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UG ETV1 VOC - Word List - Full detail


ETV1 Word List - 500 Word set Front: Word - Back: Full detail with Definition - Notes - Synonym - Antonym - Lexical Category


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fleeting
Definition: lasting for a very short time
Notes:
Synonym: transient
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
condone
Definition: 1) to accept (behaviour that is considered morally wrong or offensive), 2) to approve or sanction (something), especially with reluctance
Notes: E.g. 'Based on some of the things Trump said, one would almost believe that he condones racism.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
amalgam
Definition: 1) a mixture or blend, 2) an alloy of mercury with another metal, especially one used for dental fillings
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
evoke
Definition: 1) to bring or recall (a feeling, memory, or image) to the conscious mind, 2) to elicit (a response)
Notes: E.g. 'That smell always evokes memories of my old school.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
fruitless
Definition: failing to achieve the desire results; unproductive or useless
Notes:
Synonym: abortive, futile, ineffective, ineffectual
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
myriad
Definition: 1) countless or extremely great number of people or things, 2) (chiefly in classical history) a unit of ten thousand
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
juxtaposition
Definition: the fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effect
Notes: E.g. 'The juxtaposition of those images created a beautiful and powerful contrast.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
a far cry from
Definition: to be very different to
Notes: E.g. 'This flat is a far cry from the house they had before.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
tedious
Definition: boring, too slow or long
Notes:
Synonym: tiresome
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
silver lining
Definition: every difficult or sad situation has a comforting or more hopeful aspect, even though this may not be immediately apparent
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
edifice
Definition: 1) a large, imposing building, 2) a complex system of beliefs
Notes: E.g. 1) 'The parish church of St Martin's is a handsome edifice rebuilt in 1873.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
innumerable
Definition: too many to be counted (often used hyperbolically)
Notes:
Synonym: countless
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
subordinate
Definition: to be placed in or belonging to a lower order or rank than something or someone else
Notes:
Synonym: junior, lower, lesser, inferior, lowly, minor
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
threshold
Definition: 1) the magnitude or intensity that must be exceeded for a certain reaction, phenomenon, result, or condition to occur or be manifested, 2) the bottom half of a doorway
Notes: E.g. 'When you are anxious to talk to people, the threshold for making friends is really high.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
burgeon
Definition: to grow and flourish
Notes: Adjective: burgeoning
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
inkling
Definition: a slight knowledge or suspicion; a hint
Notes: E.g. 'The records give us an inkling of how people saw the world in those days. But it still is a lot of guesswork.'
Synonym: hunch
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
blue-collar
Definition: relating to manual work or workers, particularly in industry
Notes: North American context
Synonym:
Antonym: white-collar
Lexical: adjective
mitigate
Definition: to make (something bad) less severe, serious, or painful
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
serendipity
Definition: 1) an unsought, unintended, and/or unexpected, but fortunate, discovery and/or learning experience that happens by accident, 2) a combination of events which are not individually beneficial, but occurring together to produce a good or wonderful outcome
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
a dim view
Definition: having a negative, unfavourable, or disapproving view.
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
bluster
Definition: 1) to talk in a loud, aggressive, or indignant way with little effect, 2) (of a storm, wind, or rain) blow or beat fiercely and noisily
Notes: E.g. 1) ‘You threaten and bluster but won't carry it through.’ 2) ‘A winter gale blustered against the sides of the house.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
excerpt
Definition: a short part taken from a speech, book, film, etc.
Notes: E.g. 'She read out excerpts from an article in the Times.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
ratify
Definition: to make an agreement official, especially of governments or organisations
Notes:
Synonym: confirm
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
dexterity
Definition: skill in performing tasks, especially with the hands
Notes: E.g. 'She had a dexterity with drumsticks, she could play the drums so well, she became a professional'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
scorn
Definition: 1) feel or express contempt or disdain for, 2) to refuse advice or an offer because you are too proud
Notes: E.g. 'The Brexiteers scorned Labour's attempt to woo voters.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
entail
Definition: to involve (something) as a necessary or inevitable part or consequence
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
scrutinise
Definition: to examine carefully, to study in detail
Notes: Am.E. 'to scrutinize'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
counteract
Definition: to act against (something) in order to reduce its force or neutralise it
Notes: E.g. 'The medication will counteract the symptoms but it won't stop the infection from spreading.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
proponent
Definition: a person who advocates a theory, proposal, or course of action
Notes: E.g. ‘She was reading a collection of essays by both critics and proponents of graphology.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
credible
Definition: 1) able to be believed; reasonable to trust or believe, 2) good enough to be effective
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
commendable
Definition: deserving praise
Notes: E.g. 'For his commendable bravery during the forest fire the firefighter got a beautiful medal'
Synonym: laudable, admirable
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
seminal
Definition: strongly influencing later developments
Notes: E.g. 'The invention of sliced bread was one of the seminal developments of the century.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
prosaic
Definition: having or using the style or diction of prose as opposed to poetry; something described as dull, unimaginative or ordinary
Notes: E.g. 'She tried to describe her intense feelings with prosaic language, but she quickly realised that her description did not live up to the experience.'
Synonym: commonplace
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
emblematic
Definition: serving as a symbol of a particular quality or concept; symbolic
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
wary of sth or someone
Definition: to be watchful, to be on one's guard against danger
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
instil
Definition: 1) gradually, but firmly establish (an idea, feeling or attitude) in a person’s mind, so that it has a strong influence on this person's way of living, 2) put a substance into something in the form of liquid drops
Notes: E.g. 'A determination to overcome long odds was instilled in Whittle at an early age.'; AmE 'instill'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
inhibition
Definition: a feeling of embarrassment that makes one self-conscious and unable to act in a normal, natural way
Notes: E.g. 'I give myself away through my music, my true feelings, shedding all inhibitions.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
conformity
Definition: 1) compliance with standards, rules, or laws, 2) behaviour in accordance with socially accepted conventions, 3) similarity in form or type; agreement in character
Notes: E.g. 'Children tend to receive rewards for conformity to group behaviour and they are punished for dissension'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
coin
Definition: to invent (a new word or phrase)
Notes: E.g. 'The New York Times has coined a new word - gastronauts - in reference to people who plan their vacations around food.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
peer review
Definition: evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field
Notes: E.g. 'The manuscript for that article underwent rigorous peer review; after which I was able to amend the text according to my colleagues' comments.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
bona fide
Definition: genuine; real
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
brevity
Definition: 1) concise and exact use of words in writing or speech, 2) shortness of duration
Notes: E.g. 1) 'The staff will edit manuscripts with a view to brevity and clarity.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
render
Definition: 1) to provide or give (a service, help, etc.), 2) cause to be or become; make
Notes:
Synonym: 1) give, provide, supply, 2) cause to be, cause to become
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
evasive
Definition: tending to avoid commitment or self-revelation, especially by responding only indirectly
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
cave in
Definition: to collapse and fall into the space below
Notes: E.g. 'The ground caved in between where we were standing and the holy grail, which fell into the gap.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
reassure
Definition: to comfort someone and stop them from worrying
Notes: E.g. 'I was nervous on my first day at college, but I was reassured when I saw some friendly faces.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
staunchly
Definition: in a very loyal and committed manner
Notes: E.g. 'The government was staunchly defending her policies, even though the population was in uproar.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
palpable
Definition: 1) capable of being touched, 2) easy to notice
Notes:
Synonym: detectable, remarkable, noticeable
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
intrusive
Definition: causing disruption or annoyance through being unwelcome or uninvited
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
tentatively
Definition: subject to further confirmation; not definitely
Notes: E.g. 'The unions tentatively agreed to a three-year contract, so nothing is for sure.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
vicinity
Definition: the area near or surrounding a particular place
Notes: E.g. 'They checked all the bins in the immediate vicinity, but they couldn't find the stolen backpack.'
Synonym: neighbourhood, nearby
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
give rise to
Definition: cause to happen
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
imminently
Definition: very soon
Notes: E.g. 'A government spokeswoman said a replacement for him would be announced "imminently".'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
epiphany
Definition: a sudden insight or intuitive understanding; a moment of sudden revelation
Notes: E.g. 'Then one day I had an epiphany and realised that you can go around in a bad mood all of the time, but it won't do any good.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
muddle up
Definition: bring into a disordered or confusing state
Notes: E.g. 'Trump was muddling up the facts again during the presidential debate.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
blithely
Definition: 1) in a way that shows a casual and cheerful indifference considered to be callous or improper, 2) in a happy or carefree manner
Notes: E.g. 2) 'I have often wondered since what the man actually thought of me and the enterprise I was blithely undertaking.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
affluent
Definition: having an abundance of wealth, property or other material goods
Notes:
Synonym: prosperous, rich
Antonym: destitute, poor, unsuccessful
Lexical: adjective
lag
Definition: fail to keep up with another or others in movement or development
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
speak out
Definition: to express one's opinions frankly and publicly
Notes:
Synonym: speak openly, speak boldly, speak frankly, speak one's mind
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
stem from
Definition: to be caused by (something or someone); to come from (something or someone)
Notes: E.g. 'Most of her health problems stem from an accident she had when she was younger.'
Synonym: originate
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
generic
Definition: 1) characteristic of or relating to a class or group of things; not specific, 2) (of goods, especially medicinal drugs) having no brand name; not protected by a registered trademark, 3) (derogatory) lacking imagination or individuality; predictable and unoriginal
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
virtue
Definition: 1) moral excellence; goodness; righteousness, 2) conformity of one's life and conduct to moral and ethical principles; uprightness; rectitude, 3) chastity; virginity, 4) a particular moral excellence, 5) a good or admirable quality or property, 6) effective force; the power or potency
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
dwell
Definition: to live in a place or in a particular way
Notes: E.g. 'Some unknown tribe still dwells in these caves.'
Synonym: reside
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
apocryphal
Definition: (of a story or statement) of doubtful authenticity, although widely circulated as being true
Notes: E.g. 'Donald Trump thinks the media and the press often spread apocryphal stories about him and his entourage.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
utmost
Definition: most extreme
Notes: Noun: the greatest or most extreme extent or amount
Synonym: greatest
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
rampant
Definition: (especially of something unwelcome) flourishing or spreading unchecked
Notes:
Synonym: uncontrolled, unrestrained, unbridled
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
follow-up
Definition: 1) a continuation or repetition of something that has already been started or done, 2) a further examination or observation of a patient in order to monitor the success of earlier treatment, 3) a piece of work that builds on or exploits the success of earlier work
Notes: E.g. 'In that documentary, the deleted scenes include more case studies and a follow-up with campaigners.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
laureate
Definition: a person who is honoured with an award for outstanding creative or intellectual achievement
Notes: E.g. 'Malala Yousafzai is one of the many Nobel laureates.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
overdue
Definition: past the scheduled or expected time
Notes: E.g. 'His paper was nearly five days overdue.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
auspicious
Definition: showing or suggesting that future success is likely
Notes:
Synonym: heartening, encouraging
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
kudos
Definition: praise and honour received for an achievement
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
a plethora of sth
Definition: overabundance, excess, surplus
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
scope sth out
Definition: to assess or investigate something carefully
Notes:
Synonym: to scan, to check out
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
be/feel under the weather
Definition: feeling ill
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
compile
Definition: to collect information from different places and arrange it in a book, report, or list
Notes:
Synonym: to list, to gather
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
nought
Definition: 1) the number zero (Br.E.), 2) nothing
Notes: Note: alternate spelling for pronoun 'nought' is 'naught'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: 1) noun, 2) pronoun
mainstream
Definition: the ideas, attitudes, or activities that are shared by most people and regarded as normal or conventional
Notes: Adjective: belonging to or characteristic of the mainstream
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
protracted
Definition: lasting for a long time or longer than expected
Notes: E.g. 'a protracted and bitter dispute'
Synonym: lengthy, drawn-out, chronic
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
forfeit
Definition: to lose or give up something, usually as a penalty
Notes: E.g. 'Peter, finish your homework! Or you'll most likely forfeit your right to watch TV before going to bed!'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
poignant
Definition: having a strong effect on your feelings, especially in a way that makes you feel sad
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
devolution
Definition: 1) the moving of power or responsibility from a main organisation to a lower level, or from a central government to a local government, 2) the movement of power or responsibility from one person or group to another, 3) descent to a lower or worse state, 4) evolutionary degeneration
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
reassessment
Definition: the consideration or assessment of something again, in the light of new or different factors
Notes: E.g. 'The conclusions of her research helped lead to a fundamental reassessment of dyslexia.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
scope
Definition: the extent of the area or subject matter that something deals with or to which it is relevant
Notes: E.g. 'Questions on the origin of species really go beyond the scope of my thesis.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
intercept
Definition: to obstruct (someone or something) so as to prevent them from continuing to a destination
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
collected
Definition: 1) (of a person) calm and self-controlled, 2) (of individual works) brought together in one volume or edition
Notes: E.g. 'She appeared calm and collected.'
Synonym: controlled
Antonym: agitated
Lexical: adjective
deception
Definition: 1) the act of causing someone to accept as true or valid what is false or invalid; the act of deceiving, 2) the fact or condition of being deceived, 3) something that deceives
Notes: E.g. 'Your lifeboat of deception is now sailing.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
purveyor
Definition: a person or group who spreads or promotes an idea/view
Notes: E.g. 'He's a purveyor of traditional Christian values.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
consolidate
Definition: 1) to bring together several things, so that they become more effective, 2) to make physically stronger or firmer, 3) to dispose of unwanted items and organise the remaining.
Notes:
Synonym: 1) to combine, to merge, 2) to solidify, to strengthen
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
avail oneself of
Definition: use or take advantage of (an opportunity or available resource)
Notes: E.g. 'My daughter did not avail herself of my advice.'
Synonym: make use of, take advantage of, utilize, employ
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
ostentatious
Definition: displaying wealth, knowledge in a way that is meant to attract attention, admiration
Notes: E.g. 'Driving in a Porsche, she didn't give a hoot about how ostentatious she might appear to her comrades.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
downplay
Definition: to make (something) appear less important than it really is
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
white-collar
Definition: relating to the work done or the people who work in an office or other professional environment
Notes: North American context
Synonym:
Antonym: blue-collar
Lexical: adjective
utter
Definition: complete, absolute or extreme
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
diligent
Definition: having or showing care and conscientiousness in one's work or duties
Notes: E.g. 'If you want to pass, you will have to be diligent in your studying.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
subdued
Definition: not strong, loud, intense
Notes:
Synonym: hushed, low-key, muted
Antonym: cheerful, aroused, communicative
Lexical: adjective
perfunctory
Definition: (of an action) carried out without real interest, feeling, or effort
Notes: E.g. 'My lover left me yesterday; it seems likely that this interest was never more than passive or perfunctory.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
quintessential
Definition: representing the most perfect or typical example of a quality or class
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
copious
Definition: abundant in supply or quantity
Notes:
Synonym: extensive, plentiful
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
encompassing
Definition: 1) surrounding and having or holding within, 2) including comprehensively
Notes: E.g. 'Only 29 families of frogs, encompassing approximately 4,800 species, were known till then.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
in vain
Definition: without success or result
Notes: E.g. 'We worked so hard to find a solution, but in the end, it was all in vain and we lost everything.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
provoke
Definition: 1) to stimulate or give rise to (a reaction or emotion, typically a strong or unwelcome one) in someone, 2) to stimulate or incite (someone) to do or feel something, especially by arousing anger in them 3) deliberately make (someone) annoyed or angry
Notes: E.g. 1) 'the decision provoked a storm of protest from civil rights organisations.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
deficiency
Definition: a lack of something that is necessary
Notes:
Synonym: insufficiency
Antonym: abundance, advantage, strength
Lexical: noun
let alone
Definition: used to indicate that something is far less likely or suitable than something else already mentioned
Notes: E.g. 'He was incapable of leading a bowling team, let alone a country.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
improper
Definition: not in accordance with accepted standards, especially of morality or honesty
Notes: E.g. 'It is improper to laugh at people's looks.'
Synonym: unethical, immoral
Antonym: suitable
Lexical: adjective
fluke
Definition: an unlikely chance occurrence, especially a surprising piece of luck
Notes: chance, coincidence, accident
Synonym: misfortune
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
epoch
Definition: 1) a particular period of time in history or a person's life, 2) an extended period of time usually characterised by a distinctive development or by a memorable series of events
Notes: E.g. 'When the pharaoh’s first son took the throne, his succession marked an epoch in Egyptian history.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
esteem
Definition: to have great respect or high regard for
Notes: usually: 'be esteemed'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
amid
Definition: in the middle of or surrounded by
Notes:
Synonym: amongst
Antonym:
Lexical: preposition
propensity
Definition: an inclination or natural tendency to behave in a particular way
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
quibble
Definition: to argue or raise objections about a trivial matter
Notes: E.g. 'It sounds like I'm quibbling over grammar, but actually I reckon it's important.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
literacy
Definition: the ability to read and write
Notes: E.g. 'He is not able to write a decent paper, he needs to work on his academic literacy skills.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
impertinence
Definition: a lack of respect
Notes: E.g. 'He was flabbergasted by the impertinence with which she asked that bold question.'
Synonym: rudeness, boldness
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
incisive
Definition: very clear and direct, able to explain difficult ideas clearly and confidently
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
leap
Definition: 1) to jump or spring a long way, to a great height, or with great force, 2) to jump across, 3) to move quickly and suddenly, 4) to make a sudden rush to do something; act eagerly and suddenly, 5) (of a price, amount, etc.) increase dramatically
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
enigmatic
Definition: full of mystery and difficult to understand
Notes:
Synonym: mysterious, ambiguous
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
road map
Definition: 1) a plan for how to achieve something, 2) a map, especially one designed for motorists, showing the roads of a country or area
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
inconclusive
Definition: not leading to a firm conclusion or result; not ending doubt or dispute
Notes: E.g. 'These studies are conflicting and inconclusive as a result of problems in their design.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
discard
Definition: 1) to throw something away or get rid of it because you no longer want or need it, 2) to remove (a playing card) from one’s hand
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
empirical
Definition: with experimental evidence
Notes: E.g. 'I have empirical evidence to prove my theory.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
sturdy
Definition: physically strong and solid or thick, and therefore unlikely to break or be hurt; strong and determined
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
coarse
Definition: 1) of ordinary or inferior quality or value, 2) of loose or rough texture, 3) designed for fast, heavy or rough labour, 4) unrefined in language, manners or taste
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
refrain (from)
Definition: stop oneself from doing something
Notes: E.g. 'Please refrain from smoking in this area.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
solicitor
Definition: (UK) a member of the legal profession qualified to deal with conveyancing, the drawing up of wills, and other legal matters. A solicitor may also instruct barristers and represent clients in some courts
Notes: E.g. 'Before her death, my grandmother made sure that her will was drawn up at the solicitor's.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
aspire
Definition: 1) to direct one's hopes or ambitions toward achieving something, 2) rise high; tower
Notes: E.g. 'We need to ask ourselves, what kind of success do we aspire to achieve and at what cost?'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
impart
Definition: to make something known
Notes: E.g. 'He imparted the fact that she cheated on him.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
curate
Definition: select, organise, and look after the items in a collection or exhibition
Notes: E.g. 'The exhibition has been curated to fit a number of different thematic topics, which, it is understood, must be seen chronologically.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
hallmark
Definition: 1) a typical characteristic or feature of a person / thing, 2) a mark stamped on articles of gold, silver, or platinum by the British assay offices, certifying their standard of purity
Notes: E.g. 'The hallmark of Zorro The Fox is the 'Z' he leaves after helping people'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
boisterous
Definition: (of a person, event or behaviour) noisy, energetic, full of life and cheerful
Notes:
Synonym: clamorous, rambunctious, riotous, rowdy
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
stratification
Definition: 1) arrangement or classification of something in different groups, 2) the formation of strata in rock
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
bolster
Definition: to support, to strengthen
Notes: E.g. 'The fall in interest rates is starting to bolster confidence.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
legacy
Definition: 1) an amount of money or property left to someone in a will, 2) something left or handed down by a predecessor
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
brood
Definition: think deeply about something that makes one unhappy, angry, or worried
Notes:
Synonym: agonize over
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
fallacy
Definition: 1) a false or mistaken idea, 2) deceptive appearance, 3) an often plausible argument using false or invalid inference
Notes: E.g. 'This fantasy, this fallacy, this tumbling stone.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
blueprint
Definition: 1) a design plan, a detailed drawing, 2) a model, plan or template
Notes: E.g. 1) ‘The blueprint for the building still has to be approved.’ 2) ‘The blueprint of our scheme is based on the ideas of Jobs.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
conscientious
Definition: careful, with attention to detail, willing to complete a task well
Notes: E.g. 'With conscientious dedication the child tried to write his name.'
Synonym: diligent
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
forge
Definition: 1) to make an illegal copy of something in order to deceive people, 2) to put a lot of effort into making something successful or strong so that it will last
Notes: E.g. 1) 'A number of forged works of art have been sold as genuine'. 2) 'She forged a new career in the music business'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
aforementioned
Definition: denoting a thing or person previously mentioned
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
acumen
Definition: quickness, accuracy, and keenness of judgment or insight
Notes: E.g. 'A brilliant acumen in agricultural matters had made the old man a legend in the district.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
precipitous
Definition: 1) dangerously high or steep, 2) done suddenly and without careful consideration
Notes:
Synonym: impulsive, hasty
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
self-conscious
Definition: 1) feeling nervous or uncomfortable because you are worried about what people think about you or your actions, 2) (about actions and intentions) done deliberately, 3) (in psychology and philosophy) having knowledge of one's own existence, especially the knowledge of oneself as a conscious being.
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
guise
Definition: an external form, appearance, or manner of presentation, typically concealing the true nature of something
Notes: E.g. 'The sums paid under the guise of consultancy fees were illegal.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
wit
Definition: 1) the capacity for inventive thought and quick understanding; keen intelligence, 2) good sense, 3) a natural aptitude for using words and ideas in a quick and inventive way to create humour
Notes: Also: 'wits'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
underscore
Definition: 1) to underline, 2) to emphasise
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
austere
Definition: 1) severe or strict in manner or attitude, 2) (of living conditions or a way of life) having no comforts or luxuries, 3) having a plain and unadorned appearance
Notes: E.g. 1) 'The IMF's austere measures strangled the Greek economy bit by bit.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
attorney
Definition: (UK) a person, typically a lawyer, appointed to act for another in business or legal matters, (US) any qualified lawyer
Notes: E.g. 'When that multinational had to come to court to settle the case, they had already consulted an army of attorneys.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
animosity
Definition: a strong feeling of dislike or hatred, ill will or resentment tending toward active hostility, an antagonistic attitude
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
underpin
Definition: to support, justify, or form the basis for
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
retort
Definition: to say something in answer to a remark, typically in a sharp, angry, or witty manner
Notes:
Synonym: respond, reply, counter
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
chain of events
Definition: a series of actions that follow up on each other, each one caused by its predecessor
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
mundane
Definition: 1) lacking interest or excitement, 2) of this earthly world rather than a heavenly or spiritual one
Notes:
Synonym: dull, ordinary
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
irreverent
Definition: not showing the expected respect for official, important, or holy things
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
cogent
Definition: convincing; relevant, to the point
Notes: E.g. 'The politician's cogent argument against the war won him many votes in the election.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
a bird's eye view
Definition: 1) a view from a high angle as if seen by a bird in flight, 2) an overall or cursory look at something
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
hedge one's bets
Definition: to avoid committing oneself when faced with a difficult choice
Notes:
Synonym: prevaricate, equivocate, vacillate, stall
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
offset
Definition: 1) a consideration or amount that diminishes or balances the effect of an opposite one, 2) the amount or distance by which something is out of line
Notes: E.g. 1) 'An offset is considered a benefit to you because the money was used to pay your debts.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
vacancy
Definition: 1) a space or place that is available to be used, 2) a job that no one is doing and is therefore available for someone new to do, 3) empty space
Notes: E.g. 1) ‘We wanted to book a hotel room in July but there were no vacancies.’ 2) ‘There is a vacancy for a shop assistant on Saturdays.’ 3) ‘Cathy stared into vacancy, seeing nothing.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
array
Definition: 1) an impressive display or range of a particular type of thing, 2) an ordered series or arrangement
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
turnout
Definition: 1) the number of people who attend a particular event, 2) the number of people who vote in a particular election
Notes: E.g. 1) 'This year's festival attracted a record turnout.' 2) 'In the summer elections there was a poor turnout.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
conflicted
Definition: having or showing confused and mutually inconsistent feelings
Notes: E.g. 'He feels a little bit conflicted about Helena, whom he used to love.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
apt
Definition: appropriate or suitable regarding the circumstances
Notes: E.g. 'This is an apt solution to the problem that has been bugging us for weeks.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
coherence
Definition: 1) the quality of being logical and consistent, 2) the quality of forming a unified whole
Notes: E.g. ‘The accessibility and coherence of this book are among its main strengths.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
deadlock
Definition: 1) a situation, typically one involving opposing parties, in which no progress can be made, 2) a situation in a game or match where the scores are level
Notes: (British English) a type of lock requiring a key to open and close it, as distinct from a spring lock, (American English) 'deadbolt'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
recrimination
Definition: an accusation in answer to an accusation made against oneself
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
patronise
Definition: to behave in an offensively condescending manner toward someone
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
candour
Definition: the quality of being open and honest
Notes: Am.E. 'candor'
Synonym: frankness
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
strident
Definition: 1) characterised by harsh, insistent, and discordant sound, 2) expressing opinions or criticism in a very forceful and often annoying or unpleasant way
Notes: E.g. 'The discussion became more and more strident as the two guys became more and more drunk.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
clutch at straws
Definition: to be in such a desperate situation as to resort to even the most unlikely means of salvation
Notes: Also: 'to grasp at straws' or 'to catch at straws'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
disposition
Definition: 1) a person's inherent qualities of mind and character, 2) an inclination or tendency, 3) the way in which something is placed or arranged, especially in relation to other things, 4) the distribution or transfer of property or money to someone, especially by bequest, 5) the power to deal with something as one pleases
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
compendium
Definition: collection of concise but detailed information about a particular subject, especially in a book or other publication
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
red herring
Definition: information that is (intentionally) misleading, a clue that is meant to distract
Notes: E.g. 'Whodunits by Agatha Christie are always filled with red herrings, which makes it rather hard to discover the identity of the murderer.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
unsound
Definition: 1) not safe or robust; in poor condition, 2) not healthy or well, 3) not based on sound or reliable evidence or reasoning, 4) not acceptable
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
nifty
Definition: 1) particularly good, skilful, or effective, 2) attractive or stylish
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
ambivalent
Definition: 1) holding opposite feelings and attitudes at the same time toward someone or something, 2) continually wavering between opposites or alternative courses of action
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
adverse
Definition: preventing success or development
Notes:
Synonym: harmful, unfavourable
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
intermittent
Definition: occurring at irregular intervals; not continuous or steady
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
inclination
Definition: 1) a person's natural tendency or urge to act or feel in a particular way; a disposition, 2) the angle at which a straight line or plane is inclined to another, 3) the fact or degree of sloping
Notes:
Synonym: tendency
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
inflected
Definition: 1) changing in form according to grammatical function such as tense, mood, number, gender etc, 2) slightly changed by the influence of a particular thing
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
ephemeral
Definition: lasting one day only; lasting a for a very short time
Notes: E.g. 'Fashions are ephemeral: new ones regularly drive out the old.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
steadfastly
Definition: in a resolutely or dutifully firm and unwavering manner
Notes: E.g. ‘They deserve credit for steadfastly adhering to a concept, never buckling to expectation, mostly ignoring their audience.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
convene
Definition: to come or bring together for a meeting or activity
Notes:
Synonym: assemble
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
lapsed
Definition: having ceased to be active in practice, membership, or belief
Notes: E.g. 'I had to pay for it because of my lapsed insurance policy.'
Synonym: invalid, expired
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
hunch
Definition: an idea based on a feeling that can't be explained
Notes: E.g. 'In the past, scientists often began with a hunch and then looked for evidence.'
Synonym: instinct, intuition
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
unaccountable
Definition: unable to be explained
Notes: E.g. 'I do not believe this strange and unaccountable story.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
deduce
Definition: to reach an answer or a decision by thinking carefully about the known facts
Notes: E.g. 'The detective could deduce from the suspect's strange behaviour that he was lying.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
preside
Definition: to be in the position of authority in a meeting or other gathering
Notes:
Synonym: chair, govern
Antonym: follow, obey, serve
Lexical: verb
abrasive
Definition: rude, unfriendly
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
brittle
Definition: 1) something easy to break, 2) an unstable mood or situation, 3) a loud, short and sharp sound
Notes:
Synonym: fragile
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
tenuous
Definition: very weak or slight; unsubstantial
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
extrapolate
Definition: to extend the application of (a method or conclusion) to an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will continue or similar methods will be applicable
Notes: E.g. 'It's part of their job to extrapolate from current trends, anticipate future problems, and head them off at the pass.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
reluctantly
Definition: hesitating before you do something because you do not really want to do it
Notes:
Synonym: cautiously, hesitantly, unwillingly
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
cursory
Definition: hasty and therefore not thorough or detailed
Notes: E.g. ‘A cursory glance at the headlines suggests he has more interviews to conduct before anybody starts to believe him.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
confer
Definition: 1) to discuss something, 2) to give someone a title or medal
Notes:
Synonym: discuss, deliberate, argue
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
eclectic
Definition: composed of elements drawn from various sources
Notes: E.g. 'His original work is eclectic, combining the psychology of his teachers, Jules Simon, Saisset and Mamiani, with the idealism of Rosmini and Gioberti.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
elusive
Definition: difficult to describe, find, achieve, or remember
Notes: E.g. 'The answers to these questions remain as elusive as ever.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
assuage
Definition: to make less severe, to lessen the intensity
Notes:
Synonym: ease
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
shun
Definition: 1) to avoid something, 2) persistently avoid, ignore, or reject (someone or something) through antipathy or caution
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
redundant
Definition: no longer needed or useful
Notes:
Synonym: superfluous
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
deficient
Definition: 1) insufficient or inadequate, 2) not having enough of a specified quality or ingredient
Notes: E.g. 1) ‘The report accuses prosecutors of conducting deficient investigations or presenting inadequate evidence at the trials.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
sparsely
Definition: in a thinly dispersed manner; in small numbers
Notes: E.g. 'As it was lunchtime, they found themselves in a sparsely filled auditorium to do their presentation.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
trickle
Definition: 1) to flow, or to make something (a liquid) flow, slowly in a thin stream, 2) to come or go slowly or gradually
Notes: E.g. 'The first members of the congregation began to trickle in'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
palatable
Definition: 1) (of an action or proposal) acceptable or satisfactory, 2) (of food or drink) pleasant to taste
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
epitome of
Definition: a person or thing that is a perfect example of a particular quality or type
Notes: E.g. 'She looked the epitome of elegance and good taste.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
perpetual
Definition: ceaseless or never changing
Notes:
Synonym: everlasting, eternal, constant
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
contingent
Definition: 1) subject to chance, 2) (of losses, liabilities, etc.) that can be anticipated to arise if a particular event occurs, 3) occurring or existing only if certain circumstances are the case
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
languid
Definition: (of a person, manner, or gesture) having or showing a disinclination for physical exertion or effort
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
intricate
Definition: complex or difficult to understand
Notes: E.g. 'Great Expectations is an intricate story.'
Synonym: complicated, detailed
Antonym: simple, unsophisticated
Lexical: adjective
notable
Definition: deserving to be noticed or distinguished
Notes:
Synonym: remarkable
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
keep/hold sth at bay
Definition: prevent someone or something from approaching or having an effect
Notes: E.g. 'So long as the network is adequately protected, hackers can be kept at bay and prevented from stealing the personal information required to commit frauds in your name.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
dire
Definition: (of a situation or event) extremely serious or urgent
Notes: E.g. 'He's in dire need of a doctor!'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
fickle
Definition: changing frequently, especially as regards one's loyalties or affections
Notes: E.g. 'It has been shown that celebs are trying to appeal to an increasingly fickle public these days.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
expletive
Definition: a word that is considered offensive, a swear word
Notes: E.g. 'When she dropped a book on her foot, she let loose a fleet of expletives'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
literate
Definition: 1) able to read and write, 2) having or showing education or knowledge, typically in a specified area
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
dilute
Definition: 1) weaken a certain quality of something, 2) make something thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid, 3) decrease in value
Notes: E.g. 'The swindler sold wine that was diluted with water.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
askew
Definition: crookedly, at an angle
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
volatile
Definition: likely to change rapidly and unpredictably, especially for the worse
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
oratory
Definition: the act of public speaking, especially in a formal and eloquent manner
Notes: E.g. 'Merlin was very learned in the skill of oratory.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
top-down
Definition: 1) proceeding from the general to the particular, 2) denoting a system of government or management in which actions and policies are initiated at the highest level; hierarchical
Notes: E.g. 1) ‘Taking a top-down approach already implies a categorisation attempt that is outside of the sphere of influence of the wiki contributors, which kind of counteracts the point of a wiki.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
ponder
Definition: think about (something) carefully, especially before making a decision or reaching a conclusion
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
agile
Definition: 1) able to move quickly and easily, 2) able to think or understand quickly and easily
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
heinous
Definition: hatefully or shockingly evil
Notes:
Synonym: scandalous
Antonym: friendly
Lexical: adjective
stakeholder
Definition: 1) someone who has an investment in something, 2) someone who has an interest in something
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
at a stretch
Definition: 1) in one continuous period, 2) only with difficulty or in extreme circumstances
Notes: E.g. 'This study is aimed at one age group, adults, or, at a stretch, business studies students.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
agitation
Definition: a state of anxiety or nervous excitement
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
nondescript
Definition: lacking distinctive or interesting features or characteristics
Notes: E.g. ‘The building is a refreshing place of hope amid the uninspiring concrete and nondescript buildings found in the city.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
lucid
Definition: 1) very clear and easy to understand, 2) able to think clearly
Notes:
Synonym: intelligible, comprehensible, understandable, cogent
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
consecutive
Definition: following one after another without an interruption
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
barrister
Definition: (UK) a person called to the bar and entitled to practise as an advocate, particularly in the higher courts
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
likelihood
Definition: the state or fact of something's being likely; probability
Notes: E.g. 'These days, there are more and more young people who can see no likelihood of finding employment'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
lenient
Definition: (of a punishment or person in authority) more merciful or tolerant than expected
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
composure
Definition: the state or feeling of being calm and in control of oneself
Notes: E.g. 'The spoiled girl could not maintain her composure and stormed off the stage when she lost the beauty pageant.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
latent
Definition: existing but not yet developed or manifested
Notes: E.g. 'Latent racism is pervasive in Flanders.'
Synonym: hidden, concealed
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
abysmal
Definition: extremely bad
Notes:
Synonym: appalling, dreadful, awful, terrible, atrocious
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
pathological
Definition: 1) involving or caused by a physical or mental disease, 2) compulsive; obsessive
Notes: E.g. 2) 'Being a pathological liar, he never managed to gain the trust of anyone.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
endeavour
Definition: to try (mainly used for something that takes effort)
Notes: E.g. 'He endeavoured to help her, but she would not take any help from anyone.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
incite
Definition: to move to action, stir up, spur on, urge on
Notes: E.g. 'The news incited panic.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
feasible
Definition: able to be carried out
Notes: E.g. There are so many organisms in the world, it is not feasible to list them all.
Synonym: practical
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
retribution
Definition: punishment inflicted on someone as vengeance for a wrong or criminal act
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
intricacies
Definition: details, especially of an involved or perplexing subject
Notes: E.g. 'I enjoyed the film, but I couldn't follow all the intricacies of the plot.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
manifest
Definition: 1) display or show (a quality or feeling) by one's acts or appearance; demonstrate, 2) prove, 3) become apparent through the appearance of symptoms
Notes: E.g. 'Parkinson's is a disorder that usually manifests in middle age.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
frown on/upon sth
Definition: to disapprove of something
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
cunning
Definition: having or showing skill in achieving one's ends by deceit or evasion
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
opt for
Definition: make a choice from a range of possibilities
Notes: (with infinitive) to opt + to infinitive
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
adhere to
Definition: to follow closely, observe, or represent
Notes: E.g. 'The account adhered firmly to fact.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
premonition
Definition: a strong feeling that something is about to happen, especially something unpleasant
Notes:
Synonym: foreboding
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
distortion
Definition: 1) the action of distorting or the state of being distorted, 2) the action of giving a misleading account or impression
Notes: E.g. 1) The earth's magnetic field may cause audible distortion in sound.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
meticulously
Definition: done carefully and with great attention to every little detail
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
insurmountable
Definition: (especially of a problem or a difficulty) so great that it cannot be overcome
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
mouthpiece
Definition: a person or organisation who speaks on behalf of another person or organisation
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
harbour
Definition: 1) to keep (a thought or feeling, typically a negative one) in one's mind, especially secretly, 2) to give home or shelter to
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
ensue
Definition: 1) to follow, to come after something, 2) to happen or occur afterwards or as a result
Notes: E.g. 'A huge scandal ensued from the leaking of several personal documents.'
Synonym: to pursue
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
aspiration
Definition: a strong desire, longing, or aim
Notes:
Synonym: ambition
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
in conjunction with
Definition: in relation to, in combination with
Notes: E.g. 'These pills have been prescribed by doctors in conjunction with behaviour modification strategies.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
beg the question
Definition: 1) (of a fact or action) to raise a point that has not been dealt with; invite an obvious question, 2) to assume the truth of an argument or proposition to be proved, without arguing it
Notes: E.g. 'Some definitions of mental illness beg the question of what constitutes normal behaviour.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
make amends
Definition: correct a mistake that one has made or a bad situation that one has caused
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
conversely
Definition: introducing a statement or idea which reverses one that has just been made or referred to
Notes: E.g. 'We're not going to have enough onions to last the year, while courgettes, conversely, are in a major surplus.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
coax
Definition: persuade (someone) gradually or gently to do something
Notes: E.g. 'We did not want to work late shifts, but our employer coaxed us into doing it anyway. After many attempts, we gave in.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
incidence
Definition: the number of times something happens, especially crime and disease
Notes: E.g. 'The value to researchers is that such studies can be most successful in tracking incidences of various common diseases.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
prerequisite
Definition: (noun) a thing that is required as a prior condition for something else to happen or exist, (adjective) required as a prior condition
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun, adjective
administer
Definition: 1) to manage and be responsible for the running of (a business, organization, etc.), 2) to be responsible for the implementation or use of (law or resources), 3) to dispense or apply (a remedy or drug)
Notes:
Synonym: 1) to manage, to control, 3) to give
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
secession
Definition: the action of withdrawing formally from membership of a federation or body, especially a political state
Notes: E.g. 'After Trump's election, the state of California called for a 'Califrexit', a secession from the Union.'
Synonym: schism
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
concession
Definition: 1) a compromise, 2) a reduction or discount given by an organisation, 3) a right or privilege.
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
mediate
Definition: 1) to intervene in a dispute in order to bring about an agreement or reconciliation, 2) to talk to two separate people or groups involved in a disagreement to try to help them to agree or find a solution to their problems
Notes:
Synonym: arbitrate, interfere
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
consent
Definition: permission for something to happen or agreement to do something
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
quandary
Definition: 1) a state of perplexity or uncertainty over what to do in a difficult situation, 2) a difficult situation; a practical dilemma
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
falter
Definition: to speak hesitantly
Notes:
Synonym: hesitate
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
enforce
Definition: 1) to force people to obey a law, 2) to make a certain situation happen, 3) to make people accept a certain situation
Notes: E.g. 'The police injured 900 people as they were trying to enforce the Spanish court ban during the referendum'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
momentous
Definition: of great importance or significance, especially in having a bearing on future events
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
lend itself to sth
Definition: to be suitable for something
Notes: E.g. 'The cover of the novel lent itself to the mystery of the story.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
laughing stock
Definition: a person subjected to general mockery or ridicule
Notes: E.g. 'Because of his third eye, he was the laughing stock of the entire class.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
involuntary
Definition: against someone's will or done without conscious control
Notes: E.g. 'Sarah let out an involuntary scream when Mary started tickling her.'
Synonym: forced, uncontrolled
Antonym: deliberate
Lexical: adjective
default
Definition: 1) failure to fulfil an obligation, especially to repay a loan or appear in a law court, 2) something that is usual or standard
Notes: E.g. 2) 'She is always so happy; a smile is her default facial expression.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
unequivocal
Definition: expressed in a clear and certain way, leaving no doubt
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
aloof
Definition: 1) not friendly or forthcoming; cool and distant, 2) conspicuously uninvolved
Notes: E.g. It might be thought that I am aloof, smug, emotionally cool or that I believe that I am better than anyone else. Well, I say to those people: you are right.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
by the book
Definition: strictly according to the rules
Notes: E.g. 'Business as usual, even when done strictly by the book, is not necessarily the safest way of operating.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
equation
Definition: 1) in mathematics, a statement that the values of two mathematical expressions are equal (indicated by the sign =), 2) the process of equating one thing with another
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
miscellaneous
Definition: 1) (of items or people gathered or considered together) of various types or from different sources, 2) (of a collection or group) composed of members or elements of different kinds, 3) being diverse
Notes: E.g. 3) 'John Williams was a satirist and miscellaneous writer.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
derivative
Definition: imitative of the work of another artist, writer, etc., and usually disapproved of for that reason
Notes:
Synonym: copied
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
erudite
Definition: characterised by great knowledge; learned or scholarly
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
jot
Definition: to write (something) quickly
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
venture
Definition: 1) new activity, usually in business, that involves risk or uncertainty, 2) a risky or daring journey or undertaking
Notes: E.g. 'She advised us to look abroad for more lucrative business ventures.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
salvation
Definition: 1) deliverance from the power and effects of sin, 2) liberation from ignorance or illusion, 3) preservation from destruction or failure / deliverance from danger or difficulty
Notes: E.g. 'You're a stray for the salvation army.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
emanate (from)
Definition: 1) (of something abstract but perceptible) issue or spread out from (a source), 2) originate from; be produced by
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
redress
Definition: to remedy or set right (an undesirable or unfair situation)
Notes:
Synonym: correct, set right
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
stark
Definition: 1) severe or bare in appearance or outline, 2) stiff, rigid, or incapable of movement
Notes:
Synonym: blunt, bare, complete, utter, extreme, harsh
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
idiosyncratic
Definition: unique to an individual or thing; relating to eccentricity; characteristic individual quality
Notes: E.g. 'The aim of linguistic research is to discover the general rules, not to list the idiosyncratic and the irregular.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
leap out
Definition: (especially of writing) be conspicuous; stand out
Notes: E.g. 'Amid the notes, a couple of items leap out.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
abide by
Definition: to accept or act in accordance with (a rule, decision, or recommendation)
Notes: E.g. 'A police officer must abide by the law at all times.'
Synonym: to cling to
Antonym: infringe, contravene
Lexical: verb
heed
Definition: to pay careful attention to somebody’s advice or warning
Notes: E.g. 'My sister is always in need of cash because she is unwilling to heed my financial advice.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
ardent
Definition: showing strong feelings, very enthusiastic
Notes:
Synonym: passionate, fierce
Antonym: disinterested, dull
Lexical: adjective
colloquial
Definition: denoting a manner of speaking or writing that is characteristic of familiar conversation
Notes:
Synonym: informal
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
loathing
Definition: a feeling of intense dislike or disgust; hatred
Notes: E.g. 'The thought of his wife running off with his sworn enemy filled him with loathing.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
aberration
Definition: a state or condition markedly different from the norm
Notes: E.g. 'An example of a mental aberration is schizophrenia.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
relish
Definition: to enjoy something that satisfies one's tastes or desires
Notes:
Synonym: take pleasure in, rejoice in
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
opaque
Definition: 1) impossible to see through, 2) hard to understand (especially of language)
Notes: E.g. 'His statements were so opaque that nobody understood what he was going on about.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
restraint
Definition: 1) a measure or condition that keeps someone or something under control, 2) unemotional, dispassionate, or moderate behaviour
Notes:
Synonym: 1) control, suppression, 2) self-control
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
irreversible
Definition: no possibility of being changed
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
in hindsight
Definition: understanding the nature of an event after it has actually happened
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
persona
Definition: the aspect of someone's character that is presented to or perceived by others
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
complementary
Definition: combining in such a way as to enhance or emphasise the qualities of each other or another
Notes: E.g. 'Tom and Nadia had different but complementary skills, which resulted in great success for both.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
pervasive
Definition: (especially of an unwelcome influence or physical effect) spreading widely throughout an area or a group of people
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
ubiquitous
Definition: existing or being everywhere at the same time, constantly encountered
Notes:
Synonym: widespread, common
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
brazen
Definition: 1) bold and without shame, 2) made of brass, 3) harsh in sound
Notes: E.g. 'He told me a brazen lie.'
Synonym: bold, shameless
Antonym: humble, modest
Lexical: adjective
infinite
Definition: having no limit or end, boundless, unlimited, immense, vast
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
reciprocal
Definition: given, felt, or done in return
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
stringent
Definition: (of regulations, requirements, or conditions) strict, precise, and exacting
Notes: E.g. ‘California's air pollution guidelines are stringent.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
negligible
Definition: so small or unimportant as to be not worth considering
Notes:
Synonym: insignificant
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
defy
Definition: to oppose with boldness, offer resistance
Notes:
Synonym: to stand up to, to face
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
staggering
Definition: astonishing or shocking, difficult to believe, overwhelming
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
panacea
Definition: a solution or remedy for all difficulties, problems or diseases
Notes: E.g. 'Some people believe that a vegan diet could be a panacea, claiming it lessens the chances of cancer growth.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
edict
Definition: 1) an official announcement that has the force of a law, 2) an order or command
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
inadequacy
Definition: 1) the fact that something is not good enough or is too small in amount, 2) a lack of confidence that makes you feel unable to deal with a situation
Notes:
Synonym: deficiency
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
curt
Definition: appearing rude because very few words are used, or because something is done in a very quick way
Notes: E.g. 'It was Mr Bentley, crisp and curt — for he greatly disliked using the instrument.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
quell
Definition: 1) to suppress or beat down, 2) to get rid of unpleasant thoughts or feelings, or to prevent them from becoming stronger 
Notes:
Synonym: to quiet, to pacify, to subdue
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
conjure up
Definition: 1) to create or achieve something difficult or unexpected, as if by magic, 2) to bring something such as a feeling or memory to your mind, 3) to make something appear using magic powers
Notes: E.g. 1) ‘They managed to conjure up a goal and won the match.’ 2) ‘It's a name that conjures up the romantic nature of the 1920s.’ 3) ‘They found her at the bottom of her garden, conjuring up the spirits of her ancestors.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
paragon
Definition: a person or thing regarded as a perfect example of a particular quality
Notes: Note: not to be confused with 'paradigm'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
astute
Definition: having or showing an ability to notice and understand things clearly, mentally sharp or clever
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
lest
Definition: with the intention of preventing (something undesirable); to avoid the risk of
Notes: E.g. 'They usually prefer to keep their goals as vague as possible lest it count against them at the next election.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: conjunction
denounce
Definition: 1) publicly declare to be wrong or evil or accuse someone of being evil, 2) to criticise something or someone strongly and publicly
Notes: E.g. 'He was widely denounced as a traitor.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
complacency
Definition: a feeling of smug or uncritical satisfaction with oneself or one's achievements
Notes: Adjective: complacent
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
awry
Definition: away from the usual or expected course
Notes:
Synonym: amiss
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
expenditure
Definition: payment or expense
Notes:
Synonym: cost
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
disjointed
Definition: lacking a coherent sequence or connection
Notes: E.g. 'She failed miserably in convincing the police she had nothing to do with the murder. She was just piecing together disjointed fragments of information.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
livid
Definition: extremely angry
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
quip
Definition: 1) snappy response, 2) a witty remark
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
tacit
Definition: understood without being openly expressed
Notes:
Synonym: implied
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
nil
Definition: non-existent
Notes: E.g. 'Our knowledge of the people who inhabited Europe before the arrival of the Indo-Europeans, is practically nil.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
on a par with
Definition: equal in importance or quality to
Notes:
Synonym: comparable with
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
subliminal
Definition: below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone's mind without their being aware of it
Notes:
Synonym: unconscious
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
bipartisan
Definition: of or involving the agreement or cooperation of two political parties that usually oppose each other's policies
Notes: E.g. ‘Educational reform received considerable bipartisan approval.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
countenance
Definition: 1) a person's face or expression, 2) support or approval
Notes: E.g. 'In this masterpiece, the countenances range from human to somewhat animal-like to simply weird; most are done in a unique style, with sharply cut, striking features and exaggerated eyes.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
reverence
Definition: a deep respect for someone or something
Notes:
Synonym: high regard, great respect
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
innocuous
Definition: 1) having no adverse effect, 2) not likely to offend or provoke to strong emotion
Notes: E.g. 'Homeopathic drugs are usually innocuous in nature, since most of them are made from herbs.'
Synonym: harmless, insipid
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
overbearing
Definition: unpleasantly overpowering
Notes: E.g. 'The instructors, by the way, were exceptionally helpful without being overbearing, and really seemed to know what to advise.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
partisan
Definition: prejudiced in favour of a particular cause, (political) party, person or idea
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
symposium
Definition: 1) a conference or meeting to discuss a particular subject, 2) a collection of essays or papers on a particular subject by a number of contributors, 3) a drinking party or convivial discussion, especially as held in ancient Greece after a banquet (and notable as the title of a work by Plato)
Notes: E.g. 'An annual gathering, the congress was a mix of plenary lectures, symposiums and lectures on general medical topics related to nephrology.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
by and large
Definition: everything considered
Notes:
Synonym: largely, mostly, mainly, to a large extent, to a great extent, to a great degree, on the whole, chiefly, generally, in general
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
out of one's depth
Definition: beyond one's knowledge or ability to cope
Notes: E.g. 'I am out of my depth when I have to do math exercises.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
collision
Definition: 1) an act or instance of colliding, 2) an encounter between particles (such as atoms or molecules) resulting in exchange or transformation of energy
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
concur
Definition: 1) to be of the same opinion, 2) to happen at the same time
Notes:
Synonym: agree
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
ail
Definition: to cause difficulties or trouble for someone
Notes:
Synonym: bother, burden, distress
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
prolific
Definition: 1) present in large numbers or quantities, 2) producing a great number or amount of something
Notes:
Synonym: fruitful, copious, plentiful
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
drizzle
Definition: to rain gently, in fine drops
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
gullible
Definition: tending to believe everything, even false information
Notes: E.g. 'My sister is so gullible, she believes everything she reads on the internet.'
Synonym: naive
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
obsolete
Definition: outdated, no longer in use
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
far-flung
Definition: 1) distant or remote, 2) widely distributed
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
discrepancy
Definition: an illogical or surprising lack of compatibility or similarity between two or more facts
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
enlist
Definition: 1) to engage (a person or their help or support), 2) to enrol or be enrolled in the armed services, 3) to participate actively in a cause or enterprise, 4) to engage the support or cooperation of
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
deterioration
Definition: the process of becoming worse than before
Notes: Semantic field: to deteriorate (verb), deteriorative (adj.)
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
albeit
Definition: though, although
Notes: E.g. 'Astronomy is an interesting study, albeit a very difficult one.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: conjunction
lacklustre
Definition: lacking in vitality, force, or conviction; uninspired or uninspiring
Notes: E.g. 'The fact that no example sentence was given, can be considered lacklustre academic performance.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
(on) the verge of sth
Definition: to be very close to experiencing or achieving something
Notes: E.g. 'Her husband's violent and abusive behaviour drove her to the verge of despair.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
embark upon sth
Definition: to start something new or important
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
surplus
Definition: 1) the amount that remains when use or need is satisfied, 2) an excess of receipts over disbursements, 3) the excess of a corporation's net worth over the par or stated value of its stock
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
consciousness
Definition: state or quality of awareness
Notes:
Synonym: alertness, apprehension
Antonym: ignorance
Lexical: noun
tenacity
Definition: the quality or fact of being very determined, implies persistence
Notes:
Synonym: determination, persistence
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
nonetheless
Definition: despite what has just been said or done
Notes:
Synonym: nevertheless
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
viable
Definition: capable of working successfully; feasible
Notes:
Synonym: usable, manageable, operable, operational
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
renowned
Definition: known or talked about by many people; famous
Notes: E.g. 'Martin Luther King is renowned for his nonviolent activism.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
exhaustive
Definition: including or considering all elements or aspects; fully comprehensive
Notes:
Synonym: comprehensive, all-inclusive, complete
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
fathom
Definition: to understand after much, intensive thought
Notes: E.g. 'One can never fathom the sheer vastness of the universe.'
Synonym: to comprehend
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
counterpart
Definition: a person or thing that corresponds to or has the same function as another person or thing in a different place or situation
Notes: E.g. 'The president of the US had a meeting with his Chinese counterpart the other week.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
allege
Definition: to claim or assert that someone has done something illegal or wrong, typically without proof
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
dawn
Definition: 1) to begin to grow light as the sun rises, 2) to begin to appear or develop, 3) to begin to be perceived or understood
Notes: E.g. 'Dawning of a new era.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
ingrained
Definition: (of a habit, belief, or attitude) firmly fixed or established; difficult to change
Notes: E.g. 'It was difficult to talk to him about abortion, because of his deeply ingrained Catholic convictions.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
confine
Definition: 1) keep or restrict someone or something within certain limits of (space, scope, or time), 2) restrain or forbid someone from leaving (a place), 3) to be unable to leave
Notes: to confine someone/something to/in
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
riposte
Definition: a quick, clever reply to an insult or criticism
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
indispensable
Definition: absolutely necessary; essential
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
jump on the bandwagon
Definition: to participate in something popular or a trend
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
irrespective (of)
Definition: not taking (something) into account; regardless of
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
meet (someone's) expectations
Definition: to be as good as or have the qualities that someone predicted, expected, or hoped for
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
red tape
Definition: excessive bureaucracy or adherence to official rules and formalities
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
demonstrably
Definition: in a way that is clearly apparent or capable of being logically proved
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
infallible
Definition: 1) incapable of making mistakes or being wrong, 2) never failing; always effective, 3) (in the Roman Catholic Church) credited with papal infallibility
Notes:
Synonym: exact, accurate
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
decisive
Definition: 1) settling an issue; producing a definite result, 2) having or showing the ability to make decisions quickly and effectively
Notes:
Synonym: 1) deciding, conclusive, 2) effective
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
refurbish
Definition: to make neat, clean, or complete, as by renovating, re-equipping, or restoring
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
comply with
Definition: to act according to the prescribed rules
Notes: E.g. 'She managed to comply with all the formatting guidelines for her assignment.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
deter
Definition: to discourage (from acting) or prevent (from occurring), usually by instilling fear, doubt, or anxiety
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
under the auspices of
Definition: with the help, support, or protection of
Notes: E.g. 'The past year has seen a number of initiatives completed under the auspices of the community council.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
ostensibly
Definition: as appears or is stated to be true, though not necessarily so; apparently
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
flimsy
Definition: lacking in physical strength or substance, having little worth or plausibility
Notes:
Synonym: insubstantial
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
implode
Definition: 1) to burst inward, 2) to collapse inward as if from external pressure, 3) to break down or fall apart from within
Notes: E.g. 'And in one little moment, it all implodes.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
spurious
Definition: 1) not being what it purports to be; false or fake, 2) (of a line of reasoning) apparently but not actually valid
Notes:
Synonym: counterfeit, fraudulent, trumped-up
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
pry
Definition: enquire too inquisitively into a person's private affairs
Notes:
Synonym: investigate, poke about
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
supersede
Definition: to take the place of (a person or thing previously in authority or use)
Notes:
Synonym: to supplant
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
subvert
Definition: to undermine the power and authority of (an established system or institution)
Notes: E.g. ‘The attempts to subvert the constitution and establish an autocratic form of rule have been on the agenda for quite some time.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
idle
Definition: 1) without purpose or effect; pointless, 2) (of a person) avoiding work; lazy
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
venture
Definition: to take the risk to go somewhere or do something that is dangerous or unpleasant, say something that might be criticised
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
unbiased
Definition: 1) fair and not influenced by your own or somebody else’s opinions, desires, etc., 2) showing no prejudice for or against something
Notes:
Synonym: impartial
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
induce
Definition: 1) to succeed in persuading or leading (someone) to do something, 2) to bring about or give rise to
Notes: E.g. 2) 'In Belgian politics, most of the time, none of the measures induces a change of policy.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
tweak
Definition: 1) to improve (a mechanism or system) by making fine adjustments to it, 2) to twist or pull (something) sharply
Notes: E.g. 1) ‘If things look just a wee bit different, it's because I tweaked the typeface and size to make things slightly easier on my tired eyes.’
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
destitute
Definition: 1) without money, food, a home, or possessions 2) devoid of
Notes: E.g. 1) 'The destitute widow had no idea how she was going to buy food for her five children'.
Synonym: penniless, impoverished, lacking, deprived of
Antonym: affluent
Lexical: adjective
bigotry
Definition: 1) intolerance toward those who hold different opinions from oneself, 2) having and expressing strong, unreasonable beliefs and disliking other people who have different beliefs or a different way of life
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
suffice
Definition: to be enough
Notes: E.g. 'Should we shake hands or does a simple hello suffice?'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
invoke
Definition: 1) to cite or appeal to (someone or something) as an authority for an action or in support of an argument, 2) to call earnestly for, 3) to call on (a deity or spirit) in prayer, as a witness, or for inspiration
Notes: E.g. 1) 'The question is the wisdom of proceeding without U.N. authority where we have invoked the resolutions of the U.N. as the basis for our undertaking.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
penultimate
Definition: last but one in a series of things; second last
Notes: E.g. 'The 29th of April is the penultimate day of the month.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
ludicrous
Definition: so foolish, unreasonable, or out of place as to be amusing
Notes:
Synonym: absurd, ridiculous
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
juvenile
Definition: psychologically and/or physically immature or underdeveloped
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
sprout
Definition: 1) to appear suddenly in large numbers, 2) to start growing, 3) to produce shoots, buds, or leaves
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
erroneously
Definition: in a mistaken way; incorrectly
Notes: E.g. 'Some erroneously believe that they are always right, while they are the ones who are always wrong.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
constitute
Definition: 1) to be (a part) of a whole, 2) to combine to form (a whole), 3) to be or be equivalent to (something), 4) to give legal or constitutional form to (an institution); establish by law
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
benign
Definition: of a gentle disposition, showing kindness and gentleness
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
notwithstanding
Definition: nevertheless; in spite of this
Notes: Can be used as a preposition or a conjunction, in addition to adverb.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
hegemony
Definition: 1) preponderant influence or authority over others, 2) the social, cultural, ideological, or economic influence exerted by a dominant group
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
profound
Definition: 1) (of a state, quality, or emotion) very great or intense, 2) (of a person or statement) having or showing great knowledge or insight
Notes: E.g. 1) 'Then in 1066 another event took place that was to have the most profound implications.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
deplorable
Definition: 1) deserving strong condemnation; completely unacceptable, 2) shockingly bad in quality
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
a change of heart
Definition: when you have a change of heart, you change your opinion or feelings about something
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
adversity
Definition: a difficult or unpleasant situation
Notes: E.g. 'Because of the five-year drought, the farmer experienced a long period of adversity.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
precarious
Definition: likely to become worse
Notes: E.g. 'Many illegal immigrants are in a precarious position.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
reticent
Definition: unwilling to speak about your thoughts or feelings, not revealing your thoughts or feelings easily
Notes:
Synonym: hesitant, reserved, restrained, shy
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
wily
Definition: skilled at gaining an advantage, especially deceitfully
Notes:
Synonym: clever, deceptive
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
short-lived
Definition: existing or happening for only a short time
Notes: E.g. 'The Democrats' joy was short-lived when the results of the US presidential election started to come in.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
foregone conclusion
Definition: a result that can be predicted with certainty
Notes: E.g. 'They knew pretty early on the result was a foregone conclusion; Labour were too far ahead to be caught.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
wither
Definition: 1) to dry up because of dehydration, 2) to fall into decay or decline, 3) humiliate (someone) with a scornful look or manner
Notes: E.g. 'The flowers slowly withered as their owner forgot that he should constantly water them.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
proofread
Definition: to read (printer's proofs or other written or printed material) and mark any errors
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
pinnacle
Definition: the most successful point; the culmination
Notes: Usually: 'the pinnacle of'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
flux
Definition: a continuous moving on or passing by (as of a stream)
Notes: E.g. 'The constant flux of people made it impossible for anyone to pass.'
Synonym: fluctuation
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
stipulate
Definition: to specify as a condition or requirement (as part of an agreement or offer)
Notes: E.g. 'Beware when you are going to sign that contract, because the owners may stipulate a huge deposit as a condition of the purchase agreement.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
take sth on
Definition: to compete against someone or start a fight with someone, especially someone bigger or better than you
Notes: E.g. 'The native tribes took on the US government on the North-Dakota Pipeline.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
self-contained
Definition: complete, or having all that is needed, in itself
Notes: E.g. 'I have included all the information that should be given to the reader to understand the text in my essay; if my professor says it is not self-contained, she does not know what that word means I guess.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
quid pro quo
Definition: a favour or advantage given in return for something (literally ‘something for something’)
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
placid
Definition: pleasantly calm or peaceful; serenely quiet or undisturbed
Notes: E.g. 'A slow-moving and placid river.'
Synonym: unruffled, tranquil
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
susceptible
Definition: 1) likely or liable to be influenced or harmed by a particular thing, 2) (of a person) easily influenced by feelings or emotions; sensitive
Notes: E.g. 'My sister is susceptible to the flu, she has it all the time'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
herald
Definition: 1) a sign announcing that something important (and often good) is bound to happen, 2) a person who precedes, a forerunner
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
canon
Definition: 1) the works of a particular author or artist that are recognised as genuine, 2) the list of works considered to be permanently established as being of the highest quality
Notes: E.g. 1) 'There was never a doubt that Macbeth is part of the Shakespearean canon.' 2) 'Dickens takes up a prominent place in the canon of English prose.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
hapless
Definition: having no luck, unfortunate and deserving pity
Notes: E.g. 'He lost his job and his wife on the same day, what a hapless soul.'
Synonym: unlucky
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
arcane
Definition: understood by few; mysterious or secret, cryptic
Notes:
Synonym: covert, clandestine, obscure
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
bleak
Definition: empty, not welcoming or attractive, cold and unpleasant, little or no hope for the future
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
premise
Definition: a previous statement or proposition from which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion
Notes:
Synonym: grounds
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
itinerary
Definition: a detailed plan or route of a journey
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
reiterate
Definition: to say or do again or repeatedly
Notes: E.g. 'He reiterated the points made in his earlier speech.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
holistic
Definition: dealing with or treating the whole of something or someone and not just a part
Notes: E.g. 'Ecological problems usually require holistic solutions.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
leap at
Definition: to accept (an opportunity) eagerly
Notes: E.g. 'They leapt at the opportunity to combine fun with fund-raising.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
preliminary
Definition: preceding or done in preparation for something fuller or more important
Notes: E.g. 'He decided to end the experiment based on his preliminary findings'.
Synonym: preparatory, introductory, initial
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
vile
Definition: extremely unpleasant
Notes:
Synonym: evil, immoral
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
indulge in
Definition: to allow oneself to enjoy the pleasure of
Notes:
Synonym: to satiate
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
convoluted
Definition: (especially of an argument, story, or sentence) extremely complex and difficult to follow
Notes:
Synonym: complicated, complex, involved, intricate, elaborate
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
discourse
Definition: 1) written or spoken communication or debate, 2) a formal discussion of a topic in speech or writing, 3) (in linguistics) a connected series of utterances; a text or conversation
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
incessantly
Definition: to do something constantly without stopping
Notes: E.g. 'The man became fanatically religious, he prayed incessantly.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
adamant
Definition: 1) refusing to be persuaded or to change one's mind, 2) not giving in or relenting
Notes: E.g. 'He is adamant that he is not going to resign.'
Synonym: unyielding, inflexible
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
violate
Definition: 1) break or fail to comply with (a rule or formal agreement), 2) fail to respect (someone's peace, privacy, or rights), 3) treat (something sacred) with irreverence or disrespect
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
definitively
Definition: 1) the end of an action, 2) authoritative and apparently exhaustive, 3) to define or specify precisely, 4) to serve as a perfect example
Notes: E.g. 'The war was renewed in 1688 and continued until 1697, when the peace of Ryswick confirmed definitively the annexation of Strasburg to France.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
defer
Definition: to put something off in time
Notes: E.g. 'Let us defer that decision until our next meeting, when we have more information on the case.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
pawn
Definition: 1) a chess piece of the smallest size and value, 2) a person used by others for their own purposes
Notes: E.g. 2) 'He was just a mere pawn in the Game of Thrones, he wasn't of much value after he had fulfilled his duties.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
a priori
Definition: relating to or denoting reasoning or knowledge which proceeds from theoretical deduction rather than from observation or experience
Notes: Can be used as an adverb.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
derogatory
Definition: showing a critical or disrespectful attitude
Notes:
Synonym: disparaging, disrespectful, critical, hurtful
Antonym: complimentary, flattering
Lexical: adjective
in the dark
Definition: to not know about something that other people know about
Notes: E.g. 'It's clear that she is completely in the dark about all of this.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
illiterate
Definition: unable to read or write
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
pivotal
Definition: of crucial importance in relation to the development or success of something else
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
avail
Definition: to be of use or value
Notes:
Synonym: benefit, satisfy, serve
Antonym: dissatisfy, miss
Lexical: verb
scarce
Definition: deficient in quantity or number compared with the demand, not plentiful or abundant
Notes: E.g. 'In the day, books were very scarce and very precious, and only a few men could read them.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
hold the line
Definition: not yield to the pressure of a difficult situation
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
disparage
Definition: to regard or represent as being of little worth
Notes:
Synonym: degrade, belittle
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
transient
Definition: lasting only for a short time, impermanent
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
cut someone some slack
Definition: to allow someone some leeway in their conduct
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
compelling
Definition: provoking so much interest to the point of being irresistible
Notes:
Synonym: captivating, fascinating
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
eligible
Definition: 1) having the right to do or obtain something; satisfying the appropriate conditions, 2) (of a person) desirable or suitable as a partner in marriage
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
opt out
Definition: choose not to participate in something
Notes: E.g. 'I thought for a while that Hasan'd opted out of voicing his opinion, but after listening to the counterarguments, he did defend the points he made earlier in the discussion.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
pedant
Definition: someone who is excessively concerned with minor details and rules or with displaying academic learning
Notes: E.g. 'We would go and visit the royal palace (some pedants would say the ex-royal palace).'
Synonym: a know-it-all
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
efficacy
Definition: capacity for producing a desired result or effect
Notes: Semantic field: efficiency, effectiveness, success
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
thrive
Definition: 1) to grow vigorously, 2) to gain in wealth or possessions
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
gamut
Definition: the complete range or scope of something
Notes:
Synonym: spectrum, span, sweep
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
vehemently
Definition: showing strong feeling; forceful, passionate, or intense.
Notes:
Synonym: vigorously, energetically
Antonym:
Lexical: adverb
huddle
Definition: 1) (no object, with adverbial) to crowd together; nestle closely, 2) (Br.E., with object and adverbial) to heap together in a disorderly manner, 3) (AM.E., no object) to have a private discussion; confer
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
numb
Definition: 1) (of a part of the body) unable to feel anything, 2) (of a person) unable to feel any emotion
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
peripheral
Definition: relating to or situated on the edge or periphery of something
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
off the grid
Definition: 1) not connected to the basic services, especially electricity, 2) living in such a way you survive without running water, electricity and modern devices
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
far-fetched
Definition: unlikely or unconvincing
Notes:
Synonym: implausible
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
dour
Definition: relentlessly severe, stern, or gloomy in manner or appearance
Notes:
Synonym: unfriendly, frowning, poker-faced, severe
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
galore
Definition: in great amounts or numbers
Notes: an adjective used after a noun (Postmodifier)
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
requisite
Definition: (noun) a thing that is necessary for the achievement of a specified end, (adjective) necessary for a particular purpose
Notes: E.g. 'She believed privacy to be a requisite for a peaceful life.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun, adjective
apprehension
Definition: the anxiety or fear that something bad or unpleasant will happen
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
taken aback
Definition: to be shocked or surprised
Notes: E.g. He was taken aback by her directness.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: phrase
altercation
Definition: a noisy argument or disagreement, especially in public
Notes: E.g. I had an altercation with the ticket collector; everyone was looking at us, fighting over 50 cents.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
nonce
Definition: (of a word or expression) coined for or used on one occasion
Notes: In grammar: nonce substance interpretation, e.g. 'Will you have enough desk for all your books?'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
weary
Definition: physically or mentally exhausted by hard work, exertion, strain
Notes:
Synonym: fatigued, tired
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
apprehensive
Definition: anxious or fearful that something bad or unpleasant will happen
Notes: E.g. 'I felt apprehensive about going on that date because the guy looked like a serial killer.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
retention
Definition: 1) the act of retaining or state of being retained, 2) the capacity to hold or retain liquid, 3) the capacity to remember
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
nexus
Definition: a connection or series of connections linking two or more things
Notes: E.g. 'The nexus between industry and political power needs to be broken in order to ensure unbiased political decision making.'
Synonym: link, connection
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
spur-of-the-moment
Definition: unintended, unplanned
Notes: E.g. 'I don't tend to take a spur-of-the-moment decision like that.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
exacting
Definition: demanding a great amount of skill, attention, effort, care or other resources
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
novice
Definition: a person new to and inexperienced in a job or situation
Notes:
Synonym: beginner, newcomer
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
succinct
Definition: said clearly and shortly, without unnecessary words
Notes:
Synonym: compact, precise
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
commute
Definition: to travel regularly between your place of work and your home
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
rectify
Definition: to set right; correct
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
inconceivable
Definition: not capable of being imagined or grasped mentally; unbelievable
Notes: E.g. 'That's inconceivable to me, the thought of someone understanding me better than I do.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
unparalleled
Definition: 1) having no parallel or equal, 2) exceptional
Notes:
Synonym: unprecedented
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
unhinged
Definition: mentally unbalanced; deranged
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
collateral
Definition: 1) additional but subordinate; secondary, 2) (euphemistic) denoting inadvertent casualties and destruction in civilian areas in the course of military operations, 3) descended from the same stock but by a different line, 4) situated side by side; parallel
Notes: E.g. 1) 'He wasn't familiar with the collateral meanings of that word.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
disclosure
Definition: the action of making new or secret information known
Notes: E.g. 'The judge ordered the disclosure of all files.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
primacy
Definition: the fact of being pre-eminent or most important
Notes:
Synonym: priority, preference
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
inept
Definition: not skilled, incompetent or inefficient
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
analogous to
Definition: comparable in certain respects, typically in a way which makes clearer the nature of the things compared
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
instigate
Definition: 1) to bring about or initiate (an action or event), 2) (instigate someone to do something) incite someone to do something, especially something bad
Notes:
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
maxim
Definition: an expression of general truth or principle
Notes: E.g. 'Perhaps, the gist of it all could be summed up in the old maxim that truth is stranger than fiction.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
contagious
Definition: 1) transmissible by direct or indirect contact with an infected person, 2) exciting similar emotions or conduct in others
Notes: E.g. 'I feel stupid and contagious.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
eventuality
Definition: a possible event or outcome
Notes: E.g. 'By all means, cover yourself for unexpected eventualities such as death, unemployment and your house burning down.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: noun
trite
Definition: lacking in effectiveness or freshness because of constant use of excessive repetition; dull on account of overuse
Notes: E.g. 'As he kept on repeating the same points over and over again, his argumentation became trite.'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: adjective
stoop
Definition: to lower one's moral standards so far as to do something reprehensible
Notes: E.g. 'Why am I not surprised that they would stoop to cheating?'
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
societal
Definition: relating to society or social relations
Notes: E.g. 'She fought societal norms and wanted to provide a much needed service to women'.
Synonym:
Antonym:
Lexical:
elicit
Definition: to evoke or draw out (a reaction, answer, or fact) from someone
Notes: E.g. 'Donald Trump elicited a lot of hate in America towards minorities.'
Synonym: to cause
Antonym:
Lexical: verb
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