the black spot defect in shrimp?
A plant hormone that is sometimes called the "ripening hormone" is ...
the muscle tissue from bone flesh of fish contain the same amount of connective tissue as that from beef. t/f
Give two dicarboxylic amino acids
Glutamic acid and aspartic acid
FAO, what is the % of fat in yak's milk?
Who governs meat and poultry labeling?
Why store olive oil in Dark
to prevent from photooxidation
what is the simple term for conversion of raw materials or ingredients into a consumer food product?
Food Processing & Engineering
Typical caloric value of gram of caramel color
4 Cal
What has the least number of calories: raw potatoes or potatoes boiled in their skin?
raw potatoes
what is PCR? Why is it used?
It is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and used to "amplify" - copy - small segments of DNA.
What is the name for the chord that anchor that enter egg yolk?
In a fresh egg, you can see two white cords attached to the yolk. These two cords, called chalazae, are made of twisted strands of mucin fibre, a special form of protein. The role of the chalazae are to anchor the yolk in the centre of the egg.
Typically, what color is the fat of a cow's carcass that have only been grass fed?
Commonly used fish in sushi
tuna (maguro, shiro-maguro), Japanese amberjack, yellowtail (hamachi), snapper (kurodai), mackerel (saba), and salmon (sake). The most valued sushi ingredient is toro, the fatty cut of the fish.
What are the class of food pigments which have similar structure and properties to anthocyanins, but are yellow in color called?
What are fresh hams commonly called by the packing industry?
Green hams
The levels of intake of essential nutrient considered adequate for meeting the known nutritional needs of practically all healthy persons is called what?
Name a chart used in unsteady state heat transfer.
gurney-lurie chart, heisler chart
What are the bonds in mixed glucans?
β-1->3 and β-1->4
Aspartame contains which 2 amino acids?
Phenylalanine and aspartic acid
What is the definition of an oligosaccharide?
Contains 3 to 10 monosaccharides (more than 2 less than 11)
What is the monetary prize of the food disruption challenge pitch for the selected pitch as well as the people’s choice award?
$25 K for winner, $5 K for people’s choice
Name the three tests for packaging materials.
Tensile strength, moisture transmission, Oxygen transmission
What is the main component of the thick filaments in muscle cells?
Which grain is related closely to rhubarb?
What are the compounds in hops that provide the bitter component and that affect the taste of beer the most?
Why are fruits or vegetables often heated prior to maceration for juice production?
to speed up the process or to infuse flavors prior to maceration, to increase extract yield and to inactivate the enzymes
the lamb shoulder is correctly separated from the lamb rack between what ribs?
4th & 5th
What is the time between ribbing and grading of beef carcasses called that allows oxygenation of the ribeye pigments?
Bloom Time
What are 5 fatty acids found in vegetable oil?
stearic, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and __________
Tapioca starch comes from
What is piperine and where is it found?
An alkaloid that is responsible for the strong peppery kick in black and white pepper
What are the three steps of free radical auto oxidation?
initiation propagation and termination.
What are the four main products of the corn wet-milling proces?
protein, starch, oil, fiber
The enzyme used to manufacture the liquid center of candies is:
What is the name of a flexible container made from polyolefin laminated to aluminum foil of 0.00035 to 0.00050 inch thickness?
retort pouch or retortable pouch
What is the primary protein in the thin filament of a muscle?
what genus of microorganisms are most often involved with spoilage of refrigerated fresh meat, poultry, fish, and eggs?
What does WVTR stand for in food packaging?
water vapor transmission rate
What is the measure of protein quality using weight gain in experimental animals when fed test item?
protein efficiency ratio(PER)
Another name for triacylglycerol is?
the accumulation of adipose tissue around the bundles of muscle fibers in beef is called what?
2 cups
one pint
What is the function of erythromycin?
Why does the pH of albumen in freshly laid eggs change from 7.6 to 9.7 during storage?
diffusion of solubilized CO2 through the shell
what comes in crimmini, morel, oyster, and wood ear varieties?
Describe the meaning of 150-grade pectin.
A 150 grade pectin is one that will form a satisfactory gel at a ratio of 1 kg (or unit) pectin to 150 kg (or unit) sugar.
Enzyme used to cut DNA: Conversion, Mannic, Conjungtion and restriction
Which test is used to check if the dough is properly kneaded or not? Describe it.
Window pane test (Take a small ball of the dough and stretch it into a square. Keep on stretching until it becomes a thin film in the middle without breaking. The dough must be thin enough to pass light through it. If it is obtained without any tear, then your dough is properly kneaded.)
even though bread has sucrose, a non-reducing sugar, how does it brown?
sucrose breaks down into glucose and fructose
What is the term used for the weight animals lose while being hauled and held off feed before slaughter?
shrink (drift)
In terms of plant respiration, what does the acronym RQ stand for and how is it defined?
Respiration Quotient. It is defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the plant to oxygen consumed by the plant
Which of the following food has a highest amount of zinc, per gram?
a ground beef b. chickpeas., c. oysters
3 vegetables in vegetable stock
Onions, carrots and celery
Name, a species of Aspergillus. capable of producing aflatoxins
Aspergillus flavus
What is the CDC's gold standard for microbe fingerprinting?
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)
Give 3 methods for assessing protein quality
BV, per, net protein utilization, amino acid score, net protein ratio, relative protein value, PDCAAS
What is a measurement based on weight gain of a test subject divided by its intake of a particular food protein during the test period?
Protein efficiency ratio (PER)
Products of corn wet milling:
protein, starch , oil and fiber
what are the scientific name for ale and lager yeasts
lager: saccharomyces pastorianus(formerly saccharomyces carlsbergensis); ale: saccharomyces cerevisiae
Thermal treatment of Ginger will give
Shugaol and gingerone
what Is the name of the membrane surrounding a muscle fiber
What are the three functions of sulfuric acid in the Babcock test?
generate heat, precipitate protein, digest protein
A higher attenuation factor does what to the distribution?
makes the distribution less uniform
What vitamin is produced from cholesterol in the body?
vitamin D
Which to indigenous groups made peanut butter by first grinding roasted peanuts into a paste?
Ancient Incas and the Aztecs
What positions are on the board of directors of IFTSA?
VP chapter engangement, VP membership engangement, VP competitions, VP volunteer development, VP digital and social media and Member-at-large
Which of the following do not require pre-market approval by the FDA? a. structure-function claims b. health claim c. drugs d. food additives
a. structure-function claims
What is the highest designation of wine quality in Italy?
DOCG, Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita
Rank sweetness from highest to lowest
Sucralose > stevia > aspartame > sucrose > maltose
What are substances that are incorporated into food products in low quantities from processing or packaging perspective
indirect additives
What are some critical factors in designing a thermal process?
type of food, target microorganism, location of cold spot, shelf life requirement
Work done between 1895 and 1898 by Underwood and Prescott
Time-temperature combinations for various canned foods to remove spoilage microorganisms. Thermal processing for canning.
What are the additive primaries?
Red, green, and blue light
Which country produces over 70% of the world's maple syrup?
Name 2 conditions under which yeasts and molds will out compete most bacteria
1) low Aw (0.6-0.7) 2) 2 > pH > 9
What is the USDA legal limit for moisture in dried apples?
what are hemolytic bacteria?
bacteria that can lyse blood cells
What is the bitter component of grapefruit called?
What is the term used to describe storing refrigerated meat to improve tenderness?
Aging or dry aging
Which foodborne pathogen also causes necrotic enteritis in poultry and gas gangrene in humans?
Clostridium perfringens
what is the most advantageous type of IR and why?
far-IR, most food components absorb radiative energy in this region
What is the general nitrogen to protein conversion factor used in food analysis?
6.25, kjeldahl method
What term describes the ability of fat to exist in different crystalline forms?
Mayo ingredients
Eggs, vegetable oil, acid (lemon juice, vinegar, citric acid)
Top 3 microbial causes of foodborne illnesses
Norovirus, salmonella, clostridium perfringes
Identify which cereal grains contain gluten: teff, oats, buckwheat, triticale, monleena
only triticale
What is the name of a basic glycoprotein found in egg white that has the property of binding biotin?
What does PER stand for?
Protein efficiency ratio
S – (1- propenyl) – L – cysteine sulfoxide and thiopropanol – S oxide – are associated with the flavor of
what are the spore-forming foodborne pathogens?
Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringes and Clostridium botulinum
in what year was there a patent registered for use of a commercial refrigeration process for fish?
what is thermal conductivity?
a measure of a material's ability to transfer thermal energy
Name two major types of seafood intoxication
ciguatera poisoning, scombroid poisoning, and various shellfish poisonings. shellfish poisoning. The most well-known types are paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and amnesic shellfish poisoning Two major groups of marine phytoplankton, diatoms and dinoflagellates, produce HAB toxins
Why are linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid considered essential fatty acids?
they are n-6 and n-3 fatty acids that cannot be synthesized in vivo
What is the name of a food process which is considered to be a food additive under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act?
In temperature sensing, what does the abbreviation RTD stand for?
resistance temperature detector
Which bacteria, typically found on raw chicken, is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhea in the united states?
Campylobacter jejuni
What is the typical width of the pulse used in pulsed electric field processing?
1-10 microseconds
A food product would not be considered adulterated if: a) It contained a new animal drug; b) It contains FD&C Yellow #4; C. It contains carmine; D. If it is the product of an animal that did not die by slaughter
Which two prolamins make up wheat gluten?
Gliadins and Glutenins
Name 2 wet methods for determination of fat content in milk
gerber and babcock
Which of the following foods are considered a source of complete protein? A. chicken B. soybean C. yogurt D. A & C, E. all of the above
What is the main disadvantage of commercial sterilization of a food?
significant changes in nutritive and sensory characteristics
What specific class of enzymes are responsivle for the disruption of fat-soluble membrane in raw milk?
If you had 10 ml of Kool-Aid with 10% sucrose, how much water should you add to make the drink 0.1% sucrose?
990 ml water
Brazil Nuts are rich in what mineral?
Name any three enzymes that are inactivated during blanching
PME, PPO, lipoxygenase, polygalacturonase,chlorophyllase
what is the term used to describe the least energy capable of producing a sensation
absolute threshold
Muscle cells are multinucleated, cylindrical cells surrounded by an outer member called what?
What are 3 folic acid rich foods?
leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits and juices, beans lentils, fortified breakfast cereals, broccoli
what are some of the advantages and disadvantages of radio frequency heating?
advatanges: longer wavelength, deeper penetration depth, shorter treatment time, less equipment space requirement, volumetric heating; being a continuous process disadvantages: non-uniform heating,
Which federal agency has jurisdiction for regulating alcoholic beverages?
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.
what is the name of the membrane that directly surrounds the egg yolk
vitelline membrane
what does AOAC stand for
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists
Which state leads the US in mushroom production? Producing 45% of the fresh crop in 1999?
what elements does glutathione transferase require?
name the musical fruit
What is the typical shelf life of pasteurized milk held under refrigeration?
12-16 days
Who is the current treasurer of IFT?
Scott Lineback
Who conducts the voluntary seafood inspection program on a fee-for-service basis?
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Why are "cereal adjuncts" added in beer making?
Cereal Adjuncts can impact color, flavor, and stability of the product.
In a sensory what are the sensations elicited by volatile compounds?
Odour, smell
The best Vitamin A precursor that occurs in food is called
What is the name of the holes in swiss cheese and what are they caused by?
Eyes; the carbon dioxide produced by the microbe Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii
One specific class of enzymes is thought to be responsible for the disruption of that fat globule membrane in raw milk?
Answer: phospholipases
2nd most abundant polysachharide
Name 3 pieces of equipment that thermocouples are frequently used in
ovens, furnaces, flue gas, and other areas that have temperatures above 250 C
what are the top 4 catfish producing states in the U.S.
Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, Arkansa
In which dairy product is acetaldehyde a problem or defect
What is the temperature and time range for commercial sterilization?
116-121 C (240-250 F) for 50-90 min
TBA stands for
Thiobarbaturic acid
Which of the following flavors can be felt at the tip of the tongue: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami?
All of them
What is the name of a freze-dried potato product in Bolivia and Peru?
in sensory analysis, what type of scale is generally used for acceptance testing
St. Anthony's Fire outbreaks are now very rare. It is caused by a toxin on rye or wheat produced by what
claviceps purpurea
According to recent federal regulations, a warning label must be on fruit juice products, which have not been so processed or treated to achieve what performance standard?
5 log (100,000 or 99.999%) reductions in significant pathogens
Replacement for sourdough
A cup of milk and 1 tsp lemon juice (correct)
What is the difference between additive and subtractive primaries?
additives all together produce white light, subtractives all together theoretically produce black light
Sensory tests may be divided into 3 groups on the basis of the type of information that they provide. What are the three types?
Discrimination, descriptive, affective (preference)
Which food is made by fermenting soaked and cooked soybeans with a mold, usually rhizopus?
What is the scientific name of the most tender muscle in a beef carcass?
Psoas Major
A characteristic of an "emetic" form is that it causes nausea but not ...
Oxygen storage in slow twitch fibers is achieved by what molecule
Juice or beverage spoilage by Alicyclobacillus primarily leads to what spoilage compound, associated with a medicinal off odor?
Conditionally essential amino acids
arginine, cysteine, glutamine, tyrosine, glycine, proline, and serine.
describe the pasteurization process
product heated to desired temperature, product held at desired temperature for defined time (typically for 12D reduction), product cooling, and product handling/distribution under refrigeration
What is the state fruit of Tennessee?
What are three genera of fungi commonly used in food production?
Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Saccharomyces
Falling film
Lists the four steps, in proper sequence, for cleaning and sanitizing food equipment.
Rinse, clean, rinse, sanitize
what are facultative anaerobes?
microorganisms that can grown and survive with or without oxygen
name 2 carotenoid pigments
beta carotene, xanthophylls
Who was the 1st athelte to appear on a box of Wheaties?
Lew Gehrig
What is the F Value in microbial death kinetics?
Lethality - the time in minutes required to bring about a required log reduction in target microbial population at a defined temperature.
The third most abundant element in the earth's crust is used to make this packaging material?
Component of wine glycosylated/polymerized during aging
Name 3 types of heat treatment during food processing and what is their purpose
blanching (inactivates enzymes), pasteurization (kill pathogenic bacteria), and sterilization (kill all bacteria and other organisms)
European national Food Science organizations are organized into the European Federation of Food Science and Technology. Where is this group based?
Wageningen University, the Netherlands
Porterhouse steak is fabricated from which beef primal?
What is the name of the classic Mexican sauce containing chilies, nuts, and chocolate?
Freezing point of milk is close to 0°C, what has happened?
It is adulterated with water
What are the top 3 sea foods consumed in the U.S.
Shrimp, Salmon, Tuna
In September 2020, dried woodear mushroom were recalled because of which Salmonella serovar?
Salmonella stanley
Current Good Manufacturing Practice
In what U.S. city was the first meat packing plant started in 1818?
What tropical plant produces bromelin, a meat tenderization enzyme?
What is the brand of seasonings/spices most often used in the US?
Describe the halo effect
When more than one attribute of a sample is evaluated the ratings will tend to influence each other. Simultaneous scoring of various flavor aspects along with overall acceptability can produce different results than if each characteristic is evaluated separately
What is the titrant used in the Mohr titration for salt determination and what is the end product of the chemical reaction?
Silver nitrate is used as the titrant and the silver reacts with chloride to form a silver chloride precipitate, silver chromate is the end product.
86 Used to describe an item that is no longer available. What number is used when an item becomes available again
Answer: 68
what causes the pH to drop during the aging of eggs?
loss of carbon dioxide through the egg shell
Which fatty acid would be expected to have the highest iodine value: linoleic, oleic, or linolenic?
linolenic (18:3) more unsaturation
what are some disadvantages of using the formula (ball) method to calculate lethality?
only can use at a constant retort process temperature, the cooling portion modeling is empirical and may over/under estimate lethality
What is the difference between glucose and glycogen? Where is glycogen found in abundance in the human body?
Glycogen is a readily mobilized storage form of glucose. It is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues that can be broken down to yield glucose molecules when energy is needed. Most of the glucose residues in glycogen are linked by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Glycogen is found in abundance in liver and skeletal muscle tissue.
Mead is an alcoholic beverage made with?
SPME is an isolation technique in food analysis, meaning?
Solid phase microextraction
What is the difference between accuracy and precision?
Accuracy refers to how close a measurement is to the true or accepted value. Precision refers to how close measurements of the same item are to each other.
What purpose Na pyrophosphate serve in foods?
alkaline cleaners
how does ionic polarization contribute to heating?
ions in solution move in response to applied electric field component of the microwave, and the collisions with other molecules convert kinetic energy into heat
Microorganisms that can survive low water activity conditions are called
What breed of cattle produces the most beef in the united states?
what added ingredient keeps confectioners sugar from clumping?
corn starch
Which food has more zinc per gram? a. beef, b. chickpeas, c. pork chops, d. oysters
d. oyster
What inorganic compound in red meat is needed for the manufacture of many enzymes and hormones in the human body?
The conversion of onion flavor to garlic flavor in a potato salad is most probably due to
Enzymatic reaction??? I can't find any information to update this answer with...
What are the 5 main types of botulism?
foodborne, infant, wound, Adult intestinal toxemia, Iatrogenic botulism
thermistors are NTC sensors. What does NTC stand for?
negative temperature coefficient
Skirt steak is fabricated from which beef primal?
Short plate
With respect to food processing, what is SS 316?
SS 316 is a food grade austenitic stainless steels
What fat substitute was recently confirmed as GRAS when used in frozen desserts?
On what food stuff is the mycotoxin patulin most commonly produced on?
What common paste is made from the seeds of the Arachis hypogaea, a legume, after they are roasted?
Peanut butter
What is the IFT Council?
An IFT governance body composed of representatives from Sections and Divisions which serves as the grass roots forum and approves constitution and bylaw revisions
Withholding feed for 12 to 24 hours prior to slaughter results in greater ease of what?
waxes are composed of what two basic chemical entities?
fatty acid (ester linked) to fatty alcohol
pH definition
What part of the plant is the potato tuber derived?
Define the molecular biology term "transformation"
The process of genetic transfer of foreign DNA
True or False: Canned foods are sterile
False, they are commercially sterile
what is the main purpose of food processing?
to extend shelf life of a product by reducing or eliminating microbial activity and ensure food product safety
What is the function of erythromycin?
At what university was IFT chartered?
MIT in 1939
What breakfast cereal was Sonny the Cuckoo Bird "cuckoo for"?
Cocoa Puffs
What are the intrinsic and extrinsic factors for microbial growth in food?
intrinsic: pH, water activity, redox potential, biological structure, moisture content,animicrobial component , competitive microflora, nutrient content Extrinsic: temperature and time, relative humidity, gaseous environment, presence of other organisms, processing operations, type of packaging
Define synergy in the context of the interaction of stimuli presented simultaneously as mixtures.
The effect created when the presence of one substance increase the perceived combined intensity of two substances, such that the perceived intensity of the mixture is greater than the sum of the intensities of the components
What is the characteristic fruit flavor compound of cherry?
When/where was the feeding tomorrow fun run held 1st time?
New Orleans, 2001
What food color requires mandatory labeling?
All of them
What is the main difference between bulls and bullocks?
Bulls have older skeletal maturity, in the B or older class, while bullocks have younger skeletal maturity, in the A class
what are the deficiency and toxicity symptoms of vitamin D
deficiency: rickets, abdominal protrusion; toxicity: soft tissue calcification, renal damage
What is the difference between food spoilage and food poisoning?
spoilage = inedible food but not unsafe(judgmental to what is not acceptable); poisoning = causes illness through infections(detrimental effect to system)
What are the ingredients needed to make sweet pickles?
cucumbers, salt, vinegar, and sugar
which of the following oils can be used as a lubricant
rapeseed oil
What is a detrimental effect of phytic acid?
It chelates minerals, preventing absorption of minerals such as iron and zinc.
Prevention of damage in food during freezing is promoted by slow cooling to minimize ice nucleation. True or False?
What is the building block structural component of carotenoids called?
Isoprene or isoprenoid units
What is the most well-known USDA Certified Program and is identified with carcass specification G1?
Certified Angus Beef
What does the Ninhydrin assay measure?
amino acids
What is Fiske-Subbarow assay?
measure levels of inorganic phosphate in biological samples
Genera for Downy Mildew disease
Sclerospora bremia
What are some two reasons for roasting cocoa beans for chocolate making?
Flavor development, separate outer husk from inner bean (makes cracking and winnowing much easier), virtually sterilizes cocoa been (prevent growth of bacteria/fungi/molds), even color and texture
What do we call the prolamines in corn
name the different components of the food pyramid and the recommended number of servings for each
1) Fats, oil, sweet (use spraringly) 2) Milk, yogurt, cheese group (2-3 servings) 3) Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs & nuts group (2-3 servings) 4) Vegetable group (3-5 servings) 5) Fruit group (2-4 servings) 6) Bread, cereal, rice and paste group (6-11 servings)
What is Swiss-style yogurt?
fruit is pre-mixed into the yogurt
The International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians (IAMFES) have recently undergone a name change. What is the new name for this organization?
International Association for Food Protection (IAFP)
Stability of eggs not dependent on: Protein conc, pH, H2O addition, presence of sugar
H2O addition
how many categories of uses does caramel fall under
60 N applied to 2 kg mass, accl?
Accl: 30 m/s2
cyanogenic glycosides are compounds that when treated with an acid or appropriate hydrolytic enzyme yield what compound
What is MAP and CAP?
Modified atmosphere packaging and controlled atmosphere packaging
Which muscle type is under involuntary control and striated?
What is the difference between single acting and double acting baking powder?
it has one acid whereas double acting has two acids; In a single action product, such as baking soda, once exposed to moisture, it reacts once. In a double action product, such as baking powder, the products reacts once when it is exposed to moisture and then again when exposed to heat
T/F does chocolate prevent dental caries
Historically, which fruit has been the symbol of American hospitality?
Define endotoxin
Endotoxin is a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toxic substance found in the outer membrane of most gram-negative bacteria
what is the difference between bottled beer and draft beer?
draft is unpasteurized and hence has a shorter shelf life
Name 3 blood plasma lipid classes
When was the College Bowl competition first held?
What is the graph of water activity vs. water content called
moisture sorption isotherm (MSI)
What carbohydrate increases with the gelatinization temperature of starch? <---Unsure what this means.
what were british sailors named after?
What happens to the physical property of egg when stored below 6 degrees celsius?
the yolk viscosity rises irreversibly giving it a gel like consistency
What is an exotoxin?
Toxic proteins secreted by bacteria and released outside of the cell
In sterilization and pasteurization, what is the purpose of the hold tube?
make sure the product has the correct residence time (aka the time necessary to sterilize/pasteurize at a certain temperature)
what is the limiting amino acid of most cereal grains?
What organ stores bile for release?
What actions can FDA take against companies or individuals who market adulterated or misbranded cosmetics
FDA can pursue action through the Department of Justice in the federal court system, request a federal district court to issue a restraining order, may be subject to seizure or crimal action
True or False: "Patent Flour" is lighter in color and lower in ash than "straight flour" and is made from purified endosperm middlings
Why do foods freeze faster than they thaw?
Water layer insulates, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of ice>water
What does a BCU of 0.00 indicate?
The BCU (baking contrast units) range from 0.00 (darkest) – 5.25 (lightest) BCU.
A product may be considered _________ if marketed under the name of a product covered by a standard of identity, if the requirements of the standard are not met
Which pigment in tomatoes has disease-preventing characteristics?
what is the most effective synthetic antioxidant?
Which legume accounts for one sixth of the world's vegetable oil production?
The peanut.
Which tannins can tan? hydrolysable, condensed tannins, phyto, non-condensed
Condensed tannins
An exoenzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of maltose units from the non-reducing end of starch is what
In sensory, volatile compound sensation
Which country banned U.S. poultry imports in march of 2002?
Five other vegetables have the same species name as head cabbage (brassica oleracea). Name two.
Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kale, Kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, Collards
What is the color associated with fast twitch muscles?
In the brewing industry what physio chemical process is saccharification referred to?
refers to the enzymatic hydrolysis of malt starches into simple sugars, that can be part of yeast fermentation.
what are some characteristics of microwaves
travels at speed of light, non-ionizing form of radiations, can be focused into beams, can transit through hollow tubes, may be absorbed or reflected by the material depending on its dielectric properties, may also transmit through materials without any absorption (includes glas, ceramics, some thermoplastic plastics)
What is the leading U.S. beef export item?
short plate
what is the vitamin most associated with antioxidant activity in PUFAs
vitamin E
Rank these sweeteners from highest to lowest sweetening power. Sucrose maltose, aspartame, sucralose, stevioside.
Sucralose, Stevioside, Aspartame, Sucrose, Maltose
What is the nutritional claim that can be made when a product serving is less than 140 mg of sodium?
Low sodium
What polysacc from crustacean shells help lower cholesterol level
Chitin, chitosan
what is the difference between direct and indirect ELISA?
-direct ELISA- only one antibody used, indirect ELISA-2 antibodies used for detection
What is the minimal water activity for most molds?
What is the main difference between the yeast used for ales and lagers?
The yeasts used for ales are top-fermenting and work at 10-25 C, while those used for lager are bottom fermenting and work lower temperatures around 7-15 C.
Define wheat middlings
Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) are the product of the wheat milling process that is not flour.
describe the difference between hue, value, and chroma
HUE: a color or shade . VALUE: value refers to the lightness or darkness of a color.When referring to pigments, dark values with black added are called “shades” of the given hue name. Light values with white pigment added are called “tints” of the hue name. CHROMA: purity or intensity of color E.G.In red hue, fire engine red, brick red & grey is pure red/high intensity, mid intense & low intensity, respectively
Name the genus of the fungus used in tempeh.
Rhizopus oligosporus
Two methods to mask differences between sample appearances during sensory testing?
Change the lighting, use different lights such as red, darker in the room
What is the leading state in # milk/cow?
What region cultivated the first potato on ca. 200 BC?
South America
Name the genus and species of the organism predominantly responsible for mellow lactic fermentation in wine.
Oenococcus oeni (known as Leuconostoc oeni)
What U.S. governmental agency sets the standards of identity of meat products?
what is the maximum ERH considered safe for grain storage
70% (around 80% ERH moisture grain results in increased respiration and temperature increases)
give the names of the fat soluble vitamin produced by bacteria in the large intestine
Vitamin K, Biotin
besides extending shelf life and preventing microbial growth, what is another benefit of reducing the water activity of a food?
a lower water content means a lower product volume, making the product easier and cheaper to transport
What made poultry inspection mandatory for any processor that ships produce?
in interstate commerce
Artificial sweetener which is also a dipeptide?
The Cory cycle transports what compound from muscles to liver?
Lactate (from muscles to liver, converted to glucose and returned to the cells)
Give an example of a component of unsaponifiable matter
Sterols, cholesterol
Name the body of FAO W H O concern refreshed standards including additives and pesticides. In foods allowable limits micronutrient supplementation
Codex Alimentarius Commission
This word means "sausage poisoning". It is caused by a powerful toxin that affects the nervous system
What food may get its name from the German word for stirrup?
Name the equation that relates electrochemical cell potential to redox states.
Nernst equation
CMC is a subgroup of the society of Dyers and Colorists of great britain. This subgroup is the organization that developed and published in 1988 a more logical, ellipse-based equation based on L*C*h˚ color space for computing DE (see delta E*) values as an alternative to the rectangular coordinates of the CIELAB color space.What does CMC stand for?
Color Measurement Committee
What term describes the state of chemical and metabolic equilibrium?
What is a high quality fat lining the abdominal wall of pork carcasses?
leaf fat
Two bacteriocides allowed in foods
xanthan gum, gellan gum
in addition to standards of identity, the FDCA also provides for the establishment of standards of _________ and ______________
Standard of Quality and Standard of Fill
What compound can be smelled on a person's breath during ketosis?
What percentage of juice must a beverage contain to be included in FDA Juice HACCP Regulation?
Hydroxylation of lysine to hydroxylysine in collagen is dependent on which cofactor?
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Base of profiteroles
Choux pastry
Which food additive did Morton Salt add to their product that allows them to say "When it rains, it pours"?
calcium silicate
The pigment found in some plants which is characterized by the ligand structure known as a porphyrin with magnesium at the center is
Name two anti-microbial factors found in raw milk
Lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme
Why are ethylene absorbers used in apple storage
Ethylene initiates fruit ripening
describe the process of forming an hermetic seal
the can end and body are interlocked during two rolling actions, first action curls the edge of the can end up and under the flange of the can body, and the second action roll flattens and tightens the seam
Bromate is added to flour for what purpose?
oxidizing agent. potassium bromate is a powerful oxidizing agent that chemically ages flour much faster than open air
Isoelectric point of casein
In culinary terms, what can be meat from deer, elk, moose, antelope, caribou, and pronghorn?
In which country was margarine invented?
Who is the current chair of Feeding Tomorrow?
Bernhard van Lengerich
what are three different methods for blow molding plastic containers?
extrusion, injection, stretch
What are the large fat particles that coalesce at the ends of sausages during heating?
Fat caps
In which states are the following IFT sections located: Puget Sound; Magnolia; Nutmeg; Dogwood; Cactus
Washington and Alaska; Mississippi; Connecticut; North Carolina; Arizona
What is another name for yellow #5
Acrolein is a potentially toxic product that can occur in food processing applications. Give the source and the type of degradation can yield this chemical.
Thermal decomposition of fats
What is the scientific name of the beef tri-tip muscle?
tensor fasciae latae
What is the difference between a "dextrin" and a "dextran"?
Both are intermediate length carbohydrate chains composed of glucose units. Dextrins are formed by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis of starch; dextrans are synthesized by microorganisms
What is reverse osmosis?
Reverse osmosis is a process that removes foreign contaminants, solid substances, large molecules and minerals from water by using pressure to push it through specialized membranes. It is a water purification system used to improve water for drinking, cooking and other important uses.
Describe the difference between shear and normal stress.
Shear is parallel to the surface, normal is perpendicular
Alcohol-insoluble solids content in vegetables is an indicator of what?
maturity or ripeness
Who has the prime responsibility for the safety, wholesomeness, and nutritional quality of food?
- Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the USDA seeks to ensure that meat and poultry products for human consumption are safe, wholesome, and correctly marked, labeled, and packaged if they move into interstate or international commerce. FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) seeks to ensure that all other foods are safe, sanitary, nutritious, wholesome, and honestly and adequately labeled
The oxidation of the iron in myoglobin to the ferric state results in the brown pigment called...
What temperature do leftover foods need to be reheated?
another name for decimal reduction time is
Name the genus of bacteria added with the starter culture for Swiss cheese.
Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspecies shermanii
What is another name for phosphatidylcholine?
1,2-diacyl-:ussn:ueglycero-3-phosphocholine, Fosfatidilcolina, Lipodissolve, Lipolight, Lipolyse, Lipothérapie, Lipotherapy, Phosphatidyl Choline, Phospholipid, Phospholipide, Phospholipon, Polyenylphosphatidylcholine, Polyénylphosphatidylcholine, PtdCho.
The primary yeast used in baking is what?
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
what two organisms are involved in vinegar production and in what order?
s. cerevisiae and acetobacter
Which federal agency houses the National Marine Fishing Service?
US Department of Commerce
In kJ per mol, what is the bond dissociation energy of the O-H bond in a water molecule?
what is the alkaloid in irish potatoes
What is the established legal level for reduced cholesterol in food?
25% reduction
Pomology is a science of?
what are the names of the connective tissue layers surrounding the whole muscle, muscle bundle, muscle fibers and sarcolemma
The two polysaccharides that comprise starch are _________ and _______________
amylose and amylopectin
When was the "food guide pyramid" unveiled by the secretary of agriculture Edward Madigan?
April 1992
Who is the past president of IFT?
John Coupland
at what pH can a food be called an acid food?
a pH less than 4.6
Messenger RNA is synthesized by what process?
Wheat that is sown or planted in late autumn is called?
Winter wheat
Protein A is eluted faster than protein B on a gel filtration column. Which protein has a higher molecular weight?
Protein A
In food chemistry what does the TBA stands for and what is it used to measure?
Thiobarbituric acid, measures oxidation of fatty acids with three or more double bonds
What aspect of Staphylococcus aureaus does selective media 111, exploit?
Salt tolerance
What is the state appetizer of Rhode Island?
Ripening anomaly, ripen after it has been picked from the tree
Marsh Ruby, Ruby Red, Melogold, Oro Blanco (White Golden) and Star Ruby are varieties of what?
Grapefruit(citrus fruit)
What is the most widely grown red wine grape variety in the world?
what is the relationship between temperature and penetration depth?
as temperature increases, penetration depth decreases
True or false: As a result of exposure to heat, most carotenoids undergo isomerization from trans to cis isomers
what type of pump is preferable and why in an aseptic processing system and?
PD pump (positive displacement pump), it is less sensitive to pressure drop than centrifugal pumps
Soft wheat is preferable for flours used in making cake because
development of weak gluten (soft crumb etc.)
What is the difference between single and double acting baking powder?
Single has 1 acid whereas double has 2 acids; single acting reacts once it is exposed to moisture, double acting reacts when it is exposed to moisture and reacts again when it is exposed to heat
Culinary term for split opening the bird carcass and flattening
Spatch cocking (also accepted butterflying)
10 pound of cheese corresponds to how much whey
90 pounds of whey
What specific vitamins and minerals are added to enrich macaroni and noodle products?
Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron
Name the principal organic acid in apples?
give two examples of an emulsifier
Lecithins, Mono and diglycerides, Monoglyceride derivatives, fatty acid derivatives. Examples include: Soy lecithin, Tween, Potassium stearate
what percent of the O-H bond in a water molecule is ionic character?
The muscle that makes up most of our meat is best classified as which of the following: A) Involuntary, smooth B) Voluntary, cross-striated C) Double obliquely striated
B) Voluntary, cross-striated
Sauerkraut results from what kind of fermentation process
Lactic acid
what is the most common psychotropic bacteria associated with milk spoilage?
Pseudomonas species
What legume accounts for one sixth of the worlds vegetable oil production?
What mineral is a major challenge in the fortification of many foods and beverages because of its poor taste and large daily value of 3.5 grams per day?
What are the top three states in the value production of cucumbers for pickles?
Michigan, Florida and North Carolina
Which mycotoxin is included in a Hazard Analysis for apple juice or apple cider?
What is the name of the heat resistant enzyme in Thermos aquaticus used for modern PCR?
TAG DNA polymerase
Name three methods for the calculation of lethality
general, formula (ball) method, and numerical
In packaging terminology, when does EVOH stands for?
ethylene vinyl alcohol
What is the only meat wholesale cut traded on the chicago mercantile exchange?
pork bellies
What is petroleum ether?
Mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbons
Name two types of controlled atmosphere packaging
vacuum packaging and shrink wrapping
Carbohydrates of soy.
Raffinose, Stachyose, Rubascose
The desirable color of cured meats is due to the pigment ____________
what is the primary purpose of the FDA?
Enforce the federal food, drug, and cosmetic act
What are the four most utilized cereal grains in the world?
Wheat, rice, maize, barley & sorghum
How many years has the IFT Fellows designation been used to honor members of IFT?
48 years
Why is having excess flour particulates in a milling plant hazardous?
Fire hazard
What sterol synthesized by plant upon exposure to UV convert to Vit D
To which of the following filament protein does Ca++ bind, and regulate actin myosin interaction during muscle contraction : a) myosin, b) actin, c) troponin
Standards of identity include which of the following: a) ingredients that must be used; b) ingredients that may be used; C) Ingredients that may not be used
All (a, b, c)
What are de-headed, de-veined and sorted by size in a laitram machine?
When viscosity of a fluid increases, what happens to the reynolds number?
What is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only be converted from one form to another. The total amount of energy of an isolated system is constant.
what is agnosia?
inability to recognize and identify objects, persons, or sounds.
What is the delaney clause
a clause in the food additives amendment 1958 to the FDCA which prohibits from use in foods any substance found to cause cancer in man or animal
what does Phenol sulfuric acid value tell you?
total carbohydrate
What defect in Frankfurter's is causes when there is too much connective tissue?
Gelling out
Ketosis, the buildup of ketones in the blood, can be caused by dietary insufficiency of _________________.
Define food infection
ingestion of organism which then produces toxin or infects cells causes illness
what equipment is preferable to sterilize canned soups.
rotary retort
Which USDA agency inspects red meat products at slaughter?
Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
What is the state fruit of West Virginia?
Golden Delicious Apple
what is a dielectric material and give an example
dielectric materials are an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. examples include: porcelain/ceramic, mica, glass, plastics, various metal oxides
How does frequency affect dielectric properties of foods?
it changes the dielectric constant, higher frequency lower dielectric constant
what is the full name of MRS agar used for lactobacilli cultures
De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar
which is the enzyme that is tested to check for the pasteurization of milk?
alkaline phosphatase
type A gelatins are produced by what process
Type A gelatin is derived from acid-cured tissue. Gelatin derived from an acid-treated precursor is known as Type A and gelatin derived from an alkali-treated process is known as Type B.
water soluble pigments occurring in fruits and vegetables whose hue depends on pH are called
8 cups
half gallon
What is a chemical leavening system, and what are the two essential components of a chemical leavening system?
A Chemical leavening system is a system of controlled carbon dioxide release to give rise to baked products, the two components are a leavening agent. sodium bicarbonate) and acidic agent
Which equation describes the relationship between temperature and water activity?
Clausius Clapeyron Equation
In poultry, what is the difference between a "broiler" and a "fryer"?
Both are types of chicken that are raised for meat. Fryer are just a bit larger in weight than broiler.
What is the major protein in milk?
Why would it be beneficial to modify the atmosphere of a package that contains a food with polyunsaturated fatty acids with nitrogen?
Reduce oxidative rancidity/ Reduce lipid oxidation
What is the FDA's definition of "safe and suitable ingredients" for use in food products?
d) Safe and suitable means that the ingredient: (1) Performs an appropriate function in the food in which it is used. (2) Is used at a level no higher than necessary to achieve its intended purpose in that food. (3) Is not a food additive or color additive as defined in section 201 (s) or (t) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as used in that food, or is a food additive or color additive as so defined and is used in conformity with regulations established pursuant to section 409 or 721 of the act.
What carbon to carbon number bonds are present, most commonly, in the straight and branched chains of starch?
straight: alpha 1-4, branch: alpha 1-6
this substance is formed from gliadins, glutenins and glycolipids when water is mixed with wheat flour
listeria monocytogenes
most dangerous for pregnant women, not allowed in RTE products
Between which two ribs should a pork carcass be ribbed to measure loin eye area?
10th and 11th
What is the water activity to cause spoilage for bacteria, yeast, and molds?
Bacteria - 0.9, Yeast - 0.85-0.9, Mold 0.75-0.8
TF high density polyethylene is made up of carbon chains that are highly branched
What is Coulomb's law?
The electrical force between two charges of magnitude Q1 and Q2 separated by a distance r in vacuum is; f = k(Q1*Q2)/r^2) where k= 1/(4*pi*epsilon naught)
What is the so called "trigeminal senses"
Free nerve endings (of the trigeminal nerve) present in the oral and ansl cavities which are sensitive to irritants (capsaisin, acetic acid, ammonia, astringents) and act as protection device against harmful chemicals, also detect texture and most other food characteristics
What is the embryonic development of muscle tissues?
why is 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, also called ethephon, sprayed on tomato fields?
it forms ethylene which causes uniform ripening prior to harvest
What color of light is absorbed for maximum photosynthesis?
What is a set of directions that should (must) be followed to ensure food safety when completing certain tasks such as cooking chicken, cooling a food, or sanitizing a work surface?
Standard operating procedures
Why do seed proteins like soy protein have a high isoelectric point?
They abundant aspartic acid and glutamic acid
name the 2 major producers of oj concentrate
florida and brazil
what effect is described by a visco elastic fluid climbing an impeller shaft during mixing or agitation?
The Weissenberg Effect
The endosperm of wheat consists of starch granules embedded in a what?
protein matrix
What city became immortalized as "hog butcher of the world" by poet Carl Sandburg?
What enzyme is measured when the Falling number test is used on cereal-based products?
Certified food colorants can be divided into 2 types. What are they?
Dyes (water soluble) and lakes (water and oil soluble)
What is maximum level of nitrites allowed in finished hams?